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Lewis Burwell "Chesty" Puller
Chesty Puller.jpg
Lewis "Chesty" Puller as Major General
Nickname "Chesty"
Born (1898-06-26)June 26, 1898
Died October 11, 1971(1971-10-11) (aged 73)
Place of birth West Point, Virginia, U.S.
Place of death Hampton, Virginia, U.S.
Buried at Christchurch Parish Cemetery
Christ Church, Virginia, U.S.
Allegiance US flag 48 stars.svg United States of America
Service/branch United States Marine Corps
Years of service 1918–1955
Rank US-O9 insignia Lieutenant General
Unit 1st Marine Division
Commands held 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines
1st Battalion, 7th Marines
1st Marine Regiment
Battles/wars

Banana Wars

World War II

Korean War

Awards Navy Cross (5)
Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star Medal
Legion of Merit (2) with Valor device
Bronze Star Medal with Valor device
Air Medal (3)
Purple Heart Medal
Combat Action Ribbon (2)
Relations Lewis Burwell Puller, Jr. (son)
Lieutenant General Lewis Burwell "Chesty" Puller (June 26, 1898 – October 11, 1971) was a commander in the United States Marine Corps. Puller is one of the most, if not the most, decorated members of the Marine Corps in its history. He is the only Marine to be awarded five Navy Crosses. During his career, he fought guerrillas in Haiti and Nicaragua, and participated in some of the bloodiest battles of World War II and the Korean War. Puller retired in 1955 and spent the rest of his life in Virginia.

Early lifeEdit

Puller was born in West Point, Virginia, to Matthew and Martha Puller. His father was a grocer who died when Lewis was 10 years old. Puller grew up listening to old veterans' tales of the Civil War and idolizing Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. He wanted to enlist in the United States Army to fight in the Border War with Mexico in 1916, but he was too young and could not get parental consent from his mother.[1]

The following year, Puller attended the Virginia Military Institute but left at the end of his first year as World War I was still ongoing, saying that he wanted to "go where the guns are!"[2] Inspired by the 5th Marines at Belleau Wood, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps as a private and attended boot camp at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina.[1]

Although he never saw action in that war, the Corps was expanding, and soon after graduating he attended NCO school and OCS (Officer Candidates School) at Quantico, Virginia, following that. Upon graduation from OCS on June 16, 1919, Puller was appointed to the grade of second lieutenant in the reserves, but reduction in force from 73,000 to 1,100 officers and 27,400 men[3] following the war led to his being put on inactive status 10 days later and given the rank of corporal.[1]

Interwar yearsEdit

Chesty Puller and Ironman Lee

First Lieutenant Lewis "Chesty" Puller (center left) and Sergeant William "Ironman" Lee (center right) and two Nicaraguan soldiers in 1931

As a corporal, Puller received orders to serve in the Gendarmerie d'Haiti as a lieutenant, seeing action in Haiti.[4] While the United States was working under a treaty with Haiti, he participated in over forty engagements during the ensuing five years against the Caco rebels and attempted to regain his commission as an officer twice. In 1922, he served as an adjutant to Major Alexander Vandegrift, a future Commandant of the Marine Corps.

Puller returned stateside and was finally recommissioned as a second lieutenant on March 6, 1924 (Service No. 03158), afterward completing assignments at the Marine Barracks in Norfolk, Virginia, The Basic School in Quantico, Virginia, and with the 10th Marine Artillery Regiment in Quantico, Virginia. He was assigned to the Marine Barracks at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in July 1926 and in San Diego, California, in 1928.

In December 1928, Puller was assigned to the Nicaraguan National Guard detachment, where he was awarded his first Navy Cross (military's second highest valor award) for his actions from February 16 to August 19, 1930, when he led "five successive engagements against superior numbers of armed bandit forces." He returned stateside in July 1931 and completed the year-long Company Officers Course at Fort Benning, Georgia, thereafter returning to Nicaragua from September 20 to October 1, 1932, and was awarded a second Navy Cross.

1stLt Lewis B. Puller with members of the Guardia Nacional

Puller with members of the Guardia Nacional

After his service in Nicaragua, Puller was assigned to the Marine detachment at the American Legation in Beijing, China, commanding a unit of China Marines. He then went on to serve aboard USS Augusta, a cruiser in the Asiatic Fleet, which was commanded by then-Captain Chester W. Nimitz. Puller returned to the States in June 1936 as an instructor at the Basic School in Philadelphia.

