|1st Aberdeenshire Rifle Volunteer Corps|
1st Volunteer Btn, Gordon Highlanders
4th (City of Edinburgh) Btn, Gordon Highlanders
Cap badge of the 1st Aberdeenshire RVC
|Type||Territorial Infantry Defence Unit|
|Role||Infantry support to the Regular Army|
|Size||Battalion, at largest 3 Battalions|
|Battalion HQ||Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire|
South African War|
World War I
World War II
The 1st Aberdeenshire Rifle Volunteers late the 4th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders was an infantry battalion of the British Army which participated in World War I and later World War II before being amalgamated with another Aberdeenshire volunteer unit in 1947. The corps were first formed, and one of the first in Aberdeenshire. The corps were later converted to a battalion of the Territorial Force where they participated in World War I and later World War II in the Territorial Army as an anti-tank unit of the Royal Artillery's AT branch.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Background
- 1.2 Origins
- 1.3 Prewar
- 1.4 World War I
- 1.5 Interwar Period
- 1.6 World War II
- 1.7 Postwar
- 2 Commanding Officers
- 3 Citations
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
From almost the very beginning of the Volunteer Movement the several rifle corps formed within the City of Aberdeen were consolidated into a single battalion. Other corps were to be included in one or other of the county's three administrative battalions, some (in 1876) transferring across the border to the military care of Kincardineshire. With the already consolidated 1st Corps, the merger of the three admin battalions in 1880 reduced the number of Aberdeenshire corps to four. There also existed for a very short period, two numbered (1st and 2nd) sub-divisions; these later to become the 3rd and 4th corps of the 1860-80 period.
Rifle Volunteer Movement
The enthusiasm for the Volunteer movement following an invasion scare in 1859 saw the creation of many Rifle Volunteer Corps (RVCs) composed of part-time soldiers eager to supplement the Regular British Army in time of need.
One of these new corps was the 1st Aberdeenshire Rifle Volunteer Corps. The formation in the early months of 1860 of the several City of Aberdeen companies into the consolidated nine-company-strong 1st Corps saw former 38th (1st Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot officer Napier T Christie placed in command as lieutenant colonel commandant. His commission was dated 16 March 1860 and the amalgamation went as follows;
- Corps Headquarters, City of Aberdeen
- No.1 Company (late 6th Corps)
- No.2 Company (late 7th Corps)
- No.3 Company (late No.1 Company, 8th Corps)
- No.4 Company (late No.2 Company, 8th Corps)
- No.5 Company (late 9th Corps)
- No.6 Company (late 11th Corps)
- No.7 Company (late 13th Corps)
- No.8 Company (late No.1 Company, 12th Corps)
- No.9 Company (late No.2 Company, 12th Corps)
A new company was formed on 10 November 1860 and on 4 May 1861, Nos 1 and 2 were merged as No.1 Company. At the same time the companies from No.3 down took the next highest number, once again leaving the corps with nine companies numbered 1st to 9th. In 1860 the corps were granted a dark grey with black braid and four rows of black lace on the breast, grey caps with peak, and black patent-leather belts. A new No.10 Company was soon raised was soon raised, but in November 1861, following its refusal to adopt the uniform then being worn by the rest of the battalion, No.9 was disbanded. No.10 company was disbanded in 1862 for the same reason. In 1862 the corps were granted a new rifle green uniform with a hooked tunic with five rows of black lace on the breast and black braid on the cuffs, trousers with black braid stripe, rifle-green shakos with black ball-tuft, and black patent-leather belts. A new company was formed at Woodside, just outside Aberdeen, in 1870 and on 25 June 1880 the nine companies were lettered 'A' to 'I' along with a new 9th company being raised in Woodside just past the city boundary.
On 8 December 1879, authority was given to change the uniform of the corps to one of scarlet doublets with yellow facings, Gordon tartan trews, blue helmets, brown belts, and black leggings, the officers to wear shoulder-plaids, white sword belts, and dirks on white waist-belts.
