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==Operations==
 
==Operations==
 
===Battle of St. Jerome Creek===
 
===Battle of St. Jerome Creek===
On 1 June 1814, Barney's flotilla, led by ''Scorpion'', were coming down Chesapeake Bay when it encountered the 12-gun schooner {{HMS|St Lawrence|1813|6}} (the former Baltimore privateer ''Atlas''), and boats from the [[Seventy-four (ship)|74-gun]] [[Third-rate|Third Rates]] {{HMS|Dragon|1798|6}} and {{HMS|Albion|1802|6}} near St. Jerome Creek. The flotilla pursued ''St Lawrence'' and the boats until they reached the protection of the two 74s. The American flotilla then retreated into the Patuxent River, which the British quickly blockaded. The British outnumbered Barney by 7:1, forcing the flotilla on 7 June to retreat into St. Leonard's Creek. Two British frigates, the 38-gun {{HMS|Loire|1798|6}} and the 32-gun {{HMS|Narcissus|1801|6}}, plus the 18-gun [[sloop-of-war]] {{HMS| Jasseur|1813|6}}, blockaded the mouth of the creek. The creek was too shallow for the British warships to enter, and the flotilla outgunned, and hence was able to fend off, the boats from the British ships.
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On 1 June 1814, Barney's flotilla, led by ''Scorpion'', were coming down Chesapeake Bay when it encountered the 12-gun schooner {{HMS|St Lawrence|1813|6}} (the former Baltimore privateer ''Atlas''), and boats from the [[Seventy-four (ship)|74-gun]] [[Third-rate|Third Rates]] {{HMS|Dragon|1798|6}} and {{HMS|Albion|1802|6}} near St. Jerome Creek. The flotilla pursued ''St Lawrence'' and the boats until they reached the protection of the two 74s. The American flotilla then retreated into the Patuxent River, which the British quickly blockaded. The British outnumbered Barney by 7:1, forcing the flotilla on 7 June to retreat into St. Leonard's Creek. Two British frigates, the 38-gun {{HMS|Loire|1798|6}} and the 32-gun {{HMS|Narcissus|1801|6}}, plus the 18-gun [[sloop-of-war]] {{HMS| Jasseur|1813|6}}, blockaded the mouth of the creek. The creek was too shallow for the British warships to enter, and the flotilla outgunned, and hence was able to fend off, the boats from the British ships.
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Battles continued through 10 June. The British, frustrated by their inability to flush Barney out of his safe retreat, instituted a "campaign of terror," laying waste to "town and farm alike" and plundering and burning [[Calverton, Maryland|Calverton]], [[Huntingtown, Maryland|Huntingtown]], [[Prince Frederick, Maryland|Prince Frederick]], [[Benedict, Maryland|Benedict]] and Lower Marlboro.<ref name=barn/> Among the British units that participated in the campaign were a [[Royal Marines Battalions (Napoleonic Wars)|battalion of Royal Marines]] and the [[Corps of Colonial Marines]], a unit that the British had recruited from among former American slaves.
 
Battles continued through 10 June. The British, frustrated by their inability to flush Barney out of his safe retreat, instituted a "campaign of terror," laying waste to "town and farm alike" and plundering and burning [[Calverton, Maryland|Calverton]], [[Huntingtown, Maryland|Huntingtown]], [[Prince Frederick, Maryland|Prince Frederick]], [[Benedict, Maryland|Benedict]] and Lower Marlboro.<ref name=barn/> Among the British units that participated in the campaign were a [[Royal Marines Battalions (Napoleonic Wars)|battalion of Royal Marines]] and the [[Corps of Colonial Marines]], a unit that the British had recruited from among former American slaves.
   
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The Flotilla manned these positions throughout the Battle of Baltimore, pitting sailor against sailor in fighting the British Fleet. The Flotilla inflicted numerous casualties on the attacking British ships, especially during the attempted night assault on Battery Babcock by a Royal Marine landing party. Lt. Col. David Harris reported that Charles Messenger was killed in action at the Water Battery, and three other flotilla men wounded.
 
The Flotilla manned these positions throughout the Battle of Baltimore, pitting sailor against sailor in fighting the British Fleet. The Flotilla inflicted numerous casualties on the attacking British ships, especially during the attempted night assault on Battery Babcock by a Royal Marine landing party. Lt. Col. David Harris reported that Charles Messenger was killed in action at the Water Battery, and three other flotilla men wounded.
   
After the Battle of Baltimore, the Flotilla did not participate in any further engagements. On 15 February 1815, Congress repealed the short lived Flotilla Act and the Flotilla was disbanded.<ref>Rick Mancacle</ref>{{Citation needed|date=November 2014}}
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After the Battle of Baltimore, the Flotilla did not participate in any further engagements. On 15 February 1815, Congress repealed the short lived Flotilla Act and the Flotilla was disbanded.<ref>Rick Mancacle</ref>{{Citation needed|date=November 2013}}
   
 
==Archeology==
 
==Archeology==
 
In 1978, a survey of the upper Patuxent River using a [[proton precession magnetometer]] located the fleet. Further study of the wrecks, including one vessel dubbed the ''Turtle Shell'' Wreck', followed in 1979. The ''Turtle Shell'' was lying in the main river channel near [[Waysons Corner, Maryland|Wayson's Corner]], and covered by five feet of mud, the ship was well preserved, although it appeared the bow was torn off in an explosion.<ref name=barn/>
 
In 1978, a survey of the upper Patuxent River using a [[proton precession magnetometer]] located the fleet. Further study of the wrecks, including one vessel dubbed the ''Turtle Shell'' Wreck', followed in 1979. The ''Turtle Shell'' was lying in the main river channel near [[Waysons Corner, Maryland|Wayson's Corner]], and covered by five feet of mud, the ship was well preserved, although it appeared the bow was torn off in an explosion.<ref name=barn/>
   
When the new Route 4 Hills Bridge was built in 1990, remnants of Barney's ships were found buried more than five feet below the riverbed.{{Citation needed|date=November 2014}}
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When the new Route 4 Hills Bridge was built in 1990, remnants of Barney's ships were found buried more than five feet below the riverbed.{{Citation needed|date=November 2013}}
   
 
A replica of one of Joshua Barney's gunboats today sits in Bladensburg Waterfront Park in Bladensburg, Maryland.
 
A replica of one of Joshua Barney's gunboats today sits in Bladensburg Waterfront Park in Bladensburg, Maryland.

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