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</ref> In September 2018, Qatar made the first payment for the procurement of 24 Eurofighter Typhoons and 9 BAE Hawk aircraft to BAE Systems, making the contract effective according to BAE.[4]

Potential exports[edit | edit source]

A Typhoon F2 fighter jet from 29 Squadron RAF ignites its afterburners whilst taking off from RAF Coningsby.

The partner companies have divided the world into regions with BAE selling Typhoons to the Middle East, Alenia Aermacchi pitching to Turkey, and EADS offering to Latin America, India and South Korea.[5][6][7][8] Senior vice-president of Eurofighter sales Peter Maute has said that the Eurofighter could provide a complementary capability to stealth fighters.[9]

Bahrain[edit | edit source]

On 8 August 2013, BAE officials commented that the Royal Bahraini Air Force was considering buying the Eurofighter Typhoon. The Eurofighter Typhoon is being considered along with the JAS 39 Gripen, Dassault Rafale, and F-35 Lightning II for Bahrain's future fighter needs.[10]

Belgium[edit | edit source]

In July 2014, the Eurofighter Typhoon was noted to be one of the contenders to replace Belgium's fleet of ageing F-16A/B MLU's by 2023 as part of the "air combat capability successor program". The requirement stands for 40 aircraft. Other contenders include the SAAB Gripen-E/F, Dassault Rafale, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and F-35A Lightning II. A decision was expected by 2016 and contracts signed by 2018.[11] In 2017, Saab and Boeing withdrew from competition.[citation needed]

The opposition in the federal parliament of Belgium stated that a decision was already made in favour of the American F-35 and that the competition was a cover-up. The opposition concluded that the requirements for the new aircraft were set up such a way that "only the F-35 could possibly meet the requirements". A supposedly leaked document from the Belgian military stated that for Belgium to remain in a strong position in NATO, the aircraft should have a launch capability for the B61 nuclear bombs supposedly stored at the Kleine Brogel Air Base in Belgium. Coalition parties have denied the allegations. They say a decision will be made in 2018 and that parliament could still vote against the selected aircraft.[12]

On 19 April 2017, Boeing pulled out of the competition, stating there "is no level playing field".[13] On 10 July 2017, Saab too announced they would no longer contend for the order, stating that the operational support expected by the Belgian government would be a violation of Swedish neutrality.[14] On 7 September 2017 only Eurofighter and Lockheed-Martin filed an official response to a request for government proposal. Dassault did not respond, alleging the Belgian request deliberately favoured the F-35, and the French government instead proposed a long-term partnership for the development of a new fighter aircraft. Whether Dassault is still in the running was still unknown as of October 2017.[15]

Bulgaria[edit | edit source]

In January 2015, it was revealed that the Eurofighter Typhoon is one of the contenders for Bulgaria's MiG-29 replacement program. This would consist of eight second hand Eurofighters from ex-Italian service, and is in competition with offers for sixteen surplus F-16s from the United States, an unknown number of surplus F-16s from Belgium, or sixteen surplus Saab Gripen C/Ds from Sweden.[16][17]

Canada[edit | edit source]

In December 2012, the Canadian government decided that F-35 costs were much higher than earlier anticipated and hence are looking at the Eurofighter as well as four other fighters to replace their ageing CF-18s.[18] In January 2014 it seemed unlikely that a decision on a replacement would be taken before the next federal election in October 2015.[19] This election occurred, and while Canada was leaning more towards US fighters like the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet or back to the F-35,[20] as of June 2017 protectionist rhetoric by the US government (and a trade complaint by Boeing against Bombardier) has caused the Canadian government to stop discussions about acquiring the Super Hornet and look at other, potentially non-US options.[21]

Colombia[edit | edit source]

In December 2017, it was reported that Colombia may be interested in procuring a fighter wing's worth of second-hand, Tranche 2 standard Eurofighter Typhoons from Spain, equipped with the advanced Meteor missile.[22]