In May 1939, he returned to the Augusta as commander of the onboard Marine detachment, and then back to China, disembarking in Shanghai in May 1940 to serve as the executive officer of 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines. He later served as its commanding officer.

World War IIEdit

Chesty-puller
PullerGuadalcanal

Puller on Guadalcanal in September, 1942

Major Puller returned to the U.S. on August 28, 1941. After a short leave, he was given command of 1st Battalion, 7th Marines (known as 1/7) of the 1st Marine Division, stationed at New River, North Carolina, the new Marine amphibious base which would soon be renamed for the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps, John A. Lejeune, MCB Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.[5] Early in the Pacific theater the 7th Marines formed the nucleus of the newly created 3rd Marine Brigade and arrived to defend Samoa on May 8, 1942. Later they were redeployed from the brigade and on September 4, 1942, they left Samoa and rejoined the 1st Division at Guadalcanal on September 18, 1942.

Soon after arriving on Guadalcanal, Puller led his battalion in a fierce action along the Matanikau, in which Puller's quick thinking saved three of his companies from annihilation. In the action, these companies were surrounded and cut off by a larger Japanese force. Puller ran to the shore, signaled a United States Navy destroyer, the USS Monssen, and then Puller directed the destroyer to provide fire support while landing craft rescued his Marines from their precarious position. For his actions, he was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V".

Later on Guadalcanal, Puller was awarded his third Navy Cross, in what was later known as the "Battle for Henderson Field”. Puller commanded 1st Battalion 7th Marines (1/7), one of two American infantry units defending the airfield against a regiment-strength Japanese force. The 3rd Battalion of the U.S. Army's 164th Infantry Regiment (3/164) fought alongside the Marines. In a firefight on the night of October 24–25, 1942, lasting about three hours, 1/7 and 3/164 sustained 70 casualties; the Japanese force suffered over 1,400 killed in action, and the Americans held the airfield. It was in this battle that Marine Sergeant John Basilone would earn the Medal of Honor. The Marines awarded Army Lt. Colonel Robert Hall, commander of the 3/164, the Navy Cross for his role in this battle.

Puller was then made executive officer of the 7th Marine Regiment. While serving in this capacity at Cape Gloucester, Puller was awarded his fourth Navy Cross for overall performance of duty between December 26, 1943, and January 19, 1944. During this time, when the battalion commanders of 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines and, later, 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, while under heavy machine gun and mortar fire, he expertly reorganized the battalion and led the successful attack against heavily fortified Japanese defensive positions. He was promoted to colonel effective February 1, 1944, and by the end of the month had been named commander of the 1st Marine Regiment. Colonel Puller would lead the 1st Marines into the protracted battle on Peleliu, one of the bloodiest battles in Marine Corps history during September and October 1944, action where he was awarded his first Legion of Merit. During the summer of 1944, Puller's younger brother, Samuel D. Puller, the Executive Officer of the 4th Marine Regiment, was killed by a sniper on Guam.[6]

Puller returned to the United States in November 1944, was named executive officer of the Infantry Training Regiment at Camp Lejeune and, two weeks later, Commanding Officer. After the war, he was made Director of the 8th Reserve District at New Orleans, and later commanded the Marine Barracks at Pearl Harbor.

Korean WarEdit

Puller-Birthday

Colonel Puller cutting the Marine Corps birthday cake on 10 November 1950, during a brief reprieve from battle during the Korean War[citation needed]

At the outbreak of the Korean War, Puller was once again assigned as commander of the 1st Marine Regiment, with which he made a landing at Inchon on September 15, 1950, and was awarded the Silver Star Medal.[7] For leadership from September 15 to November 2, he was awarded his second Legion of Merit. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross from the Army for action from November 29 to December 5 of that same year, and his fifth Navy Cross for action during December 5–10 at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. It was during that battle when he made the famous quote, "We've been looking for the enemy for some time now. We've finally found him. We're surrounded. That simplifies things."[8]

In January 1951, Puller was promoted to brigadier general and was assigned duty as assistant division commander (ADC) of the 1st Marine Division. On February 24, however, his immediate superior, Major General O.P. Smith, was hastily transferred to command IX Corps when its Army commander, Major General Bryant Moore, died. Smith’s temporary transfer left Puller in command of his beloved 1st Marine Division. Puller would serve as ADC until he completed his tour of duty and left for the United States on May 20, 1951.[9]

Chesty Puller studies the terrain during the Korean War

Colonel Puller studies the terrain during the Korean War.