Following the Cardwell Reforms in the 1880s, the corps was assigned to No.75 Regimental District and placed as 143rd in order of precedence. Under the 'Localisation of Forces' scheme introduced in 1872 by the Cardwell Reforms, the corps was placed under command of the local regiment, the famed Gordon Highlanders along with a number of the Aberdeenshire volunteers and local militia, amongst other units. The Stanhope Memorandum of December 1888 introduced a Mobilisation Scheme for Volunteer units, which would assemble in their own brigades at key points in case of war. In peacetime these brigades provided a structure for collective training. Under this scheme, the battalion was assigned to the Tay Brigade which commanded the 1st, 2nd, and 4th volunteer battalions of the same regiment. Eventually following Army order 207 in 1890, the brigades were expanded from 5 to 7 and the battalion was reassigned to the Aberdeen Brigade along with the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th volunteer battalions of the same regiment.
In 1884 following the former reforms, the Cardwell Reforms, the corps were redesignated as the 1st Volunteer Battalion, Gordon Highlanders; 'L' Company was formed in October 1895, 'H' co. disbanded in 1898, while at the same time the Aberdeen University raised a company lettered 'U' for 'University', and a cyclist section for the battalion was formed. In 1905 the battalion was reorganised with 'D' and 'I' to form 'D' Company and 'E' and 'L' Company were amalgamated to form 'M' Company. During this time the battalion also maintained a rifle range at Seaton Links just over two miles from Aberdeen. During this period, the battalion adopted to Gordon's uniform with the acception of no feather bonnet, instead having a glengarry with red, white, and blue diced border, with white belts, was authorised on 30 December 1895, but the change was carrier out gradually. When 'L' Company was formed, they were the first to be kilted, and by 1901 the entire battalion was re-clothed. Drab service doublets were authorised for undress on 9 July 1902, and sashes to be worn by serjeants in full dress.
- Battalion Headquarters, Aberdeen
- A Company (former 6th and 7th Aberdeen corps)
- B Company (former 1st Aberdeen Company, 8th Corps)
- C Company (former 2nd Aberdeen Company, 8th Corps)
- D Company (former 9th Aberdeen and Woodside Companies)
- F Company (former 13th Aberdeen Corps)
- G Company (former 1st Company, 12th Aberdeen Corps)
- M Company (former 11th Company and L Company)
- U Company (provided by the University of Aberdeen)
South African War
During the South African War also known as the Second Boer War, the British Army were able to use their volunteers effectively for the first time although wouldn't deploy them as full units, and rather as composite companies attached to their regular counterparts.
1st Volunteer Service Company
During the war, the battalion mustered 128 men to be send to the field with the first detachment with Captain J B Buchanan, Lieutenant F J O Mackinnon, and 57 other ranks. This unit became known as a Volunteer Service Company (VSC), later being designated as the 1st VSC. The company left Aberdeen on 16 February 1900, and served with the 1st Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, before arriving back in Aberdeen on 4 May 1901. The detachments distinguished itself in action during the following engagements; Battle of Doornkop, Battle of Leehoek, and the Battle of Komati Poort.
2nd Volunteer Service Company
3rd Volunteer Service Company
On 15 March 1901 the 3rd VSC left Aberdeen and joined the 2nd Battalion, Gordon Highlanders and returned on 6 July 1902. The battalion also later contributed a detachment under Lieutenant R A Henderson and 34 other ranks of whom one died of disease.
5th Volunteer Service Company
End of the Volunteer Force
Following their end of service during the Second Boer War, Captain J B Buchanan was mentioned in despatches for his services in South Africa. The battalion was also granted their first battle honour, "South Africa, 1900-02".
In 1902 the battalion was attached to the 34th Field Army Brigade, and trained in camp for thirteen clear days annually until 1906, when the brigade was broken up. The rifle-range of the battalion, up to 900 yards, was at Seaton Links, two and a half miles from Aberdeen.
Under the Army reforms introduced by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane in 1907, the existing auxiliary forces (the Yeomanry and Volunteer forces) were to be combined (with effect from 1 April 1908) as a new organisation to be known as the Territorial Force.