Finland[edit | edit source]

In October 2014, the Finnish broadcaster Yle announced that the Finnish Air Force was considering the replacement of its ageing F/A-18 Hornets (which entered service in 1995), thus raising the issue of whether the Eurofighter could be a potential successor.[23] In June 2015, a working group set up by the Finnish MoD proposed starting the so-called HX Fighter Program to replace the Air Force's current fleet of ageing F/A-18 Hornet, which would reach the end of their service life by the end of the 2020s. The group recognises five potential types: Boeing Super Hornet, Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon, Lockheed Martin F-35 and Saab JAS Gripen.[24]

The request for information concerning the HX Fighter Program was sent in early 2016; the five responses were received in November 2016. A call for tender will be sent in spring 2018 and the buying decision is scheduled to take place in 2021.[25]

Germany[edit | edit source]

On 24 April 2018 Airbus and the Eurofighter consortium submitted a bid to replace Germany's 90 strong fleet of Panavia Tornado which are operated in the ground attack and electronic warfare role. The Typhoon submitted for the bid has its EJ200 engine's thrust uprated by 15% to increase range and payload capacity, as well as further development of the Captor-E radar's functionality.[26] Germany already operates 130 Typhoons in an air defence role.

Indonesia[edit | edit source]

Eurofighter and other fighter builders responded to a request for information issued by the Indonesian government in January 2015 for a fighter to replace the ageing F-5s currently in service with the Air Force.[27] Eurofighter is offering its latest version of the Typhoon, equipped with Captor-E AESA radar, for Indonesia’s F-5 replacement programme.[28]

Malaysia[edit | edit source]

In December 2009, BAE Systems announced plans to market the Typhoon to the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) to replace its ageing Mikoyan MiG-29Ns. According to the Regional Director-Business Development Dave Potter, the Typhoon's multi-role capabilities allow it to replace the MiG-29N.[29] Other contenders include Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Dassault Rafale and JAS 39 Gripen NG.[30] In October 2016, Malaysia's Minister of Defence stated that the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon were the only competitors to replace its Mig-29s.[31] In 2017, it was announced that Malaysia had postponed its plan to purchase replacement multi-role combat aircraft in favour of improving its aerial reconnaissance capabilities.[32][33] In February 2018, BAE Systems offered UK government financing if it decided to purchase the Typhoon.[34][35]

Peru[edit | edit source]

On 4 February 2013, Spain announced a proposed sale of 18 Tranche 1 aircraft to the Peruvian Air Force, at a reported value of €45 million each. The intention was to transfer aircraft currently in Spanish service within a year of contract signature. Talks had been ongoing since November 2012 but the Typhoon is still in contention with the Saab Gripen NG and Sukhoi Su-30/35.[36]

Poland[edit | edit source]

Poland is planning to purchase 64 multirole combat aircraft from 2021 as part of the country's modernisation plans. The new fighters will replace the Polish Air Force's ageing fleet of Sukhoi Su-22M4 'Fitter-K' ground attack aircraft and Mikoyan MiG-29 'Fulcrum-A' fighter aircraft. Planned open tender procedure could include the F-35 Lightning II, JAS 39 Gripen E/F, the newest variants of Eurofighter Typhoon and Dassault Rafale, and the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[37][38][39][40]

According to the announcement made by the Armament Inspectorate on 23 November 2017, Poland has initiated the procedure to acquire new fighter aircraft for the Polish Air Force.[41] On 22 December 2017, five entities have expressed their intention to participate in the potential procurement of new fighter aircraft, referred to as “Harpia” (Harpy eagle). Companies that expressed their interest in the Multi-Role Combat Aircraft portion of the initiative include: Saab AB with Gripen NG, Lockheed Martin with F-35, Boeing Company with F/A-18, Leonardo S.p.A. with Eurofighter Typhoon and Fights-On Logistics with second hand F-16s.[42]

Serbia[edit | edit source]

