|Tiger / Tigre|
|First flight||27 April 1991|
|Primary users|| French Army|
|Number built||206 planned as of 2012|
|Program cost||€14.5bn (France/Germany/Spain, FY2012)|
The Eurocopter Tiger is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003. It is manufactured by Eurocopter, the successor company to Aérospatiale's and Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG's respective helicopter divisions, who designate it as the EC 665. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre. Development of the Tiger had started during the Cold War, it was initially intended as an anti tank helicopter platform to be used against a Soviet ground invasion of Western Europe. Due to a prolonged development period during which the Soviet Union was peacefully dissolved, France and Germany chose to proceed with the Tiger, developing it as a multirole attack helicopter instead, achieving operational readiness in 2008.
The Tiger has the distinction of being the first all-composite helicopter developed in Europe; and incorporates other advanced features such as a glass cockpit, stealth technology and high agility in order to increase its survivability. Improved variants have also begun to enter service, outfitted with more powerful engines and compatible with a wider range of weapons. Since the type's introduction to service, Tigers have been used in combat in Afghanistan, Libya, and Mali.
Origins and early developmentEdit
In 1984, the French and West German governments issued a requirement for an advanced multirole battlefield helicopter. A joint venture consisting of Aérospatiale and MBB was subsequently chosen as the preferred supplier. In 1986, the development programme was effectively cancelled due to spiralling costs; it had been officially calculated that supplying the German forces with an equivalent number of US-produced McDonnell Douglas AH-64 Apache attack helicopters would have been a considerably cheaper alternative to proceeding with development of the Tiger. According to statements by the French Defence Minister André Giraud in April 1986, the collaborative effort had become more expensive than an individual national programme and was forecast to take longer to complete as well. In July 1986, a government report into the project alleged that the development had become distanced from the requirements and preferences of the military customers the Tiger was being developed for.
Both France and Germany reorganised the programme, including steps such the adoption of fixed term contracts which placed greater financial risk upon the private firms involved. Thomson CSF also took over the majority of the Tiger's electronic development work, such as the visual systems and sensors. Despite the early development problems and the political uncertainty between 1984 and 1986, the program was formally relaunched in November 1987; it was at this point that a greater emphasis on the attack helicopter's anti-tank capabilities came about. Much of the project's organisational framework was rapidly redeveloped between 1987 and 1989; such as the installation of a Franco-German Helicopter Office to act as a program executive agency in May 1989.
In November 1989, Eurocopter signed an agreement that financially secured the majority of the helicopter's development through to serial production, including arrangements for two assembly lines to be built at Aerospatiale's Marignane plane and MBB's Donauworth facility. This same arrangement also included the manufacture of five Tiger prototypes. Three were to operate as unarmed testbeds and the other two as armed combat prototypes with one for the French escort helicopter variant and the other for the German anti-tank variant. The first prototype took the Tiger's maiden flight on 27 April 1991 that lasted for 30 minutes.
Due to the end of the Cold War and subsequent defence budgets decreases in the 1990s, financial pressures led to further questions regarding the necessity for the entire program; in 1992 there was speculation that the German Defence Ministry may not continue with the project due to the requirement to make fiscal cutbacks. However, Germany was also increasingly keen for the Tiger to perform a wider assortment of missions; beyond being an excellent anti-tank platform, the specifications of the German platform was modified to include armed battlefield reconnaissance, close air support duties to support friendly ground troops, and escorting of other helicopters.
In 1992, Aérospatiale and MBB, among other companies, merged to form the Eurocopter Group; this led to considerable consolidation of the aerospace industry and the Tiger project itself. A major agreement was struck in December 1996 between France and Germany that cemented the Tiger's prospects and committed the development of supporting elements, such as a series of new generation missile designs for use by the new combat helicopter. National political issues continued to affect the prospects of the Tiger however. A proposed sale of up to 145 Tigers to Turkey proved a source of controversy; Turkey selected the Tiger as the preferred option, but conflicting attitudes between Eurocopter, France, and Germany in regards to military exports led to Turkey withdrawing its interest.
