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Enfilade fire, a gunfire directed against an enfiladed formation or position, is also commonly known as "flanking fire".<ref name=bellamy/> [[Raking fire]] is the equivalent term in [[naval warfare]]. [[Strafing]], firing on targets from a flying platform, is often done with enfilade fire.
 
Enfilade fire, a gunfire directed against an enfiladed formation or position, is also commonly known as "flanking fire".<ref name=bellamy/> [[Raking fire]] is the equivalent term in [[naval warfare]]. [[Strafing]], firing on targets from a flying platform, is often done with enfilade fire.
   
==Enfilade==
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== Enfilade ==
 
[[File:Juno Wounded 3.jpg|thumb|Top to bottom: a German bunker on [[Juno Beach]] with wounded Canadian soldiers, 6 June 1944. The same bunker in September, 2006. Finally, the view of bunker's enfilading field of fire with respect to the [[seawall]]]][[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-291-1230-13, Dieppe, Landungsversuch, tote alliierte Soldaten.jpg|thumb|right|The deadly result of enfilade fire during the [[Dieppe Raid]] of 1942: dead Canadian soldiers lie where they fell on "Blue Beach". Trapped between the beach and fortified sea wall, they made easy targets for [[MG 34]] machineguns in a German bunker. The bunker firing slit is visible in the distance, just above the German soldier's head]]
 
[[File:Juno Wounded 3.jpg|thumb|Top to bottom: a German bunker on [[Juno Beach]] with wounded Canadian soldiers, 6 June 1944. The same bunker in September, 2006. Finally, the view of bunker's enfilading field of fire with respect to the [[seawall]]]][[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-291-1230-13, Dieppe, Landungsversuch, tote alliierte Soldaten.jpg|thumb|right|The deadly result of enfilade fire during the [[Dieppe Raid]] of 1942: dead Canadian soldiers lie where they fell on "Blue Beach". Trapped between the beach and fortified sea wall, they made easy targets for [[MG 34]] machineguns in a German bunker. The bunker firing slit is visible in the distance, just above the German soldier's head]]
   
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Fire is delivered so that the long axis of the target coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the beaten zone.
 
Fire is delivered so that the long axis of the target coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the beaten zone.
   
==Defilade==
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== Defilade ==
   
 
A unit or position is "in defilade" if it uses natural or artificial obstacles to shield or conceal. For an [[armored fighting vehicle]] (AFV), defilade is synonymous with a [[hull-down]] or [[turret-down]] position.
 
A unit or position is "in defilade" if it uses natural or artificial obstacles to shield or conceal. For an [[armored fighting vehicle]] (AFV), defilade is synonymous with a [[hull-down]] or [[turret-down]] position.
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Artificial entrenchments can provide defilade by allowing troops to seek shelter behind a raised berm that increases the effective height of the ground, within an excavation that allows the troops to shelter below the surface of the ground or a combination of the two. The same principles apply to fighting positions for artillery and armored fighting vehicles.
 
Artificial entrenchments can provide defilade by allowing troops to seek shelter behind a raised berm that increases the effective height of the ground, within an excavation that allows the troops to shelter below the surface of the ground or a combination of the two. The same principles apply to fighting positions for artillery and armored fighting vehicles.
   
==The enfilade-defilade combination==
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== The enfilade-defilade combination ==
 
Unit sited in defilade threatens an enemy that decides to pass it and move forward, because they would be put in an enfiladed position when moving in a rank.<ref name=bellamy/> The friendly unit would be in a position that is shielded by terrain from direct enemy fire, while still being able to fire on the enemy in an effective manner.
 
Unit sited in defilade threatens an enemy that decides to pass it and move forward, because they would be put in an enfiladed position when moving in a rank.<ref name=bellamy/> The friendly unit would be in a position that is shielded by terrain from direct enemy fire, while still being able to fire on the enemy in an effective manner.
   
==See also==
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== See also ==
 
* [[Raking fire]]
 
* [[Raking fire]]
 
* [[Crossing the T]]
 
* [[Crossing the T]]
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{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
   
==Further reading==
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== Further reading ==
 
* ''Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682'', Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
 
* ''Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682'', Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
 
* René Chartrand, ''French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Québec, Montréal, Louisbourg and New Orleans (Fortress 27)''; Osprey Publishing, March 20, 2005. ISBN 978-1-84176-714-7
 
* René Chartrand, ''French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Québec, Montréal, Louisbourg and New Orleans (Fortress 27)''; Osprey Publishing, March 20, 2005. ISBN 978-1-84176-714-7

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