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Chief of the Defence Staff
Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa
Flag of the Chief of the Defence Staff (Spain).svg
Flag of the Chief of the Defence Staff
Coat of Arms of the Spanish Defence Staff-EMAD.svg
Coat of Arms of the Defence Staff
Spanish Defence Staff
Ministry of Defence
Spanish Defence Staff
Ministry of Defence
Style The Most Excellent
Status Highest-ranking military officer
Abbreviation JEMAD
Member of Defence Staff
National Defence Council
National Security Council
Council of Chiefs of Staff
Council of State
Reports to Prime Minister
Minister of Defence
Seat Vitruvio Street, Madrid
Nominator Prime Minister
After being discussed in the Council of Ministers
Appointer Monarch
Countersigned by the Prime Minister
Term length No fixed term
Constituting instrument Basic Criteria of National Defence and Military Organization Act of 1984
Precursor Chairman of the Board of Chiefs of Staff
Formation January 11, 1984
First holder Admiral General Ángel Liberal Lucini
Salary 122,000 per year
Website (in Spanish) Website of the Defence Staff

The Chief of the Defence Staff (Spanish language: Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa ) (JEMAD) is the highest-ranking military officer in the Spanish Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defence, the National Defence Council and the National Security Council. It is the fourth military authority of the country after the Monarch, the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence because the Secretary of State for Defence and the Under Secretary of Defence do not have military authority.

The JEMAD has three different roles: the support role, assisting and advising the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence in military affairs and supports the Under Secretary of Defence in its duties over the military personnel; the strategic role, being the official in charge of design the military strategy, directs the military operations and the actions to guarantee cyberspace freedom (with the supervision of the Minister), assign the military forces for the missions and give orders to the other Chiefs of Staff to appoint new commanders; and the preparatory role, coordinating the Chiefs of Staff and giving orders to them to prepare the troops, oversees the internal organization of the different branches, establish the common rules and regulations of the Armed Forces, ensures compliance with military discipline, staff motivation and their well-being and establish the organization of the Armed Forces (in coordination with the others Chiefs of Staff).[1]

The Chief of the Defence Staff convenes the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Defence Staff (EMAD), an auxiliary body of command and support to the Chief of Defence Staff comprising the Chief of the Defence Staff, the Chief of the Joint Defence Staff, the Commander of the Operations Command, the Deputy Commander of the Operations Command, the Director of the Armed Forces Intelligence Center, the Chief Commander of the Joint Cyber-Defence Command, the Director of the Higher Center for National Defence Studies, the Admiral of the Fleet, the Chief General of the Air Combat Command of the Air Force and the Chief of the Military Emergencies Unit.[2]

Although in some legally established situations the Chiefs of Staff of the Army, Navy and Air Force advise the Chief of the Defence Staff, they do not directly depend from the JEMAD but from the Minister of Defence.

Organization and assistants[]

The Chief of the Defence Staff has not a Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff, and when its unable to fulfill his functions, it is replaced by the most senior Chief of Staff of the Army, Navy or Air Force.

The JEMAD is assisted by the Joint Defence Staff, the main auxiliary body of the Defence Staff directed by the Chief of the Joint Defence Staff, which at the same times is assisted by the Secretary General of the Joint Defence Staff. The JEMAD it is also assisted by a personal secretary and by the Chief of Economic Affairs, the Chief of Human Resources and the Chief of Security and Services.

In matters of military strategy is advised by the Commander of the Operations Command and in cyberdefence by the Chief Commander of the Joint Cyber-Defence Command. Directly from the JEMAD depends the Spanish Armed Forces Intelligence Center in charge of recollecting military information and advise the JEMAD, the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Staff of the Navy and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force) in counter-intelligence and security.

Other bodies that also depend from the JEMAD are the Military Emergencies Unit, the Command of Maritime Security and Surveillance and the Command of Defence and Air Operations.

History[]

The creation of the first Military Staff in Spain dates back to 1801 when on the occasion of the War of Spain and France against Portugal, an army was created under the command of Godoy, which included a special structure called the General Staff, also called the General Staff of the Armies in Operations.[3]

On June 9, 1810 is constituted for the first time in Spain the Body of General Staff, separated completely from the other Armies branches, following their top officials different military careers. General Blake was its first Chief. Once the War of Independence was over, by Royal Order of June 27, 1814, Ferdinand VII suppressed the General Staff Body. In 1820 it was created for the second time, but its existence was short, and in 1823 it disappeared again.[4]

In 1837, experience had shown the ineffectiveness of all the decisions that had been taken to replace the Body of General Staff and the General Staff was again established for the proper functioning of the Army. Its new organization was approved on January 1, 1838 and in front of it was a Director-General.[5]