Following this new reform the new 4th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders was formed and given the senior TF designation of "4th", just after the militia which was granted the 3rd and regulars as 1st and 2nd. Following this reorganisation, in accordance with their sub-title, the battalion was organised as follows (in July 1914 just before World War I);
- Battalion Headquarters, Aberdeen
- No.1 Group, Major T Ogilvie
- A Company, Aberdeen
- B Company, Aberdeen
- C Company, Aberdeen
- D Company, Aberdeen
- No.2 Group, Major G A Smith
- E Company, Aberdeen
- F Company, Aberdeen
- G Company, Aberdeen
- H Company, Aberdeen
World War I
When the battalion was mobilised, it was not organised like their regular counterparts, and was mostly under-strength. This organisation problem was the same for many units of the army. The battalion also faced the problem that most territorials were not allowed to deploy unless they volunteered. This problem was solved by 1916 when the TF was expanded to form the 1/ (1st Line for overseas deployment), 2/ (2nd Line for home service), and 3/ (3rd line for drafts and specialist roles and defence). The War Office also eventually solved this problem by formed the 'New Armies', which became a major success and eventually changed the way the Territorial Force worked. As a result, the battalion had to go through an organisation reform, which lead to the following structure;
- Battalion Headquarters
- Machine-Gun Section
- A Company
- Company Headquarters
- 1st Platoon (x4 Sections)
- 2nd Platoon (same as above)
- 3rd Platoon (same as above)
- 4th Platoon (same as above)
- B Company (same as A Company, with higher numbers)
- C Company (same as A Company, with higher numbers)
- D Company (same as A Company, with higher numbers)
When the British Army were mobilised in 1914, the battalion was separated to form the 1/4th and the second line 2/4th battalion formed from No.2 Group. The battalion was consolidated on 5 August in Woodmanhill, Aberdeen by the 17th was consolidated in Bedford for war training along with the new renamed 51st (Highland) Division. As a result of this, the battalion was redesignated as the 1/4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders. On 20 February 1915 the division was broken up with many highland units being transferred to the old regular divisions as replacements, and many units of the West Lancashire Division moving under the highland division at the same time. As a result of this reorganisation, the battalion was transferred to the 8th Brigade of the 3rd Division which was in desperate need of replacement following heavy action against the Germans. On 27 February 1915 the battalion was fully attached to the brigade and became a staple part of the division.
On 16 June 1915 the battalion saw their first action during the First Attack on Bellewaarde, where the battalion was in reserve with the 8th Brigade supporting the 9th and 7th leading the assault on the Bellewaarde Ridge. The battalion saw no service during this action, but were tasked with providing a rear guard if needed. The battalion then played a similar role during the Battle of Hooge, providing rear-guard support.
Second Battle of Bellewaarde
On 25 September the battalion again saw action during the Second Battle of Bellewaarde where they provided the right side attack group along with the 1st Gordons, during the attack on the ridge codenamed 'Stirling Castle'. During the attack, German forces held a first, second, and third line strong defensive, where the battalion was to attack with support of their regular counterparts of the 1st battalion. During the attack, the battalion made it through the third line, but their counterparts on their left were unable to make it past the front line which caused the battalion to be isolated. The battalion was the only one to make it past the lines, with the entire division loosing a total of 1683 casualties.
Battle of the Somme
During the months leading up to the Battle of the Somme, the British Expeditionary Force began to consolidate in the area around the town of High Wood. On 22 July the battalion along with their Scottish counterparts of the 9 R SCOTS attacked a German redoubt in the north-east corner of High Wood, in order to clear a position prior to a major attack on the remaining German positions in the wood, and the trenches beyond it, the Switch Line and Intermediate Trench, during the early morning of 23rd September. On the 23rd, the battalion was relieved by a battalion of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. On 19 October 1915 the battalion was relieved from assignment to the 8th Infantry Brigade and subsequently assigned to a new army brigade, 76th Brigade which was within the same 3rd Division. The battalion later acted as a reserve during the Capture of Beaumont Hamel and Battle of the Ancre.
On 9 April 1917 the battalion was moved north to Écurie where they were one of the four battalions which provided support and designated as 'support battalions'. Although the battalion didn't have a major role, they were able to prevent an assault by the Germans on the left wing of the assault, this assault became known as the Battle of Arras. By 20 September the battalion had been reinforced by drafts of the 3/4th Battalion, and were back up to full strength after suffering losses during the Somme Campaign and later Arras Campaign. On 20 September the battalion moved far north to Langemark-Poelkapelle and joined the 154th Brigade and participated in the push during the Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, which was part of the wider Battle of Ypres. The battalion then held on to the area around the farm against strong German counter-attacks for a few more days. The division took around 1155 casualties during the operation.