In 2010, the government of Serbia displayed open interest in the Eurofighter and competing products.[43] In June 2013, defence minister Aleksandar Vučić suggested that Serbia might purchase six MiG-29M/M2 instead.[44]

Vietnam[edit | edit source]

In June 2015 it was reported that Vietnam had been in discussions about the purchase of Eurofighter Typhoons to replace MiG-21s in their aircraft inventory. The talks were reported as ongoing but no decision was expected soon. Saab's Gripen E and Sukhoi's Su-57 were also involved in the discussions for Vietnam's next fighter requirement.[45]

Failed bids[edit | edit source]

Denmark[edit | edit source]

The Royal Danish Air Force is replacing its ageing fleet of F-16AM and F-16BMs. Besides Eurofighter Typhoon there were two other competitors—the Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet and the F-35 Lightning II. Denmark is a level-3 partner in the Joint Strike Fighter programme, and has already invested US$200 million.

On 12 May 2016 the Danish minority government recommended that 27 F-35A fighters, instead of 34 Typhoons, should be procured.[46][47] On 9 June the Danish parliament selected the Joint Strike Fighter.[48]

Greece[edit | edit source]

In 1999, the Greek government agreed to acquire 20 Typhoons to replace its existing second-generation combat aircraft.[49] The purchase was put on hold due to budget constraints, largely driven by other development programmes and the need to cover the cost of the 2004 Summer Olympics. In June 2006 the government announced a €22 billion multi-year acquisition plan intended to provide the necessary budgetary framework to enable the purchase of a next-generation fighter over the next 10 years and the Typhoon was under consideration to fill this requirement.[50] In December 2011 it was announced that the Eurofighter consortium office in Greece was to close because Greece would not be in a position to order any new aircraft before 2018 or 2020.[51]

India[edit | edit source]

Eurofighter was one of the six aircraft competing for the Indian MRCA competition for 126 multi-role fighters. In April 2011, the Indian Air Force (IAF) shortlisted the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon for the US$10.4 billion contract.[52] On 31 January 2012, the IAF announced the Rafale as the preferred bidder in the competition.[53][54]

Japan[edit | edit source]

In March 2007, Jane's Information Group reported that the Typhoon was the favourite to win the contest for Japan's next-generation fighter requirement.[55] The other competitors then were the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle.[55] On 17 October 2007, Japanese Defence Minister Shigeru Ishiba confirmed that Japan may buy the Typhoon. Although the F-22 Raptor was in his words "exceptional", it was not "absolutely necessary for Japan", and the Typhoon was the best alternative.[56] The F-22 is currently unavailable for export per US law. During a visit to Japan in June 2009, Andy Latham of BAE pointed out that while F-22 exports were restricted to keep advanced military technology from falling into the wrong hands, selling the Typhoon would take a "no black box approach", that is that even licensed production and integration with Japanese equipment would not carry the risk of leakage of restricted military technology.[57] In July 2010, it was reported that the Japan Air Self-Defense Force favoured acquiring the F-35 ahead of the Typhoon and the F/A-18E/F to fulfill its F-X requirement due to its stealth characteristics, but the Defense Ministry was delaying its budget request to evaluate when the F-35 would be produced and delivered.[58] David Howell of the UK Foreign Office has suggested that Japan could partner with Britain in the continuing development of the Eurofighter.[59] On 20 December 2011, the Japanese Government announced its intention to purchase 42 F-35s. The purchase decision was influenced by the F-35's stealth characteristics, with the Defence Minister Yasuo Ichikawa saying, "There are changes in the security environment and the actions of various nations and we want to have a fighter that has the capacity to cope".[60]

Norway[edit | edit source]

Norway considered purchasing the Eurofighter,[61] but in 2012 signed the largest public procurement project in the country's history (worth $10bn) for the F-35A.[62]

Singapore[edit | edit source]