On 18 June 1999, both Germany and France publicly placed orders for an initial batch of 160 Tiger helicopters, 80 for each nation, valued at €3.3 billion. On 22 March 2002, the first production Tiger was rolled out in a large ceremony held at Eurocopter's Donauworth factory; although production models began initial acceptance trials in 2003, the first official delivery to the French Army took place on 18 March 2005; the first official Tiger delivery to the Germany followed on 6 April 2005. Germany reduced its order to 57 in March 2013. In 2008 OCCAR estimated the project cost at €7.3 billion. France's FY2012 budget put their share of the project at €6.3bn (~US$8.5bn), implying a programme cost of €14.5bn (~US$19.5bn) to the three main partners. At FY2012 prices, their 40 HAP cost €27m/unit (~US$36m) and their 40 HAD €35.6m/unit (~US$48m), including development costs the French Tigers cost €78.8m (~US$106m) each.
During the 1990s, export prospects for the Tiger had been invigorated by two large bids for orders from Britain and the Netherlands. Discreet talks between Britain and France regarding an association with the Tiger had been continuing since the late 1980s and, although Britain has initially dismissed industrial participation in the project, it was known by the mid 1990s that Britain was prepared to purchase modern attack helicopters from abroad. Eurocopter's management were keen to press production of the Tiger into action as soon as possible, as uncertainty over the date at which production, and therefore availability, would start was viewed as negatively impacting potential export deals. In both the Netherlands and Britain, a considerable amount of lobbying pressure was applied in the hopes of the Tiger's selection. However, ultimately neither country would order the Tiger to meet their requirements.
On 21 December 2001, Eurocopter was awarded the contract to meet the Australian Army's "AIR 87 requirement" for 22 Tiger helicopters of the ARH (Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter) version. Modifications from the standard Tiger included new communications and avionics systems, as well as compatibility with Australian safety requirements. Per the contract's terms, 18 of the 22 aircraft were assembled at Australian Aerospace's Brisbane facility, a subsidiary of Eurocopter. On 1 July 2007, because of delays in attaining operational capability, Australia's Defence Materiel Organisation stopped all payments in regards to the procurement. According to Australia's Department of Defense, by 2008 the main issues had been addressed and payments resumed accordingly. In October 2010, it was revealed that the helicopters will not be fully operational for another two years. In December 2011, the final Tiger ARH was delivered to the Australian Army.
In September 2003, Spain selected a variant of the Tiger HAP combat support helicopter – the Tiger HAD – for its army. The 24 helicopters of this type would be armed with the PARS 3 LR and Mistral missile systems, and feature uprated Enhanced MTR390 engines capable of lifting heavier payloads. Deliveries of the HAD variant began in 2007. The September 2003 arrangements not only involved a procurement deal but the induction of Spain into the Tiger program itself, leading to the greater integration of parts of Spain's aeronautics industry with the new multinational Eurocopter organisation. Shortly following Spain's order, France chose to not proceed with the pure anti-tank Tiger HAC variant, instead electing to procure the multirole-oriented Tiger HAD being procured by Spain.
In July 2006, the Saudi government signed a €6.9 billion contract for the sale of 142 helicopters, including 12 Tiger attack helicopters. However, in late 2007, the deal was cancelled for unknown reasons.
In May 2007, in response to an issued tender for 22 attack helicopters for the Indian Air Force, the Tiger was entered into a competition against multiple Russian and American helicopters. In late 2009, it was reported that the Tiger would not be able to participate in the Indian field trials as it was to undergo upgrades. In 2011, several Tigers participated in firing trials of the PARS 3 LR missile as part of a sales effort targeted at the Indian armed forces.
As of 2012, the Tiger is competing for a ₩1.8 trillion contract to provide up to 20 attack helicopters for South Korea, along with the Boeing AH-64 Apache and the TAI/AgustaWestland T-129. In January 2013, Eurocopter was reportedly in active discussions over potential Tiger procurements with Brazil, Malaysia, and Qatar.
The Tiger is capable of undertaking a wide range of combat missions, including armed reconnaissance and surveillance, anti-tank and close air support, escort and protection of friendly assets; and can operate during day or night in all-weather conditions, and has been designed to include operations in the aftermath of nuclear, biological, or chemical warfare. The Tiger can also be used in the maritime environment, able to operate from the decks of ships including frigates and during extreme weather conditions. Amongst the Tiger's notable qualities, it possesses very high levels of agility, much of which is attributed to the design of its 13-meter four-bladed hingeless main rotor; the Tiger can perform full loops and negative g manoeuvres. Power is provided by a pair of FADEC-controlled MTU Turbomeca Rolls-Royce MTR390 turboshaft engines.
