Ejército de Chile
Army of Chile
|Active||2 December 1810 – present|
|Size||45,000 (of which 12,700 conscripted)|
|Part of||Ministry of National Defense (Chile)|
|Motto(s)||Siempre vencedor y jamás vencido ("Always Victorious and Undefeated")|
|March||Los viejos estandartes (The Old Standards) by Guillermo Bascuñán Dockendorff (music) and Jorge Inostroza (words)|
|Anniversaries||19 September (Army Day)|
War of Arauco|
Chilean War of Independence
Freedom Expedition of Perú
War of the Confederation
Chincha Islands War
War of the Pacific
1891 Chilean Civil War
|Juan Miguel Fuente-Alba Poblete|
|Bernardo O'Higgins, José Miguel Carrera, Manuel Bulnes, Manuel Baquedano, Juan Emilio Cheyre|
The Chilean Army (Spanish language: Ejército de Chile ) is the land arm of the Military of Chile. This 45,000-person army (12,700 of which are conscripts) is organized into six divisions, a special operations brigade and an air brigade.
The Chilean Army is mostly supported by equipment from Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United States, Israel, France, and Spain.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Military Equipment
- 4 Military ranks
- 5 Commanders-in-chief
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
History[edit | edit source]
War of Arauco[edit | edit source]
19th. Century[edit | edit source]
The Army of the Kingdom of Chile was created on December, 2 of 1810 by order of the First National Meeting of Government of Chile.
The army participated actively in the independence war, which, was fought against royalist troops in battles such as Yerbas Buenas, San Carlos, Quechereguas, Rancagua, Chacabuco and Maipú. During this period national figures such as José Miguel Carrera, Bernardo O'Higgins and Argentinian General José de San Martín commanded the army toward definitive victory over the Spanish forces ultimately achieving independence for the country. The Army's first commander-in-chief was José Miguel Carrera.
After obtaining independence from Spain, the newly formed Republic tried to reorganize its military structure by inaugurating the War Military academy of Chile, which was founded by General O'Higgins in 1817.
Guardia Nacional[edit | edit source]
Diego Portales set up a civil militia, the Guardia Nacional, to end one of the worst stages of militarism in Chile's history. The militia was created in 1825 but Portales developed this parallel army to compensate the army's might. The Chilean Conscription Law of 1900 marked the beginning of the end of the Guardia Nacional.
The War of the Pacific[edit | edit source]
Prussian Influence[edit | edit source]
The Chilean Army admired the Prussian Army which proved successful in the Franco-Prussian War, and this led to the appointment in 1886 of Captain Emil Körner and 36 Prussian officers and NCOs to train officer cadets in the Chilean Military College. The Chilean Army soon gained such a good reputation that Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and El Salvador, between 1903 and 1913, requested Chilean officers to assist in the training their armies.
20th. Century[edit | edit source]
Milicia Republicana[edit | edit source]
The Guardia Republicana or Milicia Republicana was created after the fall of the Socialist Republic of Chile in order to prevent another Coup d'Etat. On 7 Mai 20,000 militiamen marched past President Arturo Alessandri in the streets of Santiago. In Las Mercedes' plot, 1933, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Pedro Vignola called "to resist the Milicia Republicana by any means" and he was removed of the army She was dissolved in 1936.
US Influence[edit | edit source]
The Army under Pinochet[edit | edit source]
1973, in a watershed event of the Cold War and the history of Chile, president Salvador Allende, was overthrown in a coup d’état by the Armed Forces.
Until May 2012, 76 agents of the military Government had been condemned for violations of human rights and 67 were convicted: 36 of the Army, 27 of Carabineros, 2 of the Air Force, one of the Navy and one of the PDI. Three condemned agents died and six agents get conditional sentences. The Chilean justice hold open 350 cases for "disappeared" persons, illegal detainees and torture during the dictatorial rule. In the cases are involved 700 armed forces personnel and civilians.
Neltume[edit | edit source]
In a massive operation (Operación de Contraguerrilla Machete) spearheaded by Chilean Army Para-Commandos, security forces involving some 2,000 troops., were deployed in the mountains of Neltume from June to November 1981, where they destroyed two Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) bases, seizing large caches of munitions and killing a number of guerrillas. In the various military operations carried out in the cities of Talcahuano, Concepcion, Los Angeles and Valdivia between 23 and 24 August 1984, the military and police forces deployed killed several MIR guerrillas and sympathizers.
2013 colonel (retired) Conrado García and captain (retired) Enrique Sandoval Arancibia are being processed in Valdivia for killing of Eugenio Monsalve Sandoval, Próspero Guzmán Soto and Patricio Calfuquir Henríquez. The lawyer solicited also to withdraw immunity of deputy Rosauro Martínez (member of Renovación Nacional). He was the commander of the Army unit.