General Puller subsequently received promotions to major general and lieutenant general, and served in various command capacities until he suffered a stroke from high blood pressure[10] and was forced to retire in 1955.[11]

RelationsEdit

Puller's son Lewis Burwell Puller, Jr. (generally known as Lewis Puller) became a highly decorated Marine as a lieutenant in Vietnam. While serving with 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines, Lewis Jr. was severely wounded by a mine explosion, losing both legs and parts of his hands. Lieutenant General Puller broke down sobbing at seeing his son for the first time in the hospital.

Puller was father-in-law to Colonel William H. Dabney, a VMI graduate, who, as a captain, was the commanding officer of two heavily reinforced rifle companies of the Third Battalion, Twenty-Sixth Marines from January 21 to April 14, 1968. During the entire period, Colonel Dabney's force stubbornly defended Hill 881S, a regional outpost vital to the defense of the Khe Sanh Combat Base during the 77-day siege. Following Khe Sanh, Dabney was nominated for the Navy Cross for his actions on Hill 881 South, but his battalion executive officer's helicopter carrying the nomination papers crashed—and the papers were lost. On April 15, 2005, Colonel William H. Dabney, USMC (Ret) was awarded the Navy Cross in a ceremony at Virginia Military Institute for actions 37 years earlier in Vietnam.

Puller was a distant cousin to Army General George S. Patton.[12]

Awards and honorsEdit

Military decorations and awardsEdit

Puller received the Navy Cross, the Navy and Marine Corps second highest military award, five times (the second and only other person to be so honored, after Navy submarine commander Roy Milton Davenport). Puller received the second highest U.S. military award six times; five Navy Crosses and a U.S. Army Distinguished Service Cross.

In addition, Puller received the Silver Star Medal; the Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and Gold Star in lieu of a second award; the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V;" the Air Medal with Gold Stars in lieu of second and third awards; and the Purple Heart Medal. His other medals and decorations include the Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon with four bronze stars; the Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal with one bronze star; the World War I Victory Medal with West Indies clasp; the Haitian Campaign Medal; the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal; the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal with one bronze star; the China Service Medal; the American Defense Service Medal with Base clasp; the American Area Campaign Medal; the Asiatic-Pacific Area Campaign Medal with four bronze stars; the World War II Victory Medal; the National Defense Service Medal; the Korean Service Medal with one silver star in lieu of five bronze stars; the United Nations Service Medal; the Haitian Medaille Militaire; the Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit with Diploma; the Nicaraguan Cross of Valor with Diploma; the Republic of Korea's Ulchi Medal with Gold Star; and the Korean Presidential Unit Citation with Oak Leaf Cluster. Puller's only Purple Heart was earned at Guadalcanal on the night of November 9, 1942 – the night before the Marine Corps Birthday. Puller had campaign participation credit ("battle stars") for Capture and Defense of Guadalcanal, Eastern New Guinea Operations, Cape Gloucester New Britain, and Capture and Occupation of the Southern Palau Islands (Peleliu). His Korean campaign battle stars include North Korean Aggression, Inchon Landing, Communist China Aggression (Chosin Reservoir), First UN Counteroffensive and Communist China Spring Offensive.