In 2005 the Eurofighter was a contender for Singapore's next generation fighter requirement competing with the Boeing F-15SG and the Dassault Rafale. The Eurofighter was eliminated from the competition in June 2005[63] and the F-15SG was selected in September 2005.[64]

South Korea[edit | edit source]

In 2002, the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) chose the F-15K Slam Eagle over the Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon and Sukhoi Su-35 for its 40 aircraft F-X Phase I fighter competition. During 2012–13, the Typhoon competed with the Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle and the F-35 for the ROKAF's F-X Phase III fighter competition. In August 2013 it was announced that the F-15SE was the only remaining candidate, however the award was cancelled and in November 2013, it was announced that the ROKAF will purchase 40 F-35A's.[65]

Switzerland[edit | edit source]

In February 2007, it was reported that Switzerland was considering the Eurofighter, the Rafale and the Saab JAS 39 Gripen to replace its Northrop F-5 Tiger IIs.[66] A one-month evaluation started in October 2008 at Emmen Airforce Base consisting of approximately 30 evaluation flights.[67] On 30 November 2011 the Swiss Federal Council announced that it was planning to buy 22 Gripen NGs due to its lower acquisition and maintenance costs.[68] A leaked Swiss Air Force evaluation report revealed that the Rafale won the competition on technical grounds and Dassault offered to lower the price for 18 Rafales.[69]

Turkey[edit | edit source]

Turkey was considering a purchase of Eurofighter, but in 2009 it decided to purchase a larger number of F-35s and it has subsequently stated that "Eurofighter is off Turkey's agenda".[70][71]

United Arab Emirates[edit | edit source]

In November 2012, the UK government announced the formation of a formal defence and industrial partnership with the United Arab Emirates, paving the way for potential Typhoon sales with BAE Systems.[72] On 19 December 2013 it was announced that UAE had decided not to proceed with the deal for the supply of defence and security services, including the supply of Typhoon aircraft.[73] Analysts estimated that the break-off was due to the producing nations' lack of commitment for radar upgrades.[74]

Variants[edit | edit source]

The Eurofighter is produced in single-seat and twin-seat variants. The twin-seat variant is not used operationally, but only for training, though it is combat capable. The aircraft has been manufactured in three major standards; seven Development Aircraft (DA), seven production standard Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA) for further system development[75] and a continuing number of Series Production Aircraft. The production aircraft are now operational with the partner nation's air forces.

The Tranche 1 aircraft were produced from 2000 onwards. Aircraft capabilities are being increased incrementally, with each software upgrade resulting in a different standard, known as blocks.[76] With the introduction of the block 5 standard, the R2 retrofit programme began to bring all Tranche 1 aircraft to that standard.[76]

Operators[edit | edit source]

Eurofighter Typhoon operators in blue with orders in cyan

Italian Eurofighter Typhoon

Spanish Eurofighter Typhoon

RAF Typhoon F2

German Eurofighter 98+03

 Austria
 Germany
 Italy
 Kuwait
 Oman
 Qatar
 Saudi Arabia
 Spain
 United Kingdom

Accidents[edit | edit source]

By September 2017, there had been four fatal crashes in about 240,000 flight hours, flown by 406 aircraft, delivered to six different air forces.[96]