The Tiger has a tandem-seat 'glass cockpit' and is operated by a two-man crew; the pilot is placed in the forward position, with the gunner seated behind. Either of the crew members can manage the weapon systems or the primary flight controls, switching roles if necessitated; in addition to flying the aircraft, the Tiger's pilot would typically be in control of the self-defence systems and communications, as well as some secondary weapons functions. While some of the weapons use dedicated control interfaces, such as the anti-tank Trigat missile, air-to-air weapons can be managed via controls on both sets of collective and cyclic sticks. Crew new to the Tiger have to undergo substantial retraining due to the differences from older platforms, particularly in higher workload management and the additional capabilities afforded by the type; one major change from preceding attack helicopters is a far greater degree of operational autonomy. According to Andrew Warner, chief test pilot during the Tiger's development, it is "the easiest-handling aircraft I have ever flown". The system cost (helicopter, armament, support) and unit cost varies between variants; Australia's Tiger ARH has a price per unit of A$68 million, the latest Tiger HAD variant is estimated to cost US$44–48 million.
The protection systems employed on the Tiger includes stealth; aspects such as the visual, radar, infra-red and acoustic signatures have been minimised to better evade threats that may be present upon the battlefield. According to Andrew Warner, the Tiger's survivability "relies on stealth and agility". The fuselage is armoured and was developed to withstand small arms fire and 23 mm (0.91 in) cannon rounds. The helicopter has various radar/laser warning and missile-approach detection systems, including EADS's AN/AAR-60 MILDS (Missile Launch Detection System), as well as flares and chaff dispensers.
The Tiger is the first all-composite helicopter developed in Europe. The fuselage of the Tiger is made from 80% carbon fibre-reinforced polymer and kevlar, 11% aluminium, and 6% titanium. The entire tail section is made of composites, including the single-section tail boom. The rotors, composed of a fiber-plastic composite material, able to withstand combat damage and bird strikes. The structure of the Tiger also incorporates protection against lightning strikes and electromagnetic pulses via an embedded copper/bronze grid and copper bonding foil.
The design of the Tiger includes a high degree of crash-worthiness, many of the on-board systems have redundancies and are segregated to minimise damage impact. Components of the propulsion system, such as the rotors and driving shift, were deliberately designed for greater ballistic tolerance than traditional designs; the gearbox also is rated for a 30 minute dry-run capability if lubrication is lost. Fuel is contained in two main internal fuel tanks, an additional two smaller tanks are housed inside the stub wings. In the extreme inhospitable conditions of the Afghanistan theatre, the Tiger had a reported operational availability of 90%.
Avionics and armamentsEdit
Amongst the key avionics features of the aircraft are the EUROGRID battlefield management and map display systems, integrated communications (HF/VHM/FM radio and satellite) and data transfer links, a high-authority digital automatic flight control system, and redundant MIL 1553 data buses. Two redundant mission computers control the weapons, sensors, and targeting functions. The Tiger's navigational suite includes GPS, dual-redundant inertial referencing, Doppler radar, separated air data units, radio altimeter and distributed air speed sensors. A dedicated nose-mounted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor is used by the pilot for night time flying.
Each crew member has a pair of multifunction liquid-crystal data displays at their control station, typically used to display internal systems information and sensory data, and to interact with the aircraft's higher systems. An additional display system is available to both crew in the form of the helmet-mounted display (HMD). The HMD is used by the flying pilot to display basic flight data with digitally-enhanced optics, such as night vision or infrared imagery from the sensors, superimposed against; the gunner can use the HMD to interact with and control on-board weapon systems and view targeting data. Perhaps the most significant single avionics system fitted upon the Tiger is the mast-mounted Osiris sight/sensor; this incorporates optical TV and thermal cameras, a laser range finder/tracker/designator, and multiple gyroscopes for stabilisation. Osiris performs as the main sensor for target observation and acquisition, providing firing and targeting data via the weapons computer; Osiris also enables entirely-passive target acquisition to be undertaken and was developed to maximise the capabilities of the Trigat anti-tank missile developed in parallel to the Tiger itself. An alternative optical system to Osiris is mounted on the aircraft's roof upon some variants.
