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The following directory lists and provides links to articles about the Troubles.

Main articles[edit | edit source]

Paramilitaries[edit | edit source]

Anti-terrorist laws in both Ireland and the UK proscribe (ban) membership of a number of republican and loyalist groups organised in Northern Ireland. Several other smaller paramilitary factions have appeared throughout the Troubles as well as cover-names used to deflect responsibility for attacks.

Note: In this context, operational refers to the period during which the 'official' paramilitary campaign was conducted.

Republicans[edit | edit source]

Name Initials Operational
Saor Éire 1967–1975
Provisional Irish Republican Army PIRA 1970–2005
Official Irish Republican Army OIRA 1970–1972
Irish National Liberation Army INLA 1974–2009
Irish People's Liberation Organisation IPLO 1986–1992
Continuity Irish Republican Army CIRA 1994–
Real Irish Republican Army RIRA 1997–
Óglaigh na hÉireann (Real IRA splinter group) ONH 2009-

Umbrella groups

Loyalists[edit | edit source]

Name Initials Operational
Ulster Protestant Volunteers UPV 1966–1969
Ulster Volunteer Force
Red Hand Commando
Ulster Defence Association
Ulster Freedom Fighters
Ulster Resistance UR 1986–?
Loyalist Volunteer Force LVF 1996–2005
Orange Volunteers OV 1998–
Red Hand Defenders RHD 1998–

Umbrella groups

In the table below:

  • The period of activity for republican groups is shown in green.
  • The period of activity for loyalist groups is shown in orange.
  • The period of ceasefire is shown in grey.
Group Year
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
Provisional IRA
Official IRA
Continuity IRA
Real IRA

State security forces[edit | edit source]

United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

Northern Ireland[edit | edit source]

Republic of Ireland[edit | edit source]

Political parties[edit | edit source]

Listing includes brief summary of ideology and position on the Good Friday Agreement 1998.

Irish Nationalist/Republican[edit | edit source]

Ulster Unionist/Loyalist[edit | edit source]

  • The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). Leader: Peter Robinson. Radical populist unionist. Originally anti-Agreement; now pro-Agreement.
  • The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). Leader: Tom Elliott. Moderate conservative unionist. Pro-Agreement.
  • The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP). Leader: Brian Ervine. Moderate centre-left unionist. Political wing of Ulster Volunteer Force. Pro-Agreement.
  • The Conservative Party also organises and contests elections in Northern Ireland. Moderate unionist. Pro-Agreement.

Other[edit | edit source]

Political structures[edit | edit source]

Northern Ireland government[edit | edit source]



Northern Ireland legislatures[edit | edit source]

The Parliament of Northern Ireland:



  • The Northern Ireland Assembly

Republic of Ireland government[edit | edit source]

United Kingdom government[edit | edit source]

Peace process[edit | edit source]

Co-operative bodies[edit | edit source]

Key steps in the peace process[edit | edit source]

Cultural and religious organisations[edit | edit source]

Nationalist[edit | edit source]

Unionist[edit | edit source]

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