Gold star
Gold star
Gold star
Gold star
Navy Cross ribbon.svg
 Distinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg Silver Star ribbon.svg
V
Gold star
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg
V
Bronze Star ribbon.svg
Purple Heart BAR.svg
Gold star
Gold star
Air Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
US Navy Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon.png
Bronze star
Marine Corps Good Conduct ribbon.svg
Bronze star
Marine Corps Expeditionary ribbon.svg
Bronze star
World War I Victory Medal ribbon.svg
Haitian Campaign Medal ribbon.svg Nicaraguan Campaign ribbon 1933.svg China Service Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze star
American Defense Service ribbon.svg
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg
Silver star
KSMRib.svg
Haitian Medaille Militaire.svg Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit.svg Nicaraguan Cross of Valor.png
Eulji Cordon Medal.png Order of the Cloud and Banner 4th.gif Presidential Unit Citation (South Korea).svg United Nations Service Medal Korea ribbon.svg

First Navy Cross citationEdit

Citation:

"For distinguished service in the line of his profession while commanding a Nicaraguan National Guard patrol. First Lieutenant Lewis B. Puller, United States Marine Corps, successfully led his forces into five successful engagements against superior numbers of armed bandit forces; namely, at LaVirgen on 16 February 1930, at Los Cedros on 6 June 1930, at Moncotal on 22 July 1930, at Guapinol on 25 July 1930, and at Malacate on 19 August 1930, with the result that the bandits were in each engagement completely routed with losses of nine killed and many wounded. By his intelligent and forceful leadership without thought of his own personal safety, by great physical exertion and by suffering many hardships, Lieutenant Puller surmounted all obstacles and dealt five successive and severe blows against organized banditry in the Republic of Nicaragua."[13]

Second Navy Cross citationEdit

Citation:

"First Lieutenant Lewis B. Puller, United States Marine Corps (Captain, Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua) performed exceptionally meritorious service in a duty of great responsibility while in command of a Guardia Patrol from 20 September to 1 October 1932. Lieutenant Puller and his command of forty Guardia and Gunnery Sergeant William A. Lee, United States Marine Corps, serving as a First Lieutenant in the Guardia, penetrated the isolated mountainous bandit territory for a distance of from eighty to one hundred miles north of Jinotega, his nearest base. This patrol was ambushed on 26 September 1932, at a point northeast of Mount Kilambe by an insurgent force of one hundred fifty in a well-prepared position armed with not less than seven automatic weapons and various classes of small arms and well-supplied with ammunition. Early in the combat, Gunnery Sergeant Lee, the Second in Command was seriously wounded and reported as dead. The Guardia immediately behind Lieutenant Puller in the point was killed by the first burst of fire, Lieutenant Puller, with great courage, coolness and display of military judgment, so directed the fire and movement of his men that the enemy were driven first from the high ground on the right of his position, and then by a flanking movement forced from the high ground to the left and finally were scattered in confusion with a loss of ten killed and many wounded by the persistent and well-directed attack of the patrol. The numerous casualties suffered by the enemy and the Guardia losses of two killed and four wounded are indicative of the severity of the enemy resistance. This signal victory in jungle country, with no lines of communication and a hundred miles from any supporting force, was largely due to the indomitable courage and persistence of the patrol commander. Returning with the wounded to Jinotega, the patrol was ambushed twice by superior forces on 30 September. On both of the occasions the enemy was dispersed with severe losses."[13]

Third Navy Cross citationEdit

Citation:

"For extraordinary heroism as Commanding Officer of the First Battalion, Seventh Marines, First Marine Division, during the action against enemy Japanese forces on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on the night of 24 to 25 October 1942. While Lieutenant Colonel Puller’s battalion was holding a mile-long front in a heavy downpour of rain, a Japanese force, superior in number, launched a vigorous assault against that position of the line which passed through a dense jungle. Courageously withstanding the enemy’s desperate and determined attacks, Lieutenant Colonel Puller not only held his battalion to its position until reinforcements arrived three hours later, but also effectively commanded the augmented force until late in the afternoon of the next day. By his tireless devotion to duty and cool judgment under fire, he prevented a hostile penetration of our lines and was largely responsible for the successful defense of the sector assigned to his troops."[13]

Fourth Navy Cross citationEdit

Citation:

"For extraordinary heroism as Executive Officer of the Seventh Marines, First Marine Division, serving with the Sixth United States Army, in combat against enemy Japanese forces at Cape Gloucester, New Britain, from 26 December 1943 to 19 January 1944. Assigned temporary command of the Third Battalion, Seventh Marines, from 4 to 9 January, Lieutenant Colonel Puller quickly reorganized and advanced his unit, effecting the seizure of the objective without delay. Assuming additional duty in command of the Third Battalion, Fifth Marines, from 7 to 8 January, after the commanding officer and executive officer had been wounded, Lieutenant Colonel Puller unhesitatingly exposed himself to rifle, machine-gun and mortar fire from strongly entrenched Japanese positions to move from company to company in his front lines, reorganizing and maintaining a critical position along a fire-swept ridge. His forceful leadership and gallant fighting spirit under the most hazardous conditions were contributing factors in the defeat of the enemy during this campaign and in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service."[13]