The Tiger is capable of equipping various armaments including rockets, cannon, and a range of air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, controlled via a dedicated weapons control computer. Munitions for anti-ground warfare include the nose-mounted 30mm Nexter turret; an assortment of external gun pods, anti tank missiles, and up to four launchers for 70mm and 68mm rockets can be mounted on the Tiger's stub-wings. When deploying missiles such as the Mistral, the Tiger is capable of taking advantage of the munition's off-boresight capabilities.
In December 2008, final qualification of the HAP and UHT variants of the Tiger was completed, marking the platform's readiness for operational duties overseas. In May 2009, the Tiger participated in readiness trials off the coast of Toulon to clear the type for active ship-board deployments. By November 2009, nearly 50 Tigers had been delivered to customers and the worldwide fleet had accumulated more than 13,000 flight hours.
In July 2009, three French Tiger HAP helicopters of the 5th Helicopter Regiment arrived at Kabul International Airport in Afghanistan, marking the first active deployment of the Tiger into an active combat zone. The helicopters performed armed reconnaissance and fire support missions, acting in support of coalition ground troops fighting a Taliban insurgency. The Tigers had their operational certification in Afghanistan in early August 2009; one French officer described the Tiger's role in the theatre as "find, attack, suppress, seize, raid, and support". By July 2010, it was reported that the Tiger detachment had totaled 1,000 operational hours in Afghanistan. On 4 February 2011, a French Tiger crashed during a nighttime operation about 30 miles east of Kabul, both crew members suffered light injuries.
In August 2009, the German magazine Der Spiegel reported that the ten operational Tigers in the German Army were only suitable for pilot training, while others had not been accepted due to defects. In May 2010, Germany suspended deliveries over "serious defects particularly with wiring"; in response Eurocopter stated that "Corrective measures related to wiring problems have been developed, agreed by the customer and are being implemented", and that two corrected helicopters would soon be handed over to the German military.
During the 2011 military intervention in Libya, France deployed the French ship Tonnerre amphibious assault helicopter carrier, carrying a number of Tiger attack helicopters aboard, to the Libyan coast conduct military operations upon military targets within Libya. On 4 June 2011, French Tigers, alongside British Army Apache helicopters, began combat operations in Libya.
During December 2012, a total of four German Tiger UHTs were deployed to Afghanistan. The UHTs are operating from Mazar-i-Sharif Air Base inside Afghanistan; all Tiger helicopters deployed to the zone underwent an upgrade and reconfiguration programme to suit the theatre. These changes included the addition of new defensive systems and sand filters, as well as alterations to the on-board communications suite. In March 2013, Spain also deployed three Tiger HAPs to the region to operate in support of Spanish ground forces.
The UHT (from Unterstützungshubschrauber Tiger German for Support Helicopter Tiger) is a medium-weight multi-role fire support helicopter built for the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces). Under an agreement between the German government and Eurocopter made in March 2013, a total of 57 Tiger UHs are to be procured.
The UHT can carry PARS 3 LR "fire and forget" and/or HOT3 anti-tank missiles as well as 70 mm (2.8 in) Hydra 70 air-to-ground fire support rockets. Four AIM-92 Stinger missiles (2 on each side) are mounted for air-to-air combat. Unlike the HAP/HCP version it has no integrated gun turret, but a 12.7 mm (0.50 in) gunpod can be fitted if needed. The German Army decided against the French 30 mm (1.2 in) GIAT cannon used on other Tiger versions due to dissatisfation with the heavy recoil of this weapon. Another difference is the use of a mast-mounted sight, which has second-generation infrared and CCD TV cameras (range 18 km).
The Tiger HAP/HCP (Hélicoptère d'Appui Protection, French for "Support and Escort Helicopter" / Hélicoptère de Combat Polyvalent French for "Multipurpose Combat Helicopter") is a medium-weight air-to-air combat and fire support helicopter built for the French Army.
It is fitted with a chin-mounted GIAT 30 mm gun turret and can carry 68 mm SNEB unguided rockets or 20 mm machine cannons for the fire support role as well as Mistral air-to-air missiles. France's 40 HAP were delivered by 2012 at a cost of €27m/unit (~US$36m) in 2012 prices.
The Tiger HAD (Hélicoptère d'Appui Destruction, in French or Helicoptero de Apoyo y Destrucción in Spanish for "Support and Destruction Helicopter") version is essentially identical to the HAP version, but with 14% more engine power available due to the upgraded Enhanced MTR390 engines (1,000 kW / 1,341 shp) and a better ballistic protection, as a result of the specific requests made by the Spanish Army. It will be equipped with the Hellfire II, and the Spike ER anti-armour missiles.