By 20 November, the battalion moved very far south, to an area around Flesquières where a very experimental object was to be tested by the British Army. At 10:30am the battalion along with the 7th Argyll and Sutherlands spearheaded an assault capturing the town of Cambrai where they were supported by 10 tanks, the first time a tank had been used in combat. This became known as the wider Battle of Cambrai. A party of the battalion were able to hold Cantaing Mill until 15:00 until another tank arrived to support them. The battalion was then moved into reserve to take in more drafts and replenish.
On 21 March 1918 the battalion was moved to the area round Boursies where they along with the 7th Argyll and Sutherlands were in the front to assault the German lines, where they came under a very severe barrage where the entire front of the brigade was wiped out. By 17 October the battalion was finally back up to strength and moved far east to Noyelles-Sur-Selle and participated in the wider Hundred Days Offensive and smaller Battle of the Selle. During this small engagement the battalion along with their friends of the 7th Argyll and Sutherlands, they participated in a last ditch assault on the high ground around La Crois Saint Marie, opposite Douchy, and were able to reach Grand Bois by midnight and then the River Ecaillon.
Finally, on 11 November 1918 following the armistice, the battalion was transferred out of the 51st (Highland) Division and moved to a new highland division in April where they joined the British Army of the Rhine as part of the Occupation of the Rhineland. By the end of March 1919 the 51st (Highland) Division was only at cadre strength when the battalion was demobilised and concurrently placed in suspended animation.
On 31 August 1914, instructions were issued to organise the men in the existing "No.2 Group" of the 4th battalion to form a '2nd Line Territorial' battalion and of those who didn't volunteer for overseas service. This battalion became the 2/4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders an in November 1914, it was decided to replace each imperial-service uni, which proceeded abroad, by its 2nd-line unit.
As a result of these new '2nd line' formations, the new 64th (2nd Highland) Division came into existence in January 1915, when the infantry brigade were formed and battalion headquarters were opened in Perth, Scotland, in January 1915. The demand to provide frequent drafts for the 1st-line units meant it was some time before the various units were assembled for the division to be considered complete.
By August 1915 however, the three infantry brigades were around Blair Athol, Scone, and Falkirk, the artillery at Edzell, Forfar, Brechin, and Rothesay, with the heavy battery at Dunfermline, and the divisional troops at Blair Athol, Perth, and Scone. Winter stations were occupied in November with the battalion based at Perth. Finally in November 1915 the battalion was absorbed into the 2/5th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders.
The 3/4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders were formed in February 1915 in Aberdeen and in November moved to Ripon, North Yorkshire. On 8 April 1916 the battalion was renamed as the 4th Reserve Battalion, Gordon Highlanders. On 1 September 1916 the battalion absorbed the 5th, 6th, and 7th Reserve battalions. In February 1918 the battalion moved to Edinburgh and in September moved to Dreghorn Barracks, Kilmarnock, Scotland were they were assigned to the Forth Garrison and finally disbanded in November.
In 1920 the Territorial Force was subsumed by the new larger Territorial Army (TA). As a result of the reformation of the TA, the new 4th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (TA) was formed in Aberdeen and given the regular four company establishment. In 1939 following the previous year's Munich Crisis, two years of political turmoil was bringing great pressure on the War Office to expand the size of the armed forces. As a result of the War Office's announcement to double the TA, the battalion formed the 8th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (TA) also based in Aberdeen. After expanding, the battalion was reorganised and re-equipped as a machine-gun battalion along with the duplicate doing so also. After their reorganisation, the battalion was organised as follows;
- Battalion Headquarters
- Medical Platoon, Royal Army Medical Corps
- Headquarters Company
- A Company
- Company Headquarters
- 1st Machine-Gun Platoon (x2 Sections & HQ)
- 2nd Machine-Gun Platoon (same as above)
- 3rd Machine-Gun Platoon (same as above)
- B Company (same as above)
- C Company (same as above)
- D Company (same as above)
World War II
4th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion
When general mobilisation and the subsequent declaration of war was announced following the Invasion of Poland on 3 September 1939, the battalion was consolidated at the Woolmanhill Drill Hall, Aberdeen and equipped as a MG battalion (see above).