In 1904, the Central Staff of the Army (EMCE) appeared, which was suppressed in 1912 and returned to the previous organization, the General Staff Body; the EMCE was re-created in 1916 and abolished in 1925. During the Second Republic the Body of General Staff was finally suppressed and the EMCE was re-created.[6]

After the Civil War, on August 31, 1939, the High Command was created, the true predecessor of the current Defence Staff, with Brigadier General Juan Vigón in front as Chief of the General Staff. The High Command was active throughout Francoist Spain and part of the Spanish transition to democracy, disappearing on June 13, 1980.[7]

Three years earlier, in 1977, the Joint Chiefs of Staff had been created as the principal body of the General Staff to advise the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence and whose chairman was also the Chief of the General Staff. This body assumed all the functions of the EMP when it was suppressed.

In 1984, the Joint Chiefs of Staff was institutionalized and the position of Chief of the Defence Staff (JEMAD) was created, replacing the Chairman of the Board of Chiefs of Staff. At the same time, the Defence Staff was created to support the JEMAD. The Joint Chiefs of Staff was in force until 2005, when the new National Defence Organic Act created the National Defence Council as an advisory body to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence.[8]

List of chiefs of the Defence Staff[]

To see previous Chiefs of Staff, go to Defence High Command and Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff.

† denotes people who died in office.

Chief of the JEMAD Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Commander-in-Chief Ref
1
Template:Interlanguage link
Lucini, Ángel LiberalAdmiral General Template:Interlanguage link
(1921–2006)
11 January 198431 October 198670002000000000000002 years, 7002293000000000000293 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I[9][10]
2
Template:Interlanguage link
Romá, Gonzalo PuigcerverLieutenant General Template:Interlanguage link
(1924–2012)
31 October 198618 May 199070003000000000000003 years, 7002199000000000000199 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[11][12]
3
Template:Interlanguage link
Martín-Granizo, Gonzalo RodríguezAdmiral Template:Interlanguage link
(1928–1992)
18 May 199016 December 1992 †70002000000000000002 years, 7002212000000000000212 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I[13]
4
Template:Interlanguage link
Rodrigo, José RodrigoLieutenant General Template:Interlanguage link
(1928–2016)
23 December 199226 July 199670003000000000000003 years, 7002216000000000000216 daysEmblem of the Spanish Army.svg
Army
Juan Carlos I[14][15]
5
Template:Interlanguage link
Cañestro, Santiago ValderasGeneral of the Air Template:Interlanguage link
(1933–2019)
26 July 199615 December 200070004000000000000004 years, 7002142000000000000142 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[16][17][18]
6Barberá, Antonio MorenoAdmiral General Template:Interlanguage link
(born 1940)
15 December 200025 June 200470003000000000000003 years, 7002193000000000000193 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I[19][20][21]
7
Félix Sanz Roldán
Roldán, Félix SanzGeneral of the Army Félix Sanz Roldán
(born 1945)
25 June 200418 July 200870004000000000000004 years, 700123000000000000023 daysEmblem of the Spanish Army.svg
Army
Juan Carlos I[22][23][24]
8
José Julio Rodríguez Fernández
Fernández, José Julio RodríguezGeneral of the Air José Julio Rodríguez Fernández
(born 1948)
18 July 200830 December 201170003000000000000003 years, 7002165000000000000165 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[25][26]
9
Template:Interlanguage link
Sánchez, Fernando GarcíaAdmiral General Template:Interlanguage link
(born 1953)
30 December 201124 March 201770005000000000000005 years, 700184000000000000084 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I
Felipe VI
[27][28]
10
Fernando Alejandre Martínez
Martínez, Fernando AlejandreGeneral of the Army Fernando Alejandre Martínez
(born 1956)
24 March 201715 January 202070002000000000000002 years, 7002297000000000000297 daysEmblem of the Spanish Army.svg
Army
Felipe VI[29]
11
Miguel Ángel Villarroya
Villarroya, Miguel ÁngelGeneral of the Air Miguel Ángel Villarroya
(born 1957)
15 January 202027 January 202170001000000000000001 year, 700112000000000000012 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Felipe VI[30][31]
12López Calderón, Teodoro EstebanAdmiral General Teodoro Esteban López Calderón
(born 1954)
27 January 2021Incumbent50000000000000000000 years, 7002263000000000000263 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Felipe VI[32]

See also[]

References[]