  • On 21 November 2002, the Spanish twin-seat Typhoon prototype DA-6 crashed due to a double engine flameout caused by surges of the two engines at 45,000 ft. The two crew members escaped unhurt and the aircraft crashed in a military test range near Toledo, some 70 miles (110 km) from its base at Getafe Air Base.[97][98]
  • On 23 April 2008, a Royal Air Force Typhoon FGR4 from 17 Squadron at RAF Coningsby, tail number ZJ943, made a wheels–up landing at the US Navy's NAWS China Lake, in the United States.[99] The aircraft was severely damaged and was returned to the UK on 27 October 2008. The pilot from 17 Squadron did not sustain any significant injury. It is thought the pilot may have forgotten to deploy the undercarriage or that for some reason he was not alerted to the fact that the undercarriage was not deployed.[100][101]
  • On 24 August 2010, a Spanish twin-seat Typhoon crashed at Spain's Morón Air Base moments after take-off for a routine training flight. It was being piloted by a Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Saudi Arabian Air Force, who was killed, and a Spanish Air Force Major, who ejected safely.[102] Following this incident, the German Air Force grounded its 55 planes on 16 September 2010,[103][104] amidst concerns that after ejecting successfully the pilot had fallen to his death. In response to the crash's investigation, the RAF temporarily grounded all Typhoon training flights on 17 September 2010. Quick Reaction Alert duties were unaffected.[105] On 21 September, the RAF announced that the harness system had been sufficiently modified to enable routine flying from RAF Coningsby. The Austrian Air Force also said that all its aircraft had been cleared for flight.[106] On 24 August 2010, the ejection seat manufacturer Martin Baker commented: "... under certain conditions, the quick release fitting could be unlocked using the palm of the hands, rather than the thumb and fingers and that this posed a risk of inadvertent release", and added that a modification had been rapidly developed and approved "to eliminate this risk" and was being fitted to all Typhoon seats.[107]
  • On 9 June 2014, the Spanish Air Ministry announced that a Typhoon had crashed at Spain's Morón Air Base on landing after a routine training flight. The sole pilot, Captain Fernando Lluna Carrascosa of the Spanish Air Force, who had over 600 Eurofighter flying hours, died in the crash. The aircraft was one of the 46 aircraft of the Air Force's 111 and 113 squadrons. The cause of the accident was unclear.[96][108][109][110]
  • On 23 June 2014, a Typhoon of the German Air Force suffered a mid-air collision with a Learjet 35A, which crashed near Olsberg, Germany. The severely damaged Eurofighter made a safe landing at Nörvenich Air Base, while the Learjet crashed with the two onboard killed.[111][112]
  • On 1 September 2017, a Royal Air Force Typhoon overran the runway on landing at Pardubice Airport, Czech Republic, after diverting for bad weather.[113]
  • On 14 September 2017, a Royal Saudi Air Force aircraft crashed in Yemen's Abhyan province while carrying out a combat mission, killing its pilot. According to a Saudi Government press release, the aircraft crashed due to technical reasons and pilot Lt Col Muhanna Al-Baiz did not survive.[114]
  • On 24 September 2017, an Italian Air Force aircraft crashed into the sea during an airshow in Terracina, Lazio, Italy. The pilot Capt. Gabriele Orlandi did not eject and died in the accident.[115] The Italian Air Force said the jet completed a loop but then failed to get enough lift as it approached sea level and hit the water just a few hundred meters offshore. The body of the pilot was recovered soon after. An investigation was opened into the cause.[116]
  • On 12 October 2017, a Spanish Air Force Typhoon crashed near its base at Los Llanos Albacete, Spain, when returning from the military parade for the Spanish National Day. The pilot was reported to have died.[117]

Aircraft on display[edit | edit source]

Germany
United Kingdom
  • Eurofighter DA-2 Typhoon (serial number ZH588) is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum London. This aircraft is one of seven EF 2000 development aircraft built by the Eurofighter Partner Companies, and was used for flight testing. The aircraft was delivered by road on 22 January 2008. It is hanging in the Museum's Milestones of Flight Exhibition Hall.[119]
  • In 2009 Typhoon DA-4, serial number ZH590, went on display at the Imperial War Museum Duxford after being given to the museum by the Ministry of Defence in 2008. It is exhibited as part of the museum's 'AirSpace' gallery, as an example of the development of aircraft technology.[120]

Specifications[edit | edit source]

Eurofighter Typhoon line drawing.svg

EJ200 engine (foreground)

The aircraft's turbofan engine (front)

German ground crew mount an IRIS-T to a Eurofighter.