The helicopter is suited for a support and fire suppression role. It was selected by the Spanish Army and the French Army Light Aviation (ALAT) decided to upgrade most of their HAP helicopters to the HAD variant. In December 2004, Spain ordered 24 of the HAD variant and France ordered 40 HADs. France's 40 HAD will cost €35.6m/unit (~US$48m) in 2012 prices.
The Tiger ARH (Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter) is the version ordered by the Australian Army to replace its OH-58 Kiowas and UH-1 Iroquois-based 'Bushranger' gunships. The Tiger ARH is a modified and upgraded version of the Tiger HAP with upgraded MTR390 engines as well as a laser designator incorporated in the Strix sight for the firing of Hellfire II air-to-ground missiles. Instead of SNEB unguided rockets, the ARH will use 70 mm (2.75 in) rockets from Belgian developer, Forges de Zeebruges (FZ). 22 of the variant were ordered in December 2001. Most of the helicopters will be operated by the 1st Aviation Regiment based at Robertson Barracks in Darwin.
Specifications (Tiger HAP)Edit
|Eurocopter Tiger promotional video|
|Eurocopter Tiger Air Display at ILA Berlin Air Show 2012|
- Crew: Two: pilot and weapon systems officer
- Length: 14.08 m fuselage (46 ft 2 in)
- Rotor diameter: 13.00 m (42 ft 8 in)
- Height: 3.83 m (12 ft 7 in)
- Disc area: 133 m² (1,430 ft²)
- Empty weight: 3,060 kg (6,750 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 6,000 kg (13,000 lb))
- Powerplant: 2 × MTU Turbomeca Rolls-Royce MTR390 turboshafts, 958 kW (1.303 shp) each
- Internal fuel capacity: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb)
- Maximum speed: 290 km/h with mast, 315 km/h without mast (157 knots, 181 mph with mast, 170 knots or 196 mph without mast)
- Range: 800 km (430 nm, 500 mi)combat (with external tanks in the inboard stations: 1,300km)
- Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 10.7 m/s (2,105 ft/min)</ul>Armament
- 1× 30 mm (1.18 in) GIAT 30 cannon in chin turret, with up to 450 rounds.
On each of its two inner hardpoints and two outer hardpoints the Eurocopter Tiger can carry a combination of the following weapons:
- Inner hardpoints:
- Outer hardpoints:
- Agusta A129 Mangusta
- Bell AH-1 SuperCobra
- Boeing AH-64 Apache
- CAIC WZ-10
- Denel AH-2 Rooivalk
- Kamov Ka-50
- Mil Mi-28
- TAI/AgustaWestland T-129
- Harbin WZ-19
- HAL Light Combat Helicopter
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "Projet de loi de finances pour 2013 : Défense : équipement des forces" (in French). Senate of France. 22 November 2012. http://www.senat.fr/rap/a12-150-8/a12-150-815.html#toc290. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Krotz 2001, p. 130.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, p. 131.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, p. 133.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Krotz 2011, p. 134.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 132, 136.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 134, 136.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 133-135.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, p. 147.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 149, 151.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 132, 149.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Krotz 2011, p. 154.
- ↑ "Germany finalises cuts to NH90, Tiger helicopter orders". Flightglobal.com, 18 March 2013.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Tran, Pierre. "Eurocopter: Despite Slow Economy, Tiger Helo Deliveries On Track." Defense News, 29 Jan 2013.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, p. 132.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, p. 138.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 138-139.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 139-140.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, p. 151.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 151-152.
- ↑ "Australia Stops Payment On Tiger Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter". Defense Daily International. 6 July 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-166210214.html.
- ↑ "Progress on Project AIR 87 – Tiger Armed Reconnaissance Helicopters". Australian Department of Defence. Retrieved: 18 October 2009.
- ↑ Oakes, Dan (12 October 2010). "Afghanistan war – Tiger helicopters not ready to fly: Defence". Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/national/tigers-not-ready-to-fly-defence-20101006-167w6.html. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- ↑ "Australia receives final Tiger helicopter". upi.com. 8 December 2011. http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2011/12/08/Australia-receives-final-Tiger-helicopter/UPI-66601323343440/.
- ↑ Krotz 2011, pp. 152-153.