  1. "Royal Decree 521/2020, of May 19, which establishes the basic organization of the Armed Forces.". https://boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2020-5190&p=20200521&tn=1. 
  2. "Ministry of Defence Order 166/2015, of January 21, by which the basic organization of the Armed Forces is developed." (in es). https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2015-1232. 
  3. "ESFAS History". http://www.defensa.gob.es/ceseden/en/esfas/quienes_somos/historia/index.html?__locale=en. 
  4. "War School of the Army". http://www.ejercito.mde.es/en/unidades/Madrid/eget/Historial/index.html?__locale=en. 
  5. "Royal decree of 1838 reorganizing the army's staff". https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1838/1139/A00001-00001.pdf. 
  6. "Institute of History and Military Culture". http://www.ejercito.mde.es/unidades/Madrid/ihycm/Archivos/agm-madrid-fondo3-1.html. 
  7. "Law 26/1980, of May 19, by which the High Staff is suppressed, once transferred the functions to the Board of Chiefs of Staff and High Defence Organizations." (in es). https://boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-1980-11881. 
  8. "Organic Act 5/2005, of November 17, of the National Defence." (in es). https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2005-18933. 
  9. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 149/1984, de 11 de enero, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Almirante don Angel Liberal Lucini. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  10. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 2296/1986, de 31 de octubre, por el que cesa como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa, el Almirante don Angel Liberal Lucini. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  11. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 2299/1986, de 31 de octubre, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Ejército del Aire don Gonzalo Puigcerver Roma. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  12. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 620/1990, de 18 de mayo, por el que se dispone el cese del Teniente General del Ejército del Aire, don Gonzalo Puigcerver Romá como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  13. (in Spanish) El jefe de la cúpula militar muere de un derrame cerebral.. El País (17/12/92).
  14. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1596/1992, de 23 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General don José Rodrigo Rodrigo.. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  15. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1848/1996, de 26 de julio, por el que se dispone el cese del Teniente General del Cuerpo General de las Armas del Ejército de Tierra don José Rodrigo Rodrigo como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa.. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  16. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 852/1999, de 21 de mayo, por el que se promueve al empleo de General del Aire al Teniente General don Santiago Valderas Cañestro, Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  17. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1849/1996, de 26 de julio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Cuerpo General del Ejército del Aire don Santiago Valderas Cañestro. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  18. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 3429/2000, de 15 de diciembre, por el que se dispone el cese del General del Aire del Cuerpo General del Ejército del Aire don Santiago Valderas Cañestro como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  19. (in Spanish) Moreno Barberá será nombrado el próximo viernes nuevo JEMAD
  20. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 3430/2000, de 15 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Almirante General del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Antonio Moreno Barberá. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  21. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1558/2004, de 25 de junio, por el que se dispone el cese del Almirante General del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Antonio Moreno Barberá como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  22. (in Spanish) Félix Sanz Roldán, nombrado nuevo Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa Archived 2013-12-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1559/2004, de 25 de junio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Cuerpo General de las Armas del Ejército de Tierra don Félix Sanz Roldán. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  24. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1248/2008, de 18 de julio, por el que se dispone el cese del General de Ejército del Cuerpo General de las Armas del Ejército de Tierra don Félix Sanz Roldán como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  25. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1249/2008, de 18 de julio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Cuerpo General del Ejército del Aire don José Julio Rodríguez Fernández. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  26. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 1892/2011, de 30 de diciembre, por el que se dispone el cese del General de Aire don José Julio Rodríguez Fernández como Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  27. (in Spanish) boe.es (31 December 2011). "Real Decreto 1903/2011, de 30 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Almirante del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Fernando García Sánchez" (in es). http://www.boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2011-20677. 
  28. (in Spanish) Real Decreto 287/2017, de 24 de marzo, por el que se dispone el cese del Almirante General del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Fernando García Sánchez como Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  29. (in Spanish) New head of the Joint Chiefs of Spanish Defence Staff, General of the Army Fernando Alejandre Martínez. The Spanish Official Gazette (28/03/17).
  30. (in Spanish) New head of the Defence Staff, General of the Air Miguel Ángel Villarroya Vilalta. The Spanish Official Gazette (28/03/17).
  31. González, Miguel (2021-01-23). "Dimite el jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa ante el escándalo provocado por su vacunación" (in es). https://elpais.com/espana/2021-01-23/el-jemad-presenta-su-dimision-por-haberse-vacunado-de-la-covid.html. 
  32. "El almirante Teodoro López Calderón, actual jefe de la Armada, será el nuevo Jemad" (in es). 2021-01-26. https://www.abc.es/espana/abci-almirante-lopez-calderon-actual-jefe-armada-sera-nuevo-jemad-202101261352_noticia.html. 


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