Fifth Navy Cross citationEdit

Citation:

"For extraordinary heroism as Commanding Officer of the First Marines, First Marine Division (Reinforced), in action against aggressor forces in the vicinity of Koto-ri, Korea, from 5 to 10 December 1950. Fighting continuously in sub-zero weather against a vastly outnumbering hostile force, Colonel Puller drove off repeated and fanatical enemy attacks upon his Regimental defense sector and supply points. Although the area was frequently covered by grazing machine-gun fire and intense artillery and mortar fire, he coolly moved along his troops to insure their correct tactical employment, reinforced the lines as the situation demanded, and successfully defended the perimeter, keeping open the main supply routes for the movement of the Division. During the attack from Koto-ri to Hungnam, he expertly utilized his Regiment as the Division rear guard, repelling two fierce enemy assaults which severely threatened the security of the unit, and personally supervised the care and prompt evacuation of all casualties. By his unflagging determination, he served to inspire his men to heroic efforts in defense of their positions and assured the safety of much valuable equipment which would otherwise have been lost to the enemy. His skilled leadership, superb courage and valiant devotion to duty in the face of overwhelming odds reflect the highest credit upon Colonel Puller and the United States Naval Service."[13]

Distinguished Service Cross citationEdit

Citation:

"The President of the United States of America, under the provisions of the Act of Congress approved July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Colonel Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller (MCSN: 0-3158), United States Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving as Commanding Officer, First Marines, FIRST Marine Division (Reinforced), in action against enemy aggressor forces in the vicinity of the Chosin Reservoir, Korea, during the period 29 November to 4 December 1950. Colonel Puller's actions contributed materially to the breakthrough of the First Marine Regiment in the Chosin Reservoir area and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service."[13]

Namesakes and honorsEdit

In addition to his military awards Puller has received numerous honors due to his Marine Corps service:

Puller in U.S. Marine Corps cultureEdit

Puller remains a well-known figure in U.S. Marine Corps folklore, with both true and exaggerated tales of his experiences being constantly recounted among U.S. Marines.

A common incantation in U.S. Marine Corps boot camp is to end one's day with the declaration, "Good night, Chesty Puller, wherever you are!"[16] Another common encouragement is "Chesty Puller never quit!"

In U.S. Marine Corps recruit training and OCS cadences, Marines chant "It was good for Chesty Puller/And it's good enough for me"—Chesty is symbolic of the esprit de corps of the Marines. Also, the recruits sing "Chesty Puller was a good Marine and a good Marine was he."

U.S. Marines, while doing pull-ups, will tell each other to "do one for Chesty!"

Puller is loved by enlisted U.S. Marines for his constant actions to improve their working conditions. Puller insisted upon good equipment and discipline; once he came upon a second lieutenant who had ordered an enlisted man to salute him 100 times for missing a salute. Puller told the lieutenant, "You were absolutely correct in making him salute you 100 times lieutenant, but you know that an officer must return every salute he receives. Now return them all, and I will keep count."[17][18]

While on duty in Hawaii and inspecting the armory, Puller fined himself $100 for accidentally discharging a .45 caliber pistol indoors,[citation needed] although the charge for his men was only $20.

QuotesEdit

  • "Our country won't go on forever, if we stay soft as we are now. There won't be any America—because some foreign soldiery will invade us and take our women and breed a hardier race."[19]
  • "They are in front of us, behind us, and we are flanked on both sides by an enemy that outnumbers us 29:1. They can't get away from us now!"[20]
  • "Great. Now we can shoot at those bastards from every direction."[21]
  • "We're surrounded. That simplifies our problem of getting to these people and killing them." – November 1950, during Chosin Reservoir campaign[22][23]
  • "Remember, you are the 1st Marines! Not all the Communists in Hell can overrun you!" (at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir)[24]
  • "Take me to the Brig. I want to see the real Marines."
  • "Alright you bastards, try and shoot me!" (to North Korean forces)
  • "Where do you put the bayonet?" (upon seeing a flamethrower for the first time)
  • "You don't hurt 'em if you don't hit 'em."[25]