- ↑ "Eurocopter Tiger". Helis.com. http://www.helis.com/Since80s/h_aetg.php. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Krotz 2011, p. 152.
- ↑ "The 2006 Saudi Shopping Spree: More Helicopters from Eurocopter". Defense Industry Daily. 25 July 2006. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/the-2006-saudi-shopping-spree-more-helicopters-from-eurocopter-02461/.
- ↑ "Saudis may go Russian as France Loses Out". Defense Industry Daily. 25 August 2009. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/saudis-may-go-russian-as-france-loses-out-04111/.
- ↑ Govindasamy, Siva. "Bell, Boeing quit Indian attack helicopter contest". Flight International, 10 October 2008.
- ↑ "Tiger not participating in India's contest, Boeing to offer Apache". Asian Defence, 23 October 2009.
- ↑ Donald, David. "Paris 2011: MBDA Has India in Its Sights for Fire-and-forget Missile ."AIN Online, 23 June 2011.
- ↑ "Republic of Korea Marine Corps - systems directory." Republic of Korea Marine Corps, 29 March 2009.
- ↑ "AFP: S. Korea says three bidding for $6.9bn fighter deal." Google News, 18 June 2012.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 McGowen 2005, p. 215.
- ↑ Marchand, Alexandre. "The Tiger: a marine animal." ROTOR Online, November 2007.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 Moxon 1995, p. 105.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 "Tiger - Technology." Eurocopter, Retrieved: 17 February 2013.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 "Tiger - Characteristics." Eurocopter, Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- ↑ McGowen 2005, p. 214.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Moxon 1995, pp. 103-105.
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 Moxon 1995, p. 107.
- ↑ Training On Tiger. Aviation Today, 1 June 2008.
- ↑ Moxon, Julian. Tiger "Preparing for Tiger." Flight International, July 1998. p. 28.
- ↑ Moxon 1995, p. 106.
- ↑ "2010–2011 Major Projects Report". ANAO Report No.20 2011–12. Australian National Audit Office. 2011. p. 274. http://www.defence.gov.au/dmo/publications/MPR11.pdf. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "Base Date $m ... Total budget $1,493"
- ↑ Ministerio de Defensa (September 2011). "Evaluación de los Programas Especiales de Armamento (PEAs)" (in Spanish). Madrid: Grupo Atenea. http://www.revistatenea.es/revistaatenea/revista/PDF/documentos/Documento_1026.pdf. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 48.2 Moxon 1995, p. 103.
- ↑ Edwards, M. R. (2002). "Materials for military helicopters". pp. 77–88. Digital object identifier:10.1243/095441002760179780.
- ↑ "MILDS AN/AAR-60 Missile Warning System." EADS North America, Retrieved: 17 February 2013.
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- ↑ Moxon 1995, pp. 105-106.
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- ↑ 55.0 55.1 "The new generation Tiger combat helicopter performs flight demonstrations at the Dubai Air Show". AMI Info, 15 November 2009.
- ↑ Wall, Robert. "Tiger Goes to Sea." Aviation Week, 13 May 2009.
- ↑ Hoyle, Craig. "ILA: Eurocopter defends performance of Tiger attack helicopter". Flightglobal.com, 8 June 2010. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- ↑ "Afghanistan: Arrival of Three Tiger Helicopters in Kabul". defense-aerospace.com. 26 July 2009. http://www.defense-aerospace.com/article-view/release/107085/three-french-tiger-helicopters-arrive-in-kabul.html#. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- ↑ "Tigre en Afghanistan". French Ministry of Defense. 6 August 2009. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xa7ke7_tigre-en-afghanistan_news. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- ↑ "Eurocopter Tiger completes 1,000 hours in Afghanistan ops". Helihub.com, 30 July 2010. Retrieved: 4 August 2010.
- ↑ "NATO-led ISAF Helicopter Crashed". Pajhwok Afghan News. 5 February 2011. http://www.pajhwok.com/en/photo/134765.
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- ↑ "Germany Military Frustrated with EADS". Business Week. 6 August 2009. http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/aug2009/gb2009086_977202.htm.
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- ↑ Norton-Taylor, Richard (23 May 2011). "Apache helicopters to be sent into Libya by Britain". The Guardian. London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/23/apache-helicopters-libya-britain.
- ↑ "UK Apaches Deployed In Libya In 24 Hours". Sky News. 27 May 2011. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/UK-News/David-Cameron-Confirms-Britain-Will-Send-Apache-Helicopters-To-Libya-To-Step-Up-Campaign/Article/201102416000589?.