{{aircraft specifications

Eurofighter Typhoon
An RAF Typhoon flying through the Mach Loop
Role Multirole fighter
National origin Multi-national
Manufacturer Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH
First flight 27 March 1994[1]
Introduction 4 August 2003
Primary user Royal Air Force
Produced 1994–present
Number built 623[2][3]
plane or copter?=plane jet or prop?=jet

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

Citations[edit | edit source]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named maiden
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 http://www.airbus.com/content/dam/corporate-topics/publications/o&d/2018-03_MRS_GEN_Ord-Deliv_by_country.pdf
  3. "BAE Systems sheds 2,000 jobs in Britain". The Economist. 12 October 2017. https://www.economist.com/news/britain/21730208-defence-giant-poised-take-advantage-global-rise-military-spending-bae. 
  4. Hoyle, Craig (19 September 2018). "Qatar makes first payment against Typhoon buy". London. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. https://web.archive.org/web/20180920195221/https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/qatar-makes-first-payment-against-typhoon-buy-452021/. Retrieved 20 September 2018. 
  5. "Eurofighter export markets prove a tough testing ground.". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/7afabc4e-117a-11e3-8321-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  6. "Turkey eyes large Eurofighter order, says Finmeccanica.". http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=turkey-eyes-large-eurofighter-order-says-finmeccanica-2005-11-10. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  7. CNBC. "US Top News and Analysis". https://www.cnbc.com/id/100827134. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  8. "Europe’s Fratricidal Defense Exports.". German Marshall Fund Blog. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20141129181644/http://blog.gmfus.org/2012/02/08/europes-fratricidal-defense-exports/. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  9. Seung-woo, Kang (11 November 2013). "Air Force leaning toward stealth fighter". The Korea Times. https://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2013/11/116_146012.html. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  10. Bahraini Air Force Typhoon Order In Prospect Archived 10 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. – Armedforces-Int.com, 8 August 2013
  11. "Welk vliegtuig volgt de F16 op?" (in Dutch). HLN.Be. 14 July 2014. http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/957/Binnenland/article/detail/1958993/2014/07/24/Welk-vliegtuig-volgt-de-F16-op.dhtml. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  12. "Belgium Forced to Buy F-35 If Nuclear Strike Mission Maintained". 19 April 2015. http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/release/3/162912/no-alternative-to-f_35-if-belgium-keeps-nuke-mission.html. 
  13. "Boeing pulls out of Belgian fighter competition". 19 April 2017. https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/boeing-pulls-out-of-belgian-fighter-competition-436354/. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  14. "Ook Saab haakt af voor vervanging Velgische F-16" (in Dutch). 10 July 2017. https://www.hln.be/nieuws/binnenland/ook-saab-haakt-af-voor-vervanging-belgische-f-16-s~afab17e1/. 
  15. "Frankrijk strijdt buiten competitie voor opvolging F-16's" (in Dutch). 8 September 2017. http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20170907_03059830. 
  16. "Bulgaria may switch MiG support from Russia to Poland". janes.com. http://www.janes.com/article/48271/bulgaria-may-switch-mig-support-from-russia-to-poland. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  17. "Anche i caccia JF-17 pakistani in gara in Bulgaria - Analisi Difesa". analisidifesa.it. http://www.analisidifesa.it/2015/03/anche-i-caccia-jf-17-pakistani-in-gara-in-bulgaria/. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  18. Johnson, Robert; Kelley, Michael (10 December 2012). "What It Really Means If Canada Ditches America's F-35". New York City. http://www.businessinsider.com/canadas-f-35-decision-rafale-typhoon-super-hornet-gripen2012-12. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  19. Proussalidis, Daniel (3 January 2014). "Fate of Canadian fighter jets as unclear as ever". Toronto: Sun News. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140219144627/http://www.sunnewsnetwork.ca/sunnews/politics/archives/2014/01/20140103-120155.html. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  20. Rooway, Tyler (6 June 2016). "Report Says Canada Will Buy Super Hornets As An Interim Fighter Solution". The Drive. http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/3833/report-says-canada-will-buy-super-hornets-as-an-interim-fighter-solution?iid=sr-link1. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  21. Pugliese, David (2017-06-02). "Canada signals it will use military equipment to resist US protectionist measures" (in en-US). Defense News. https://www.defensenews.com/air/2017/06/02/canada-signals-it-will-use-military-equipment-to-resist-us-protectionist-measures/. 
