|Designer||Colonel Virginius E. Clark|
|Primary users|| United States Army Air Service|
United States Navy
U.S. Army National Guard
|Unit cost|| |
|Developed into||Consolidated PT-3|
Design and developmentEdit
In 1921, Colonel Virginius Clark, chief designer of the Dayton-Wright Company, designed the Chummy sporting biplane. The airframe was advanced in its use of the new Clark Y airfoil thick-section aerofoil and a welded fuselage framework of chrome-molybdenum steel tubing. A departure from the all-wood structures found in other trainers, the structure proved sturdy and dependable. It was offered to the US Army Air Service as a replacement for the Curtiss JN-4D trainer, with a choice of Le Rhone or Clerget rotary piston engines. In 1922, the Army ordered three TA-3 (Trainer, Air-cooled, Type 3) machines for evaluation with the Le Rhone engine and dual controls. Evaluation showed that the type had the makings of a good trainer, but was somewhat lacking in power, so in 1923 Dayton-Wright re-engined one TA-3 with a more powerful 110 hp (82 kW) Le Rhone.
The USAAS then ordered 10 examples of this up-engined model, and these were the last US Army aircraft to be delivered with a rotary-engine. Appreciating this type of powerplant had passed its development peak, the USAAS then contracted for three examples of the TW-3 (Trainer, Watercooled, Type 3) with a 150 hp (112 kW) Wright-Hispano I V8. The revised type clearly had greater long-term potential, and in June 1923 the USAAS contracted for 20 TW-3 production aircraft, together with enough spare parts for the construction of another three aircraft. At this time the General Motors Corporation was thinking of pulling out of the aircraft business and closing its Dayton-Wright subsidiary, so Reuben Fleet of the Gallaudet company secured rights to the Dayton-Wright trainer design. When Gallaudet shareholders expressed disapproval at this move, Fleet left the company and established the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation.
It was to this new company the TW-3 order went, and all the aircraft were delivered by the end of 1923 with the uprated powerplant of one Wright-Hispano E (licence-built Hispano-Suiza 8) engine. Once the aircraft had entered service, Fleet continued to improve the TW-3, the most important change being the removal of the engine cowling to improve the occupants' forward and downward fields of vision. Visibility was still poor, so Fleet secured US Army permission to rebuild one TW-3 with a new, slimmer fuselage, providing tandem rather than side-by-side seating. This revised aircraft was generally known as the 'Camel' due to the hump between its two cockpits.
The 'Camel' may be regarded as the prototype of the Consolidated response to the USAAS's 1924 requirement for a new primary trainer. In the early summer of 1924, the USAAS tested a prototype unofficially designated TW-8 and placed an order for 50 examples of the Consolidated Model 1 production variant for service with the designation PT-1. Early production models had flat dorsal turtledecks, soon replaced by a faired version, and some of the first ones were likely built at the Gallaudet plant in Norwich before production began at Buffalo. The first 171 of the 221 produced used a streamlined nose radiator, the remainder used the unfaired installation. One PT-1 airframe was completed as XPT-2 with a 220 hp (164 kW) Wright J-5 radial engine.
The PT-1 became the first training airplane purchased by the Army Air Service in substantial quantity following World War I. Aviation cadets in Texas and California flew it extensively during the late 1920s and early 1930s. It acquired the nickname 'Trusty' for their excellent ability to make a quick and effective recovery from a spin. Easy to fly, the Trusty made some students overconfident, and they received a shock when they advanced to faster airplanes with more difficult handling characteristics. The 'Trusty' was commonly flown without its cowlings in an effort to prevent overheating
Whereas the TW-3 had supplemented the JN-4D, the PT-1 supplanted this wholly obsolescent type and was responsible for a radical improvement in the safety record of US Army pilot training. One of the aircraft was diverted to the US Navy for trials, and four other generally similar aircraft were delivered to Siam in 1928. From 1928 the PT-1 was replaced in front-line service by the Consolidated PT-3, but then became a valuable implement in the National Guard flying programme until retired in the early 1930s.
- Dayton-Wright (Trainer, Air-cooled type 3), 13 built, 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhone C-9 engine wingspan 30 ft 11 in (9.4 m), Length 22 ft 7 in (6.9 m), gross weight 1,753 lb (795 kg)
- Single TA-3 with Lawrance J-1 engine used for tests of a single-wheel landing gear arrangement in 1923.
- Dayton-Wright (Trainer, Water-cooled type 3), 2 built, 150 hp (112-kW) Wright-Hispano I engine wingspan 34 ft 9 in (10.6 m), Length 25 ft 7 in (7.8 m), gross weight 2,447 lb (1019 kg)
- Consolidated (Trainer, Water-cooled type 3), 20 built, 180 hp (134 kW) Wright-Hispano E engine wingspan 34 ft 9 in (10.6 m), Length 26 ft 9 in (8.1 m), gross weight 2,407 lb (1,092 kg)
- Consolidated (Primary Trainer number 1), 221 built, 180 hp (134 kW) Wright-Hispano E (V-720) engine
- PT-1 with 225 hp (168 kW) Wright R-790 (J-5) engine, wingspan 34 ft 7 in (10.5 m), Length 28 ft 4 in (8.6 m), gross weight 2,427 lb (1,100 kg)
- PT-1 "Trusty" (s/n 26-233) is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. It was obtained from The Ohio State University in 1957.
- PT-1/PT-3 A PT-1 that once flew with the 154th Observation Squadron of the Arkansas National Guard, and later owned by the University of Arkansas College of Engineering was rebuilt with a J-5 Engine used on PT-3 models is on display at the EAA AirVenture Museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin.
Data from Eden & Moeng (2002)General characteristics
- Crew: 2
- Length: 27 ft 9.25 in (8.46 m)
- Wingspan: 34 ft 5.5 in (10.5 m)
- Height: 9 ft 10 in (3 m)
- Wing area: 284 ft² (26.387 m²)
- Airfoil: Clark Y thick-section
- Empty weight: 1,805 lb (819 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 2,577 lb (1,169 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Wright-Hispano E eight-cylinder water-cooled Vee, 180 hp (134 kW)
- Maximum speed: 92 mph at sea level (148 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 79 mph at optimum altitude (127 km/h)
- Range: 350 mi (563 km)
- Service ceiling: 13,450 ft (4,099 m)
- Rate of climb: 690 ft/min (210 m/min)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Eden, Paul; Moeng, Soph (2002). "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". London: Amber Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-3432-2. http://books.google.com/?id=6xMYAAAACAAJ.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Swanborough, F. G.; Bowers, Peter M. (1964). "United States Military Aircraft Since 1909". New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-816-X. http://books.google.com/?id=3QZUAAAAMAAJ&q=PT-1.
- ↑ Alley, William (2006). "Pearson Field". New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-7385-3129-4.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Fahey, James Charles (1946). "U.S. Army Aircraft (heavier-than-air) 1908-1946". Ships and Aircraft. http://books.google.com/?id=0mghAAAAMAAJ.
- ↑ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 16.
- ↑ "CONSOLIDATED PT-1/PT-3 HUSKY – N31PT". http://museum.eaa.org/collection/aircraft/Consolidated%20PT-1_PT-3%20Husky.asp#TopOfPage. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- "United States Air Force Museum". Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975.
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