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Darya Khan
دوله دريا خان
Regent of the Samma Ruler

In office
1508–1512
Monarch Jam Feroz
Personal details
Born Qaboolo or (Qabool Muhammad) Sayed
Died 1521
Sindh, Samma Dynasty
Children Mahmud Khan, Motan khan
Religion Islam
Military service
Years of service 1490-1521
Commands Samma Army
Battles/wars Battle of Jalwakhir
Battle of Fatehpur

Mubarak Khan or more popular as Darya Khan was a famous general of Samma Dynasty of Sindh, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of Samma ruler Jam Feroz whose deeds of valour are sung all over Sindh to this day.
Darya Khan was adopted son of Jam Nizamuddin II who defeated the Argun army in the Battle of Jalwakhir near Bibi Nani in the Bolan Pass.This victory made Darya Khan, the 'Dollah' (Hero) of Sindh.On his deathbed, Jam Nizamuddin,entrusted to Darya Khan the care of his kingdom,of his treasures,his family, and his son Jam Feroz.
Darya Khan was killed while fighting bravely in the Battle of Fatehpur when an arrow hit him in throat on 21 December 1521 A.D. and thus ended the reign of Jam Feroz as an independent ruler.

Early life[]

Darya Khan was a slave of Diwan Lakhidar and was adopted as son by Jam Nizamuddin. His real name was Qaboolo (or Qabool Muhammad) Syed. He rose to become Madarul-Muham (Prime Minister) and was titled as Mubarak Khan.

Military Service[]

In the days of Mongol, Sultan Hussain Mirza Baiqra, of Khurasan, on complaints of the merchants of Central Asia (Herat and Qandhar), that they were looted by Sir.dhis, the Sultan sent armed expedition to Sind border, which after ir itial raids returned back to their country. A declaration of victory was issued in Herat in 892 A.H. (1487 A.D.).It states that the infidels (Sindhis) having come to know of Mongol movements,collected a large army and wanted to make a surprise attack but the Islamic forces (Mongols) came to know of it and made offensive attacks, killing many of these Hindus (forces of Jam Nizamuddin). As a result of this success declaration of victory was issued. This may have been an attack on Sirdh border without any results. Amir Zul Noon Arghoon, then was Herat s Naib at Qan.dh.ar. He seems to have despatched his son Shah Beg on this expedition.The latter captured the Sibi Fort from Jam Nizamuddin's agent Bahadur Khan and installed his brother Sultan Mohammad, who later on was defeated ard killed by Mubarak Khan (Darya Khan Dullah) near Jalwagir in Bolan Pass, close to Bibi Nani. After this incident the Mongols did not turn up in Sindh during the life of Jam Nizamuddin. Mongol troops had advanced as far as Chanduka, Sardecha and Kot Machhi, but after being expelled by Darya Khan,they never turned back ' during Jam Nizamuddin's life time. Death of Jam Nizamuddin Samma after 48 years rule of Sind and was succeeded by his son Nasiruddin Abul Fatah Feroz Shah-II. At that time Jam Feroz had neglected the affairs of the state, refused the advice of Darya Khan, who had to retire to his Jagir in the village Ghaha (Kahan near Sehwan and these failures brought his defeat at the hands of Salahuduin who thus became the ruler of Sind. Feroz Shah along with his mother Madina Machhani went over to Ghaha to Darya Khan, who at the request of Madina agreed to help, collected troops from Sehwan, but got the first set-back at the hands ot Haji, the Minister of Jam Salahuddin. As luck would have it the Minister's letter about the success of the initial battle addressed to Jam Salahuddin fell in the hands of Darya Khan, who had it replaced, conveying Salahuddin that the Minister's forces had been defeated and it was advisable for him to abandon Thatta. This was quickly done. Darya Khan then moved Feroz Shah to Thatta and installed him on 1st Shawwal, 918 A.H. (1512 A D. 12 October). Salahuddin then returned to Gujarat. He had remained in ossession of Thatta for about eight months and must have collected a large sum of money from Thatta and organized another battle.

Last days of Darya Khan[]

There are different versions about the last days of his life. Tahiri states:

that the courtiers being jealous of his power and position persuaded Feroz Shah to crush him, but the latter finding himself incapable avoided any direct conflict; so they approached Feroz 's mother Madina Machhani advising her to invite the Mongols and Arghuns to free Sindh from the power of Darya Khan. According to this plan Madina invited Shah Beg from Qandahar. Shah Beg took Baghban-Sehwan route and encountered Darya Khan near 'Khan Wan' canal which he had himself built to irrigate the lands of village Sankorah (Sakro) and other areas (of Thatta and Sakro Talukas). Darya Khan was killed while fighting bravely, when an arrow hit him in the throat. Feroz Shah kept aloof.[1]


Masumi on the other hand reports:

Some Mongols had migrated to Thatta,and entered the service of Jam Feroz who had assigned a separate quarter to them called Mongol Pura. One Mir Qasim Kaibakian Arghoon encouraged and induced Shah Beg to undertake the conquest of Thatta and, therefore, Shah Beg made reparations, and was first opposed near Talhati (Talti) by Matan Khan (Motann Khan) son of Darya Khan, but avoiding them Shah Beg reached Khanwah located 6 miles north of the city of Thatta , crossed the river at a point where it was shallow and reached near Thatta. Darya Khan left Feroz Shah in the city and came out to fight a fierce battle, which he lost, and was captured by Tingari Birdi Qabtasal and put to sword along with the other Samma soldiers. Jam Feroz took to flight.

Beglar Nama states that:

he was captured and killed.

Zafar-ul-Walih states:

he was called by the Arghoons to discuss the terms of peace and treacherously murdered.

Shrine of Darya Khan[]

An inscription at the north oi Mubarak Khan's grave calls him Al Khanul Azam Wa Shahid Mubarak Khan Ibn Sultan Nizamuddin.

References[]

  1. Channa Mahboob Ali, Mehran, Vol.41, No. 4, 1964, pp. 131-32.

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