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A2D Skyshark
A2D Skyshark.jpg
Role Attack aircraft
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
First flight March 26, 1950
Status Cancelled
Primary user United States Navy
Number built 12 (4 never flew)
Developed from A-1 Skyraider

The Douglas A2D Skyshark was a turboprop-powered attack aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company for the United States Navy.

Design and developmentEdit

On 25 June 1945, Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) asked Douglas Aircraft for a turbine-powered, propeller-driven aircraft.[1] Three proposals were put forth in the next year and a half: the D-557A, to use two General Electric TG-100s in wing nacelles; the D-557B, the same engine, with contra-props; and the D-557C, to use the Westinghouse 25D.[1] These were cancelled, due to engine development difficulties, but BuAer continued to seek an answer to thirsty jets.[1]

On 11 June 1947,[1] Douglas got the Navy's letter of intent for a carrier-based turboprop. The need to operate from Casablanca-class escort carriers dictated the use of a turboprop instead of jet power.[2] The advantages of turboprop engines over pistons was in power-to-weight ratio and the maximum power that could be generated practically. The advantage over jets was that a turboprop ran at near full RPM all the time, and thrust could be quickly generated by simply changing the propeller pitch.

Douglas A2D-1 in flight 1954

A production A2D-1 in flight.

While resembling the AD Skyraider, the A2D was an entirely different airplane, as it had to be, the Allison XT-40-A2 at 5,100 hp (3,800 kW)[3] having more than double the horsepower of the Skyraider's R3350.[3] Wing root thickness decreased, from 17% to 12%, while both the height of the tail and its area grew.[3] Engine development problems delayed the first flight until 26 May 1950, made at Muroc by George Jansen.[3]

Allison failed to deliver a "production" engine until 1953, and while testing an XA2D with that engine, test pilot C. G. "Doc" Livingston pulled out of a dive and was surprised by a loud noise and pitch up. His windscreen was covered with oil and the chase pilot told Livingston that the propellers were gone. The gearbox had failed. Livingston successfully landed the airplane.

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By the summer of 1954, the A4D was ready to fly. The escort carriers were being mothballed, and time had run out for the troubled A2D program.[4]

Due largely to the failure of the T40 program to produce a reliable engine, the Skyshark never entered operational service. Twelve Skysharks were built. Most were scrapped or destroyed in accidents, and only one is believed to have survived.

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Aircraft on displayEdit

  • A2D Skyshark, bureau number 125485, is on display at the airport in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It was restored for static display by Pacific Fighters.[5]

Specifications (XA2D-1)Edit

Douglas A2D Standard Aircraft Characteristics

Drawings for the A2D-1.

Data from Encyclopedia of American Aircraft[6]

General characteristics
  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 41 ft 3 in (12.58 m)
  • Wingspan: 50 ft 0 in (15.24 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 1 in (3.68 m)
  • Wing area: 400 ft² (37 m²)
  • Empty weight: 12,900 lb (5,864 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 18,700 lb (8,500 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 22,960 lb (10,436 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Allison XT40-A-2 turboprop, 5,100 shp (3,800 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 435 kn (501 mph, 813 km/h)
  • Range: 1,900 nmi (2,200 mi, 3,520 km)
  • Service ceiling: 48,100 ft (14,664 m)
  • Rate of climb: 7,290 ft/min (37 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 47 lb/ft² (230 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.27 hp/lb (440 W/kg)</ul>Armament
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See alsoEdit

Skyshark IFA

A2D Skyshark on static display at Idaho Falls Regional Airport.

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Francillon 1979, p. 472.
  2. Heinemann and Rausa 1980, p. 177.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Francillon 1979, p.473.
  4. Heinemann and Rausa 1980, p. 183.
  5. "A2D Skyshark/125485." Airliners.net. Retrieved: 13 December 2012.
  6. Baugher, Joe (2001-10-24). "Douglas XA2D-1 Skyshark". Encyclopedia of American Aircraft. http://www.joebaugher.com/usattack/a2d.html. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 

BibliographyEdit

  • Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920. London:Putnam, 1979. ISBN 0-370-00050-1.
  • Heinemann, Edward, H. and Rausa, Rosario. Combat Aircraft Designer. London: Jane's Publishing Co., 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0040-2.
  • Markgraf, Gerry. Douglas Skyshark, A2D Turbo-Prop Attack (Naval Fighters Number Forty-Three). Simi Valley, CA: Ginter Books, 1997. ISBN 0-942612-43-4.
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External linksEdit

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