Portrait by Stephen Pearce, c. 1859
|Born||February 27, 1799|
|Died||March 18, 1877(aged 78)|
|Place of birth||Halifax, Nova Scotia|
|Place of death||London, England|
|Allegiance||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|Battles/wars||First Anglo-Chinese War|
Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, KCB (27 February 1799 – 18 March 1877), was a Nova Scotian, British naval officer and explorer. He was the great-grandson of Governor Jonathan Belcher. His wife, Diana Jolliffe, was the stepdaughter of Captain Peter Heywood.
Belcher was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the second son of Andrew Belcher and entered the Royal Navy in 1812.
In 1825, he accompanied Frederick William Beechey's expedition to the Pacific and Bering Strait, as a surveyor. He subsequently commanded a surveying ship on the north and west coasts of Africa and in the British seas. Belcher married Diana Jolliffe in 1833 and three years thereafter took up the work which Beechey had left unfinished on the Pacific coast of South America. He was on board the bomb vessel HMS Sulphur, which was ordered to return to England in 1839 by the Trans-Pacific route. Belcher made various observations at a number of islands which he visited, was delayed by being despatched to take part in the war in China in 1840.
In 1841, the then Commander Belcher landed on Possession Point at the north shore Hong Kong Island and made the first British survey of Hong Kong harbour. After the war's end in 1842 he reached home and for his services was made a Knight Bachelor in the following year. He was then engaged in HMS Samarang, in surveying work in the East Indies, the Philippines, Geomun-do (Port Hamilton) and other places, until 1847.
In 1852 Belcher led the last and largest Admiralty expedition to rescue Sir John Franklin. He was also to look for Richard Collinson and Robert McClure whose ships had not been seen after entering the Bering Strait. He did a great deal of sledge exploration, rescued McClure and abandoned 4 of his 5 ships in the ice.
He had five ships: HMS Assistance (1850) (Belcher), HMS Resolute (1850) (Henry Kellett, second mate George Nares), the steam tenders HMS Pioneer (Sherard Osborn) and HMS Intrepid (Leopold McClintock) and the depot ship North Star (William Pullen). Belcher and one tender were to enter Wellington Channel where Franklin was thought to be while Kellett was to go west to Melville Island and look for Collinson and McClure. The North Star was to stay at Beechey Island as a supply base. He left the Nore in April 1850. By early winter the Assistance and Pioneer were frozen in at Northumberland Sound to the north of Wellington Channel while the Resolute and Intrepid were frozen in off Melville Island (Arctic)—the first ships this far west since William Edward Parry in 1819. A great deal of exploration was done by manhauled sledges. In April 1853 Leopold McClintock and others left the Resolute on sledges and returned 105 days later having covered 1,400 miles and discovered Prince Patrick Island. Another party went west and discovered Robert McClure whose ship was frozen in at Mercy Bay. Belcher went north by sledge and found a channel at the northern tip of Devon Island, hinting that Franklin might have used it to escape to Baffin Bay. When the ice broke up that summer he pushed his ships up Wellington Channel and became trapped again. By February 1854 Belcher was becoming increasingly worried about the safety of his ships and men. In April he ordered Kellett to abandon his ships and return by sledge to the North Star. Belcher abandoned his two ships in late July. Aided by two ships that showed up at Beechey Island (HMS Phoenix and Breadalbane), the whole party returned to England. Belcher went through a court martial, which was automatic for any captain who had lost a ship. He was exonerated, but his sword was returned to him 'without observation'. He never again received an active command. Curiously the Resolute broke free of the ice and drifted all the way to Davis Strait where it was picked up by an American whaler.
Following his last active service, he was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1867 and an admiral in 1872.
Belcher is commemorated in Hong Kong through Belcher's Street, Belcher Bay and The Belcher's in Kennedy Town. His name is also commemorated in the Belcher Islands, in the Canadian Arctic.
Edward Belcher published:
- Treatise on Nautical Surveying (1835)
- Narrative of a Voyage round the World performed in H.M.S. Sulphur, 1836-1842 (1843) (Volume 1, Volume 2)
- Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang during 1843-1846 (1848; the Zoology of the Voyage was separately dealt with by some of his colleagues, 1850)
- The Last of the Arctic Voyages (1855)
- other works include a novel, Horatio Howard Brenton (1856), a story of the navy.
- European and American voyages of scientific exploration
- Dod, Robert P. (1860). The Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Whitaker and Co.. pp. 112.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911) Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) Cambridge University Press
- Coleman, E. C. (2007). The Royal Navy and Polar exploration: from Franklin to Scott. Stroud: Tempus. (2007). The Royal Navy and Polar exploration.. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-4207-4.
- Alexander, C. (2003). The Bounty: the true story of the mutiny on the Bounty. New York: Viking. (2003). The Bounty : the true story of the mutiny on the Bounty. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03133-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edward Belcher.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
- Belcher's Arctic expedition and HMS Resolute
- Zoomable image of Belcher's Map of Hong Kong
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