  22. Vanegas, Carlos (12 December 2017). "Spain and Colombia negotiate the acquisition of Eurofighter from the Spanish Airforce for the FAC". http://www.defensa.com/colombia/eurofighter-typhoon-ejercito-aire-espanol-para-fuerza-aerea. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  23. "Yle news report, 18 October 2014". Yle Uutiset. http://yle.fi/uutiset/finnish_defence_forces_to_replace_aging_hornet_fighter_fleet/7535139. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  24. "Working group proposes multi-role fighters to replace F/A-18 aircraft". 11 June 2015. http://www.defmin.fi/en/topical/press_releases/working_group_proposes_multi-role_fighters_to_replace_f_a-18_aircraft.6273.news. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  25. "The Finnish Defence Forces' Logistics Command received responses concerning the replacement of the Hornet aircraft". Def Min. 22 November 2016. http://www.defmin.fi/en/topical/press_releases/2016/the_finnish_defence_forces_logistics_command_received_responses_concerning_the_replacement_of_the_hornet_aircraft.8083.news. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named flightglobal.com
  27. Ben Bland and Peggy Hollinger. "Eurofighter turns to social media with Indonesia pitch". http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/4e7a10a4-6366-11e4-8a63-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3KKd0SJYl. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  28. "Indonesian Fighter Requirements Aired at Local Show". http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2016-11-04/indonesian-fighter-requirements-aired-local-show. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  29. "BAE to propose that Typhoon replace RMAF's MIG-29N." Bernama, 2 December 2009. Retrieved: 9 December 2009.
  30. "Cash-Strapped Malaysia Looks To Lease Fighters." Archived 29 December 2014 at Archive.is defensenews.com, Retrieved: 15 Feb 2014.
  31. "Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon Only Competitors In Malaysian MRCA Competition". http://www.defenseworld.net/news/17444/Dassault_Rafale__Eurofighter_Typhoon_Only_Competitors_In_Malaysian_MRCA_Competition. Retrieved 24 October 2016. 
  32. "Malaysia is scrapping plans to buy new fighter jets in order to deal with ISIS-inspired militancy". http://uk.businessinsider.com/r-exclusive-malaysia-shelves-plan-to-buy-new-fighter-jets-defense-source-2017-7?r=US&IR=T. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  33. "Malaysia shelves plans to buy fighter jets - Khmer Times". 14 July 2017. http://www.khmertimeskh.com/65339/malaysia-shelves-plans-to-buy-fighter-jets/. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  34. Menon, Praveen; Hepher, Tim (13 February 2018). "BAE proposes UK government financing to Malaysia for Typhoon jet deal". Kuala Lumpur. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. https://archive.is/20180217122609/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bae-systems-malaysia/bae-proposes-uk-government-financing-to-malaysia-for-typhoon-jet-deal-idUSKBN1FX0DY. Retrieved 17 February 2018. 
  35. Khan, Bilal (14 February 2018). "BAE offers credit for Malaysian fighter bid". Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. https://web.archive.org/web/20180215031012/https://quwa.org/2018/02/14/bae-offers-credit-for-malaysian-fighter-bid/. Retrieved 17 February 2018. 
  36. Reed Business Information Limited. "Spain offers Eurofighters to Peru". http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/spain-offers-eurofighters-to-peru-381843/. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  37. Polskie F-35 od 2021? Archived 26 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (Polish)
  38. "Poland to buy 64 fifth-generation fighters". http://www.janes.com/article/34592/poland-to-buy-64-fifth-generation-fighters. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
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Bibliography[edit | edit source]

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External links[edit | edit source]

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