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Florian Siwicki

Florian Siwicki (Polish pronunciation: [ˈflɔrjan ɕiˈvit͡skʲi]; 10 January 1925 – 11 March 2013) was a Polish military officer, diplomat and a communist politician, as well as a General of the Polish Army. Siwicki was born in Łuck, Poland. In the course of his career he held a number of posts, including military attaché in China, commanding officer of the 2nd Polish Army during the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968,[1] the Chief of General Staff of the Polish Army[2] and a long-time Minister of Military Affairs in the governments of Wojciech Jaruzelski, Zbigniew Messner, Mieczysław Rakowski and Tadeusz Mazowiecki.[3] As one of the people behind the imposition of the martial law in Poland in 1981, after Poland deposed the ruling communist regime in 1989 Siwicki was forced into retirement in July 1990.[4]

After Jaruzelski stepped down from his position as Defense Minister, Siwicki was then appointed to the position, along with serving as Jaruzelski's "top deputy on the defense council".[5] In October 1983, Siwicki was awarded with the Cross of Grunwald, first class.[6]

References[]

  1. Paczkowski, Andrzej; Malcolm Byrne, Gregory F. Domber (2008). From Solidarity to Martial Law: The Polish Crisis of 1980-1981: A Documentary History. Central European University Press. p. xxviii. http://books.google.com/books?id=wI9TUaZZeAMC&pg=PA460&dq=%22Florian+Siwicki%22&hl=en&ei=134RTfaXFon0tgOr4PHWAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Florian%20Siwicki%22&f=false. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  2. Jan Chodakiewicz, Marek; John Radzilowski, Dariusz Tolczyk (2003). Poland's transformation: a work in progress : studies in honor of Kenneth W. Thompson. Transaction Publishers. p. 27. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6BV4FAB8RsC&pg=PA27&dq=%22Florian+Siwicki%22+Chief+of+General+Staff&hl=en&ei=-n8RTam5KI_ksQPW75TKCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22Florian%20Siwicki%22%20Chief%20of%20General%20Staff&f=false. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  3. O. Pragnell, Mervyn; Ann Patrick Rogers (1985). The International year book and statesmen's who's who. Burke's Peerage Ltd.. p. 392. http://books.google.com/books?id=PDQ1AAAAIAAJ&q=%22Florian+Siwicki%22+Minister+of+Military+Affairs&dq=%22Florian+Siwicki%22+Minister+of+Military+Affairs&hl=en&ei=OoIRTaaKC4musAOLoo2LCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBA. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  4. Panos Danopoulos, Constantine; Cynthia Ann Watson (1996). The political role of the military: an international handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 367. http://books.google.com/books?id=v9KzgdGV0l8C&pg=PA367&dq=%22Florian+Siwicki%22+retirement&hl=en&ei=PIgRTbLSHJK-sQPdlZyUCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Florian%20Siwicki%22%20retirement&f=false. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  5. "Polish defense council head named". November 22, 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=x7slAAAAIBAJ&sjid=IfMFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1975,1933433&dq=florian-siwicki&hl=en. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  6. "Polish army chief honored". October 11, 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=864yAAAAIBAJ&sjid=NO8FAAAAIBAJ&pg=5381,107012&dq=florian-siwicki&hl=en. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 

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