The Chilean army today[edit | edit source]
As a result of tensions with neighbors during the conflictprone 1970s and early 1980s, the Chilean army refined existing strategic concepts and eventually formulated a plan to restructure the army’s forces. Though wars were avoided, the threats from the 1970s and 1980s encouraged the army to address more effectively its major defense disadvantage: lack of strategic depth. Thus in the early 1980s it looked to outward for a model of army organization that would best advance defensive capabilities by restructuring forces into smaller, more mobile units instead of traditional divisions. The resulting Plan Alcazar, envisions three military zones in Chile, with the bulk of forces concentrated in the north, and reinforces the center and south. The plan was implemented in stages, and the first began in 1994. Thus Alcazar, based on threat scenarios of the past, is one of the most durable “lessons” of the past. Even with the resolution of almost all remaining territorial disputes, the restructuring agenda remained on track and structurally reinforces a conflict-based mindset in the army.
Peacekeeping[edit | edit source]
Organization[edit | edit source]
Order Of Battle[edit | edit source]
Army Commandant Office in Santiago, where the main decisions of the Chilean Army are given
Army Ground Operations Command, headquartered in Concepcion, the HQ garrison of the Chacabuco 7th Reinforced Regiment
- I Army Division Regions II and III, with headquarters in Antofagasta.
- II Motorized Division Regions IV, V, VI, VII and Santiago Metropolitan Region with headquarters in Santiago de Chile. This is the largest of the six Army Divisions, serving five regions and is where the Army Headquarters is located alongside some of the military academies that the Army operates in the Santiago Metropolitan Region and nearby Valparaiso Province.
- III Mountain Division Serving Regions VIII, IX, XIV, and X with headquarters in Valdivia
- IV Army Division Region XI with headquarters in Coyhaique
- V Army Division Serving Region XII with headquarters in Punta Arenas, the division assigned to protect the Chilean Antarctic and the world's southernmost city.
- VI Army Division Serving Regions I and XV, with headquarters in Iquique.
- Army Aviation Brigade with headquarters in Rancagua. (Brigada de Aviación del Ejército) It is the Army's aviation forces, composed of 4 battalions and a logistics company.
- Special Operations Brigade "Lautaro" with headquarters in Peldehue (Brigada de Operaciones Especiales "Lautaro")It is the Army's special forces brigade, named after one of Chile's national heroes.
Army Institution and Doctrine Command (Comando Instituto y Doctrina)
- Army Schools Division (Division Escuelas)
- Army Education Division (Division de Educacion)
- Army Doctrine Division (Division de Doctrina)
Army Force Services Command (Comando Apoyo de la Fuerza)
- Army Logistics Division. with headquarters in Santiago (División Logística del Ejército)
- Army Engineering Command
- Army Communications Command
- Army Infrastructure Command
- Army Military Engineering and Industry Command
Army Independent Commands
- Army General Garrison Command in Santiago, serving the Santiago Metropolitan Region, reports directly to Army Headquarters
- Army Medical Command in Santiago
- Army Administration Command
Army General Staff Office (Estado Mayor General del Ejercito)
- Chilean Military Mission to Washington
- Directorate of Intelligence
- Directorate of Operations
- Finance Directorate
- Logistics Directorate
Military Equipment[edit | edit source]
The Chilean Army has acquired a number of new systems with the goal of having a completely modernized, and largely mechanized army by 2015. The military has also modifying the operational structure, creating armoured brigades throughout the entire territory, and a new special operations brigade while conserving the current divisional scheme.