- ↑ "Fearful Gaddafi 'hides in hospital'". The Independent. 27 May 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/fearful-gaddafi-hides-in-hospital-2289854.html.
- ↑ Deutsches Heer: Aufklärung und Unterstützung aus der Luft: Die Tiger sind am Hindukusch, Leipzig. Luftwaffe 14 December 2012.
- ↑ Hoyle, Craig. "PICTURES: German army Tigers arrive in Afghanistan." Flight International, 3 January 2013.
- ↑ "Spanish Tigers Deployed to Afghanistan." Aviation Week, 28 March 2013.
- ↑ Osborne, Anthony. "Germany Finalizes Military Helicopter Buy With Eurocopter." Aviation Week, 15 March 2013.
- ↑ Muller, Albrecht (9 October 2012). "PARS 3 LR Missile Ready To Start Series Production". Defense News. http://www.defensenews.com/article/20121009/DEFREG01/310090009/PARS-3-LR-Missile-Ready-Start-Series-Production. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- ↑ Eurocopter Studies HCP, Armada International Website[dead link] , viewed on 15 October 2009
- ↑ EADS press release, 2002[dead link] example for official use and meaning of the HCP acronym and its translation – retrieved 16 October 2009
- ↑ France & Spain Order New Eurocopter Tiger HAD Variant (updated)
- ↑ "France Selects Hellfire II Missile to Equip HAD Tiger Helicopter". Defencetalk.com. 20 June 2007. http://www.defencetalk.com/france-selects-hellfire-ii-missile-to-equip-had-tiger-helicopter-11979/. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- ↑ "Eurocopter Fires Spike Missile From HAD Tiger". Spacewar.com. http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Eurocopter_Fires_Spike_Missile_From_HAD_Tiger_999.html. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- ↑ "Tiger HAD Enters Firing Campaign Using the Spike Missile". Deagel.com. 12 September 2008. http://www.deagel.com/news/Tiger-HAD-Enters-Firing-Campaign-Using-the-Spike-Missile_n000004947.aspx. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- ↑ "Launch of the new HAD version of the Tiger for Spain and France with the signing of the first contracts". Eurocopter.com. 8 December 2004. http://www.eurocopter.com/site/en/press/Launch-of-the-new-HAD-version-of-the-Tiger-for-Spain-and-France-with-the-signing-of-the-first-contracts_286.html. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- ↑ "France & Spain Order New Eurocopter Tiger HAD Variant". Defence Industry Daily. 16 September 2010. https://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/france-spain-order-new-eurocopter-tiger-had-variant-updated-01591/.
- ↑ 81.0 81.1 "AIR 87 – Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter". Defence Materiel Organisation. September 2014. http://www.defence.gov.au/dmo/asd/air87/main.cfm. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 82.2 82.3 "World Air Forces 2013". Flightglobal Insight. 2013. http://www.flightglobal.com/airspace/media/reports_pdf/emptys/101015/world-air-forces-2013.pdf. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- ↑ "5e régiment d'hélicoptères de combat." defense.gouv.fr, 20 January 2012.
- ↑ "Die Tiger sind los: Kampfhubschrauberregiment 36 übt für den Einsatz." deutschesheer.de, 19 April 2011.
- ↑ "Reportajes del Boletín de Tierra." ejercito.mde.es, 16 December 2011.
- ↑ Wilson, Stewart. Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 2000. p. 58. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
- ↑ McGowen 2005, p. 235.
- Eden, Paul, ed (2004). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books. ISBN 1-904687-84-9 CITEREFEden2004.
- Hoyle, Craig (13–19 December 2011). "World Air Forces Directory". pp. pp. 26–52. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Hoyle, Craig (11–17 December 2012). "World Air Forces Directory". pp. pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-5370.
- Jackson, Paul (2003). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Krotz, Ulrich (2011). Flying Tiger: International Relations Theory and the Politics of Advanced Weapons. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1997-5993-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IC2K_Kz6SuYC&printsec=frontcover.
- Moxon, Julian (7–13 June 1995). "Worth its stripes". pp. pp. 102–107. ISSN 0015-3710. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1995/1995%20-%201685.html.
- McGowen, Stanley S. (2005). Helicopters: An Illustrated History of their Impact. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-468-7.
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