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F9C Sparrowhawk
F9C Sparrowhawk.jpg
F9C Sparrowhawk BuNo 9058 in flight over Moffett Field, California in 1934. This aircraft was lost with the USS Macon. Pilot in this photo is Lt. Harold B. Miller, commander of the Heavier-Than-Air Unit.[1]
Role Parasite fighter
Manufacturer Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
First flight 12 February 1931
Introduction 1931
Retired 1937
Status Retired
Primary user United States Navy
Number built 7[citation needed]

The Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk was a light 1930s biplane fighter aircraft that was carried by the United States Navy airships USS Akron and Macon.

DesignEdit

The Sparrowhawk is an example of a parasite fighter, a small airplane designed to be deployed from a larger aircraft such as an airship or bomber. At 20 ft (6.1 m) long and with only a 25 ft (7.6 m) wingspan, the Sparrowhawk was ideal for service in the fighter complement of large rigid-framed airships because of its small size. Although the Sparrowhawk was armed, its primary duty was reconnaissance, and it provided the airships it served with a much wider search area. Akron was reported to have a complement of three Sparrowhawks, while Macon was discovered at its underwater resting place with four in its hangar.

To achieve launching and recovery from the airship, a hook/anchor system was developed (dubbed by crews the "flying trapeze," after the equipment used in circus acts). The Sparrowhawk had a hook mounting on its top wing that attached to the cross-bar of the trapeze. For launching, the biplane's hook was engaged on the trapeze inside the (internal) hangar, the trapeze was lowered clear of the hull into the (moving) airship's slipstream and, engine running, the Sparrowhawk would then disengage its hook and fall away from the airship. For recovery, the biplane would fly up underneath its mother ship, moving slightly faster than the airship, and in a somewhat tricky maneuver hook onto the trapeze; the width of the trapeze cross-bar allowed a certain lateral lee-way in approach, the biplane's hook mounting had a guide rail to provide some tolerance against relative vertical motion (see photo), and engagement of the hook was automatic on positive contact between hook and trapeze. More than one attempt might have to be made before a successful engagement was achieved, for example in gusty conditions. Once the Sparrowhawk was securely caught, its engine could be safely cut and it could then be hoisted by the trapeze back within the airship's hull.

One interesting use of the Sparrowhawks was to act as "flying ballast". The airship could take off with additional ballast or fuel aboard instead of its airplanes. Once the airship was cruising, the aircraft would be flown aboard, the additional weight being supported by dynamic lift until the airship lightened.[citation needed]

In order to increase their scouting range while the airship was on operations, some Sparrowhawks were modified by having their landing gear removed and replaced by a fuel tank. When the airship was returning to base, the biplanes' landing gear would be replaced so that they could land independently again.

Only one Sparrowhawk survives today. XF9C-2 Bu.Aer A9264 was previously displayed at the National Museum of Naval Aviation and is currently displayed at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, wearing the markings of F9C-2 A9056 of USS Macon.[2]

VariantsEdit

Curtiss XF9C-2 Sparrowhawk

The XF9C-2

XF9C-1
First prototype.
XF9C-2
Second prototpe.
F9C-3 Sparrowhawk
Single-seat fighter biplane.

OperatorsEdit

United States

Specifications (F9C-2)Edit

USS Macon plane-edited

Macon's F9C-2 biplane is preserved at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 21.08 ft (6.27 m)
  • Wingspan: 25.5 ft (7.75 m)
  • Height: 10.92 ft (3.34 m)
  • Wing area: 185 ft² (16.1 m²)
  • Empty weight: 2,114 lb (959 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,776 lb (1,259 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-975-E3 radial engine, 415 hp (310 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 176 mph (153 knots, 283 km/h)
  • Range: 297 mi (258 nmi, 475 km)
  • Service ceiling: 19,200 ft (5,853 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,690 ft/min (8.6 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 15 lb/ft² (78 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.15 hp/lb (240 W/kg)</ul>Armament
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See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Larkins, William T., "U.S. Navy Aircraft 1921-1941", Orion Books, New York, 1988, Library of Congress card no. 88-17753, ISBN 0-517-56920-5, p. 152.
  2. http://www.aero-web.org/specs/curtiss/f9c-2.htm

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

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