Firearms[edit | edit source]
|Pistols and Submachine Guns|
|CZ-75||9x19 mm NATO||Czechoslovakia||Pistol|
|FAMAE FN-750||9x19 mm NATO||Chile||Main pistol|
|HK MP5||9x19 mm NATO||Germany|
|FAMAE SAF||9x19 mm NATO||Chile||Standard issue submachine gun. Locally designed variation on the SG 540.|
|FAMAE SAF-200||9x19 mm NATO||Chile||Testing. Tactical variation of the regular SAF.|
|Assault Rifles, Battle Rifles and Carbines|
|SIG SG 540||5.56mm NATO||Chile||Built under license by FAMAE. Standard issue rifle.|
|SIG SG 542-1||7.62mm NATO||Chile||version of the SG 540. Manufactured in Chile by FAMAE. For use by mountain troops.|
|M4 carbine||5.56x45mm NATO||United States||Special Forces|
|SIG SG 543||5.56x45mm NATO||Chile|
|SIG SG 556-1||5.56x45mm NATO||Chile|
|FAMAE FD-200||7.62 x 51 mm NATO||Chile||Locally produced version of the SG 540 modified as a sniper rifle|
|Barrett M82A1M||12.7 x 99 mm NATO||United States|
|SIG-Sauer SSG 3000||7.62mm NATO||Switzerland|
|Heckler & Koch HK21||7.62x51 mm NATO||Germany||Magazine-fed light machine gun|
|FN MINIMI||5.56x45 mm NATO||Belgium||Light machine gun|
|MG3||7.62x51 mm NATO||Germany||General-purpose machine gun|
|M60E4||7.62x51 mm NATO||United States||General-purpose machine gun|
|FN M2HB-QCB||12.7 x 99 mm NATO||United States||Heavy Machine Gun|
|M203||40x46 mm||United States||Designed to be attached to a rifle|
|Milkor MGL||40x53 mm||South Africa||Automatic grenade launcher|
|Mk 19 Mod 3||40x53 mm||United States||Automatic grenade launcher|
Infantry Support Weapons[edit | edit source]
|Anti-tank Guided Missile Launchers|
|Anti-tank Recoilless Rifles|
|-||M40 recoilless rifle||United States||106 mm / some of them are mounted on Jeeps|
|-||M67 recoilless rifle||United States||90 mm|
|Anti-tank Rocket launchers|
|M72 LAW||United States||66 mm|
|300+||FIM-92 Stinger||United States||84 mm|
Armour[edit | edit source]
|172||Leopard 2A4CHL||Germany||120 mm gun|
|100||Leopard 1V|| Germany
|105 mm gun|
|Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs)|
|280 ||Marder 1A3||Germany|
|Some equipped with missiles Spike LR|
|Armored personnel carrier (APCs)|
|280||MOWAG Piranha||Chile||Built under license in Chile FAMAE, in various configurations.|
|Armored Wheeled Vehicles|
|180||Land Rover Defender|
|24||M109 KAWEST||United States
Aircraft[edit | edit source]
|2||C-212 Aviocar||Spain||C-212-300 Aviocar|
|3||Cessna 208 Caravan||United States||Cessna 208B Grand Caravan|
|1||Cessna 680 Citation Sovereign||United States||Cessna 680 Citation Sovereign|
|4||Aerospatiale SA 330 Puma||France||Aerospatiale SA-330L Puma|
|12||Eurocopter AS532 Cougar||France||Eurocopter AS-532AL Mk-1 Cougar|
|4||Eurocopter AS350||France||Eurocopter AS-350B3 Ecureuil|
|1||Eurocopter AS355||France||Eurocopter AS-355N Ecureuil 2|
|9||McDonnell Douglas MD 500 Defender||United States||McDonnell Douglas MDD-369FF Defender|
|Unmanned Aerial Vehicles|
|6 +||BlueBird SpyLite||Israel|||
Military ranks[edit | edit source]
An aspiring non-commissioned officer or officer of the Chilean Army undergoes studies at these two schools, both located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region:
- Bernardo O'Higgins Military School (for officers)
- Sgt. Daniel Rebolledo Sepulveda Sub-officers School (For non-commissioned personnel)
Upon graduation, he/she becomes a military officer (Ensign) or non-commissioned officer (Corporal), and the moves on to the branch of his or her choice, except for newly recruited soldiers, whose primary rank is Soldado Dragonante or Soldier Dragonite, and are immediately enrolled as part of the Army Sub-Officer School in Maipu.
Military ranks are similar to the Prussian and later German Armies, but also has the British/Prussian Ensign rank for officers. The Captain General rank, first used by Bernardo O'Higgins and later by Presidents Ramon Freire and Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, is now inactive.
The ranks used today in the Army are from the 2002 reorganization. It keeps the old enlisted ranks (Privates, Corporals, Sergeants and Sub-officers) but a new officer rank scheme is used, with 3 general officers instead of four general officers.
Enlisted ranks[edit | edit source]
All Privates and Student NCOs studying in the Army NCO School wear no rank insignia.