In early 1940 the battalion moved to France with the British Expeditionary Force where they were assigned to GHQ, BEF as one of the 14 MG battalions. When the German invasion began, known as the Battle of France, the battalion was assigned to the 1st Infantry Division as the divisional MG battalion. The battalion later deployed along with the division to defence the Escaut Line also known as the Fortified Sector of the Escaut.
The BEF and in-fact the government had believed, as they had in the previous war, that the Germans would move through the Low Countries which was how the French fortifications of the Maginot Line were designated to move them into confrontation in the north. One thing the French didn't expect, or the British for that matter, was that the Germans would move through the heavily wooded Ardennes region. When the Germans did the armies were so surprised they took almost a week to move to their new positions in the Aisne and other eastern provinces of France.
During the initial invasion, the battalion was in the area of western Belgium, and forced to retreat after the German's astonishing speed. The battalion's casualties amounted to around the strength of a company and were forced to move to Dunkirk and evacuate where it was reorganised and re-equipped. During this period, unlike its regular 'rifle infantry' counterparts, the battalion had not support company, and therefore had no AT, mortar, carrier (transport), or pioneer platoons
When the battalion returned to Aberdeen, Scotland in late 1940 they were significantly under-strength and in need of urgent reinforcements. As a result of their low strength the battalion was slated for home defence and protect the Aberdeen coast area. The battalion was assigned to the East Scotland District, Highland Area, Scottish Command as one of the home defence MG battalions in the area.
92nd (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
In November 1941 the battalion was converted to the anti-tank role and subsequently moved under command of the Royal Artillery's AT branch and named the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank (AT) Regiment, Royal Artillery (RA) while still being based in Aberdeen. Following their consolidation and re-quipping, the regiment was assigned to GHQ Home Forces.
Two years after formation, on 11 November 1943 the division was assigned to the specially formed 9th Armoured Division as the divisional anti-tank regiment, and tasked with defending the coast of; North East England, Southern Scottish Coast, and the Eastern Scottish Coast. The battalion returned to command of Home Forces in July 1944.
On 20 October 1944 the regiment was assigned to the 2nd line territorial division, the 61st Infantry Division as the divisional anti-tank regiment. Finally, on 15 June 1945 the regiment was assigned again to Home Forces and demobilised in September. Finally, in 1946 the regiment was placed in suspended animation.
8th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion
When the TA was duplicated in early 1939, the 4th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion formed a duplicate battalion, which became the 8th (City of Aberdeen) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (TA) and was organised as a machine gun battalion like its parent battalion. (see above for organisation) When the army was mobilised on 3 September 1939, the battalion was consolidated in Aberdeen and assigned to home defence duties. In November 1941, the battalion was converted to the anti-tank role and designated as an 'AT regiment'.
100th (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
The 100th (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (TA) was formed in November 1941 and assigned to the 76th Infantry Division as the divisional anti-tank regiment. On 19 January 1941 the regiment officially joined the division. On 9 November 1941 the regiment was reassigned to Home Forces and in March 1943 sailed to India where it joined the regular 2nd Infantry Division which was fighting in the East Indian Campaign.
On 30 November 1943 the regiment was redesignated as the 100th (Gordon Highlanders) Light Anti-Aircraft/Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (TA) and equipped accordingly. After converting, the regiment lost two batteries to the 122nd (Royal Warwickshire) Light Anti-Aircraft/Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery. After this reorganisation, the regiment was organised as follows;
- Regimental Headquarters
- Headquarters Battery
- 169th ATK Battery
- 170th ATK Battery
- 401st Light AA Battery
- 525th Light AA Battery
In May 1944 the regiment took part in the Battle of Kohima and continued through Burma when they were re-titled as the 100th (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (TA) again. Finally in September 1945 the regiment was demobilised, and the next year was placed in suspended animation, and disbanded the next year in 1947.