In popular cultureEdit

  • On the HBO miniseries The Pacific, Puller is portrayed by William Sadler.
  • In the television series Major Dad, a photograph of Puller is often seen in the background of the commanding generals office at fictional Camp Hollister.
    • Gunny had a ceramic eagle autographed by Chesty Puller…until she left it in the care of the Major.
  • Puller is mentioned several times in the book series The Corps by W. E. B. Griffin.
  • The "Goodnight Chesty, wherever you are!" line is used in the 1977 Vietnam War film The Boys in Company C.
  • The book Marine!: The Life of Chesty Puller, ISBN 978-0553271829, is about his life as a Marine.
  • The book Chesty Puller's Rules of Success, ISBN 978-1885541079, written by Bill Davis, Col, USMC (ret) explores 20 of Puller's "self-imposed principles of action" he gleaned from numerous meetings with the legendary General.
  • The book Chesty: The Story of Lieutenant General Lewis B. Puller, USMC, ISBN 978-0375760440, by Col. Jon T. Hoffman, USMCR, is a complete biography of his life, and winner of the Marine Corps Heritage Foundation's 2001 General Wallace M. Greene Award: Best Marine Corps History Book of the Year.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wise, James E.; Scott Baron (2007). Navy Cross: extraordinary heroism in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other conflicts. Naval Institute Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-59114-945-3. 
  2. Wilson, Diann W. (2008). Dogged Determination: Life Experiences and the USMC Bulldog Copyright. iUniverse. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-59545-358-0. 
  3. Hoffman 2001, p. 21
  4. Davis 1991
  5. "The History of the 7th Marines". 7th Marines. Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20070701083748/http://www.29palms.usmc.mil/fmf/7thmar/history.htm. Retrieved June 30, 2006. 
  6. Keene, R. R. (2004). "Wake up and die, Marine!" (Reprinted by www.military.com). Leatherneck Magazine. http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,Leatherneck_WWII_072804,00.html. 
  7. SecNavInst 1650.1H, 8/22/2006, Silver Star Medal.
  8. Russ (1998). Breakout. p. 230. 
  9. Hoffman 2001, p. 604
  10. Hoffman 2001, p. 660
  11. Hoffman 2001, p. 688
  12. Hoffman 2001, p. 656
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Military Times
  14. "Four Distinguished Marines Saluted on U.S. Postage Stamps". United States Postal Service. November 10, 2005. http://www.usps.com/communications/news/stamps/2005/sr05_053.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  15. James Marconi (5 January 2012). "Navy Names First Three Mobile Landing Platform Ships". Military Sealift Command Public Affairs. United States Navy. http://www.msc.navy.mil/N00p/pressrel/press12/press01.htm. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  16. Davis 1991, p. 6
  17. Davis 1991, pp. 100–101
  18. Cossey, B. Keith (January 2006). "The Virtue of Unabashed Awkwardness in Military Leadership and Everyday Life". ISSN 1542-1546. http://www.combatmagazine.ws/S3/BAKISSUE/CMBT04N1/BUGLE.HTM. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  19. Davis 1991, p. 273
  20. "Brave". Become a Marine Officer. Marines.com. http://officer.marines.com/page/usmc.jsp?pageId=/page/Scene-XML-Conversion.jsp?pageName=Brave&flashRedirect=true. Retrieved 2008-10-09. [dead link]
  21. Davis 1991, p. 2
  22. Seamon, Tobias (November 5, 2003). "Sunlit Pictures: A War Album — The Chain Bridge". The Morning News. http://www.themorningnews.org/archives/stories/sunlit_pictures_a_war_album.php. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  23. "Chesty Puller". Legendary Marines. Marines.com. http://officer.marines.com/page/usmc.jsp?pageId=/page/Scene-XML-Conversion.jsp?pageName=Brave&flashRedirect=true. Retrieved 2008-10-09. [dead link]
  24. Davis 1991, p. 3
  25. "Frequently Requested: Marine Corps Quotes". History Division, United States Marine Corps. http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Frequently_Requested/Quotes.htm. Retrieved January 11, 2009. 

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

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