|Full Dress uniform
and Service Uniform
(Office, Garrison, Outdoor/Mess Wear, Parade Dress)
|Battle Duty Uniform
(Center and South)
|Battle Duty Uniform (North)||50px||50px||50px||50px||50px||50px||50px|
|Grade||Warrant Officer Class 1||Warrant Officer Class 2||Staff Sergeant||Sergeant||Master Corporal||Corporal||Lance Corporal|
|Name in Spanish||Suboficial Mayor||Suboficial||Sargento Primero||Sargento Segundo||Cabo Primero||Cabo Segundo||Cabo|
|NATO pay grade Code||OR-8||OR-7||OR-6||OR-5||OR-4||OR-3||OR-2|
|Rank||English translation||Years of service||US Army Equivalent rank/British Army Equivalent rank|
|Suboficial Mayor||Sub-officer Major||30 years||Command Sergeant Major/Warrant Officer Class 1|
|Suboficial||Sub-officer||27–29 years||Sergeant Major/ Warrant Officer Class 2|
|Sargento Primero||First Sergeant||24–26 years||Master Sergeant/Staff Sergeant|
|Sargento Segundo||Second Sergeant||19–23 years||Sergeant First Class/Sergeant|
|Cabo Primero||First Corporal||11–18 years||Staff Sergeant/Lance Sergeant,|
|Cabo Segundo||Second Corporal||4–10 years||Sergeant/Corporal|
|Cabo||Corporal||2–3 years after graduation||Corporal/Lance Corporal|
|Soldado||Soldier||1–5 years after recruitment,
one year after graduation
|Private First Class|
|Cabo Dragonante (student)||Corporal Dragonite (student)||2 years of study||Private|
|Soldado Dragonante/Alumno (student)||Soldier Dragonite (student)||1 year of study (save when recruited into the Army)||Private Basic/NCO Candidate|
Officer ranks[edit | edit source]
Officer ranks are derived from those of the German and French Armies. While field grade and senior grade officer rank insignia show German influence, general officer rank insignia are similar to those used in the French Army but in red shoulder straps (similar to those used by the United States Army) with two to four golden stars.
|Rank||General Officers||Superior Officers||Chief Officers||Subaltern/Junior Officers|
|Full dress uniform||50px||50px||50px|
|Duty dress uniform|
|Battle Duty Uniform (Center and South)|
|Battle Duty Uniform (North)|
|Grade||General of the Army||Divisional General||Brigade General||Brigadier||Colonel||Lieutenant Colonel||Major||Captain||Lieutenant||Sub-lieutenant||Ensign|
|NATO pay grade code||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF-1||N/A|
|Rank||English translation||Years of service||US Army Equivalent rank/British Army Equivalent rank|
|Capitan General||Captain General||now inactive||General of the Army/Field Marshal/Marshal|
|General de Ejercito||General of the Army||General|
|General de Division||Divisional General||Lieutenant General|
|General de Brigada||Brigade General||31–32 years||Major General|
|Brigadier General, Brigadier/|
Colonel Commandant (honorary rank for senior Colonels)
|Teniente Coronel||Lieutenant Colonel||21–25 years||Lieutenant Colonel|
|Teniente||Lieutenant||5–9 years||First lieutenant/Lieutenant|
|Subteniente||Sublieutenant||2–4 years||Second lieutenant|
|Alferez||Ensign||1 year of service after graduation||Acting Lieutenant/3rd Lieutenant/Ensign|
|Subalferez||Junior Ensign, Sub-ensign (student)||3–4 years of study||Officer Cadet/Student Officer 1|
|Cadete||Cadet Officer (student)||1–2 years of study||Officer Candidate/Student Officer 2|
Commanders-in-chief[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance, 2002–2003
- Chile : Country Studies – Federal Research Division, Library of Congress
- Chile (01/08)
- Memoria Chilena, Guardia Nacional, retrieved on 4 December 2012
- Rberto Hernández Ponce, La Guardia Nacional de Chile. Apuntes sobre su origen y organización, 1808-1848, Universidad Católica de Chile, retrieved on 4 December 2012
- The military and society in Latin America. John J. Johnson. Page 70.
- Luis Vitale, Intervenciones militares y poder fáctico en la política chilena, de 1830 al 2.000, Santiago, 2000
- Juan Bragassi H, Las Milicias Republicanas de Chile, retrieved on 4 December 2012
- Article Estudio revela que 76 son los agentes de la dictadura condenados por violaciones a DDHH in the Chilean newspaper La Tercera on 09 Juli 2012, retrieved on 22 juli 2012
- Chile under Pinochet: recovering the truth. By Mark Ensalaco. Page 146. Cloth 1999.
- Chile: Terrorism still counterproductive. CIA document.
- Determinants of gross human rights violations by state and state-sponsored actors in Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina, 1960–1990, By Wolfgang S. Heinz & Hugo Frühling, Page 545, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999
- Jorge Escalante in article La historia oculta del comandante Rosauro in Chilean online newspaper El Mostrador on 16 Mai 2013, retrieved on 16 Mai 2013
- Kristina Mani, Democratization and Strategic Thinking: What the Militaries in Argentina and Chile Learned in the 1990s, Columbia University, 2003, retrieved on 4 August 2013
- World Air Forces 2013 - Flightglobal.com, pg 12, December 11, 2012 - http://www.scramblemagazine.nl/index.php?option=com_mildb&view=search&Itemid=60&af=cl
- BlueBird seals SpyLite deal with Chilean army - Flightglobal.com, April 9, 2013
[edit | edit source]
- Official Chilean Army site (Spanish)
- "Ranks of Chilean Army site". Chilean Army. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20100828173143/http://www.ejercito.cl/nuestro_ejercito/grados.php. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- Latin American Light Weapons National Inventories
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