In 1947 when the TA was reformed, the 4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (TA) was reformed and concurrently amalgamated with the 7th (Mar and Means) Battalion which had reformed and concurrently amalgamated as well. After formation, the battalion joined the 153rd (Highland) Infantry Brigade. Finally, in 1961 following the reductions to the TA following the 1957 Defence White Paper, the battalion was amalgamated with the 5th/6th (Banff, Buchan, and Donside) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders to form the 3rd (Territorial) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders.
The 3rd (T) Btn was later disbanded in 1967 following the disbandment of the Territorial Army and consequent reformation of it as the Territorial Army and Volunteer Reserve. Today the battalion's lineage is continued in No.3 Rifle Platoon, B Company, 7th (51st Highland) Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Scotland (V) based in Aberdeen.
Honorary Colonels included;
1914 Honorary Colonel Colonel Simon Joseph Fraser, 14th Lord Lovat and 3rd Baron Lovat, KCVO, CB, DSO
Commanding officers of the battalion included;
- 1860–1862 Lieutenant Colonel Napier Turner Christie
- 1862–1870 Lieutenant Colonel Henry Knight-Erskine of Pittodire
- 1870–1890 Honorary Colonel William Jopp
- 1890–1900 Honorary Colonel Douglass Duncan, VD
- 1900–1904 Honorary Colonel George Cruden, VD
- 1904–1906 Honorary Colonel Lachlan Mackinnon, VD
- 1906 and 1914, Honorary Colonel D B D Stewart, VD
- 1940, Colonel Alexander Milne, OBE, TD, DL
- Westlake, Rifle Volunteers, Location 223 of 7286
- Reid, pp. 51-2
- Moncrieff, pp. 286–90
- Moncrieff, p. 83
- Sinclair, p. 195
- Sinclair, p. 196
- Reid, p. 32
- Reid, p. 60
- Gordon Highlanders Volunteer Force
- Westlake, The Territorials, p. 22
- Westlake, The Territorials, Introduction
- Westlake, British Territorial Units, pp. 3-4
- Monthly Army List, July 1914
- Westlake, The Territorials, p. 66
- Westlake, British Territorial Units, p. 8
- Westlake, British Territorial Units, p. 10
- Westlake, British Territorial Units 1914-1918, p. 13
- Gordon Highlanders at The Long, Long Trail
- Gudmundsson, p. 35
- Nalder, p. 56
- Gudmundsson, p. 99
- Becke, pp. 52-5
- Westlake, British Territorial Units 1914-1918, pp. 23-4
- Westlake, British Territorial Units 1914-1918, pp. 17-8
- 4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders at The Wartime Memories Project
- 4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders at the Army Service Numbers 1881-1918
- Diary of the 1/4th Battalion (TF), Gordon Highlanders at 4thGordons.com
- T.F. Mills, The Gordon Highlanders at Land Forces of Britain, The Empire, and Commonwealth, Archived on 28 December 2007 from the Wayback Machine
- 4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, WW1 Troop Movements and ORBATS for Gordon Highlanders, at the Forces War Records
- Nalder, p. 63
- Watson & Rinaldi, p. 153
- 2/4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, WW1 Troop Movements and ORBATS for Gordon Highlanders, at the Forces War Records
- T.F. Mills, 4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders at Land Forces of Britain, The Empire, and Commonwealth, Archived on 2 December 2007 from the Wayback Machine
- Dr Leo Niehorster, Highland Area, Scottish Command Structure on 3 September 1939 at World War II Armed Forces - Orders of Battle and Organisations
- Dr. Leo Niehorster, Infantry (Machine Gun) Battalion at World War II Armed Forces - Orders of Battle and Organisations
- Highland Area Structure in 1939 at British Military History
- G.H.Q. Troops Order of Battle, British Expeditionary Force in 1940 at British Military History
- Joslen, p. 462
- Nalder, pp. 268-70
- Brayley, The British Army 1939-45 (1) North-West Europe, pp. 5-6
- Major L. F. Ellis, The War in France and Flanders, Chapter IV, Withdrawl to the Escaut (16 May to 19th May 1940),
- Brayley, The British Army 1939-45 (1) North-West Europe, pp. 18-9
- Pettibone, p. 189
- Joslen, p. 89
- Anti-Tank Regiments at British Artillery in World War 2
- Litchfield, p. 272
- 92 (Gordon Highlanders) Anti Tank Regiment at Royal Artillery 1939-1945, Archived on 23 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Joslen, p. 23
- Joslen, p. 95
- 100 (Gordon Highlanders) LAA/ATk Rgt RA (TA), Archived on 7 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- 100 (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank Regiment RA (TA) at Royal Artillery from 1939-1945, Archived on 23 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Alan Young, Territorial Army - Infantry, Gordon Highlanders at British Army units from 1945 on
- Alan Young, Territorial Army - Infantry, Highland Regiment at British Army units from 1945 on
- Alan Young, Territorial Army - Infantry, Highland Volunteers at British Army units from 1945 on
- The Gordon Highlanders Museum, Outbreak 80
- Gordon Highlanders
- 3rd (Territorial) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders
- Ray Westlake, Tracing the Rifle Volunteers 1859–1908 A Guide for Military and Family Historians, Pen & Sword Family History, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, ISBN 9781844686940
- Stuart Reid, Queen Victoria's Highlanders, Men-at-Arms Series, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom, ISBN 978-1-84603-223-3
- Ray Westlake, The Territorials 1908–1914 A Guide for Military and Family Historians, Pen & Sword Books Limited, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, ISBN 184884360-7
- Ray Westlake, British Territorial Units 1914–1918, Men-at-Arms Series, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom, ISBN 978-1-85532-168-7
- Andrew Rawson, The British Army 1914-1918, RefineCatch Limited, Bungay, Suffolk, ISBN 978-0-7509-5865-3
- Richard A. Rinaldi, Order of Battle of the British Army 1914, Tiger Lilly Books a division of General Data LLC, ISBN 0-9776072-8-3
- Bruce I Gudmundsson, The British Army on the Western Front 1916, Battle Orders series, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom, ISBN 978-174603-111-3
- Major Archibald F. Becke, Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 1, The Regular British Divisions, The Naval and Military Press Ltd, Uckfield, East Sussex, United Kingdom, ISBN 1-847347-38-X
- Major General Reginald Francis Heaton Nalder, CB, OBE, The Royal Corps of Signals, A History of its Antecendents and Development (circa 1800–1955), Royal Signals Institution, London, ISBN 978-0950121826
- Norman E. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms, and Badges), The Sherwood Press, Nottingham, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0
- Martin Brayley, The British Army 1939–45 (1) North-West Europe, Men-at-Arms Series, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom, ISBN 978-1-84176-052-0
- Lieutenant Colonel H. F. Joslen, Orders of Battle Second World War 1939–1945, Reprinted by permission of Her Majesty's Stationary Office, Westminster, London, ISBN 9781843424741
- Charles D. Pettibone, The Organisation and Order of Battle of Militaries in World War II, Volume II - The British Commonwealth, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, British Columbia, ISBN 141208567-5
- Graham E. Watson & Richard A. Rinaldi, The British Army in Germany: (BAOR and After): an Organisational History 1947-2004, Tiger Lilly Publications LLC, ISBN 0-9720296-9-9
- Major General James Moncrieff Grierson, CVO, CB, CMG, Records of the Scottish Volunteer Force 1859-1908, William Blackwood and Sons Edinburgh and London, 1909, Archived by the University of California in 2008.
- Donald Sinclair, The History of the Aberdeen Volunteers, Aberdeen Daily Journal Office, Aberdeen, 1907, Archived from the New York Public Library in 2008.
- Forces War Records, Unit History: Gordon Highlanders
- Forces War Records, WW1 Troop Movements and ORBATS for Gordon Highlanders (4th Battalion)
- T.F. Mills, 4th Battalion, The Gordon Highlanders, Archived on 2 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- London Gazette, Published by Authority 20 March 1908, the Territorial Force. Published on 20 March 1908, Supplement 28121
- Army Lists (1839-1946), The National Library of Scotland
- The Gordon Highlanders and the Volunteer Force (link is broken, open in the Wayback Machine)