|A Piedmont F28-1000 on approach|
|First flight||May 9, 1967|
|Introduction||March 28, 1969 with Braathens SAFE|
|Status||In limited service|
|Primary user|| Garuda Indonesia (historical)|
Libyan Arab Airlines
Gatari Air Service
|Developed into|| Fairchild 228|
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.
Design and developmentEdit
Announced by Fokker in April 1962, production was a collaboration between a number of European companies, namely Fokker, MBB of West Germany, Fokker-VFW (also of Germany) and Short Brothers of Northern Ireland. There was also government money invested in the project with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the West German government having 60% of the 35% German stake.
Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km (1,025 mi), the plane was later designed to have 60–65 seats. On the design sheet, the F28 was originally to mount Bristol Siddeley BS.75 turbofans, but the prototype flew with the lighter Rolls-Royce "Spey Junior", a simplified version of the Rolls-Royce Spey.
The F28 was similar in design to the British Aircraft Corporation BAC One-Eleven and Douglas DC-9, as it had a T-tail and engines mounted at the rear of the fuselage. The aircraft had wings with a slight crescent angle of sweep with ailerons at the tip, simple flaps, and five-section liftdumper only operated after landing to dump the lift. These were employed rather than reverse thrust as the designers felt that doing so not only reduced weight, but maintenance also. Having no reversers also meant that on unpaved airstrips there was less chance of the engines ingesting debris. The leading edge was fixed (although one experimental model had leading edge slats and these were offered as an option) and was anti-iced by bleed air from the engines. The tail cone could split and be hydraulically opened to the sides to act as a variable air brake – also used on the contemporaneous Blackburn Buccaneer. This design was also copied and used on the HS-146, which became the BAe-146. The design is unique in that it not only slows the aircraft down rapidly, it can aid in rapid descents from economic cruising altitudes and also allowed the engines to be set at higher RPM which helped eliminate 'lag time'. This means the engines respond faster if needed for sudden speed increases or go-arounds on the approach to landing. The Fellowship had a retractable tricycle landing gear which used large low pressure tyres enabling the use of unpaved airstrips. Large wheel brakes also helped in shortening the landing run.
In terms of responsibility for production, Fokker designed and built the nose section, centre fuselage and inner wing; MBB/Fokker-VFW constructed the forward fuselage, rear fuselage and tail assembly; and Shorts designed and built the outer wings.
The F28-1000 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on May 9, 1967 (exactly one month later than the famous Boeing 737). German certification was achieved on February 24, 1969. The first order was from German airline LTU, but the first revenue-earning flight was by Braathens on March 28, 1969 who operated five F28s.
The F28 with an extended fuselage was named F28-2000 and could seat up to 79 passengers instead of the 65 seats on the F28-1000. The prototype for this model was a converted F28-1000 prototype, and first flew on April 28, 1971. The models F28-6000 and F28-5000 were modified F28-2000 and F28-1000 respectively, with slats, greater wingspan, and more powerful and quieter engines as the main features. The F28-6000 and F28-5000 were not a commercial success; only two F28-6000 and no F28-5000 were built. After being used by Fokker for a time, the F28-6000 were sold to Air Mauritanie, but not before they were converted to F28-2000s.
The most successful F28 was the F28-4000, which debuted on October 20, 1976 with one of the world's largest Fokker operators, Linjeflyg. This version was powered by quieter Spey 555-15H engines, and had an increased seating capacity (up to 85 passengers), a larger wingspan with reinforced wings, a new cockpit and a new "wide-look" interior featuring enclosed overhead lockers and a less 'tubular' look. The F28-3000, the successor to the F28-1000, featured the same improvements as the F28-4000.
F28s of Ansett Transport Industries' Western Australian intrastate airline, MacRobertson Miller Airlines of Western Australia, flew the longest non-stop F28 route in the world, from Perth to Kununurra, in Western Australia – a distance of about 2,240 km (1,392 mi). This was also the worlds longest twin-jet route at the time. MMA'a F28's also had the highest utilisation rates at the time, flying over 8 hours per day.
By the time production ended in 1987, 241 airframes had been built.
- F.28 Mk 1000
- First variant derived from the third prototype, with a maximum capacity of 65 passengers in a high-density configuration. The Mk 1000 had a length of 27.40 m. It was powered by two Rolls-Royce RB.183-2 Mk.555-15 each with 43.8 kN (9,850 lbf) of thrust. Maximum weight at take-off was 28,123 kg (62,001 lb).
- F.28 Mk 1000C
- All-cargo, passenger/cargo version derived from Mk 1000 with a port-side cargo door.
- F.28 Mk 2000
- It first flew on April 28, 1971, being certified on August 30, 1972. This variant had a fuselage 2.21 m longer than the Mk 1000, with a passenger capacity of 79 in high-density single-class configuration. It began revenue service with Nigeria Airways in October 1972. Ten were built.
- F.28 Mk 3000
- With the shorter fuselage of Mk 1000, it was one of the more successful variants, with greater structural strength and increased fuel capacity. It began revenue service with Garuda Indonesia.
- F.28 Mk 4000
- The first prototype appeared on October 20, 1976 and had the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000 with a passenger capacity of 85. Wingspan was increased by 1.57 m and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183 Mk555-15P of 44 kN (9,901 lbf) thrust. It began service with Linjeflyg (Sweden) at the end of 1976.
- F.28 Mk 5000
- Derived from the Mk 6000, was to combine the shorter fuselage of the Mk 3000 and an increased wingspan. Slats were to be added to the wings and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183 Mk555-15H engines were to be used. Although expected to be an excellent plane to operate in short runways due to its superior power, it was finally not built and the project was abandoned.
- F.28 Mk 6000
- It first flew on September 27, 1973 and had the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000/4000 with an increased wingspan and the Slats. It was certified in October 1975.
- F.28 Mk 6600
- Proposed version. Not built.
- Fairchild 228
- Proposed 50 seat American version assembled by Fairchild-Hiller with Rolls-Royce RB.203 Trent engines.
Accidents and IncidentsEdit
The United States NTSB defines an incident as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or that could affect the safety of operations, and an accident as an occurrence where there is serious personal bodily injury or death, and damage to the aircraft and/or property.
The following is a list of Fokker F28 accidents and incidents:
- Fokker F28 MMA Flight MH 372 Perth–Port Hedland -Broome-Derby-Kununurra-Darwin, Western Australia, Australia – 30 July 1971, VH-FKC: During the short late night hop from Broome to Derby, destination and alternate airports became blanketed with fog. The F28-1000 became dangerously low on fuel and after circling for some time Captain Harold Rowell considered ditching the aircraft in the ocean. However, he eventually landed the jet on a gravel runway in the isolated town of Fitzroy Crossing, landing with less than ten minutes of fuel remaining. No life was lost and no injury occurred.
- Braathens SAFE Flight 239 – December 23, 1972, (Asker, suburb of Oslo, Norway): 40 fatalities. First fatal crash with a Fokker Fellowship.
- Turkish Airlines – January 26, 1974, (Izmir, Turkey): 66 fatalities. the aircraft crashed down 100 m (330 ft) away from the airfield during takeoff.
- F28s of MMA assisted with the evacuation of Darwin after Cyclone Tracy in December 1974. One F28-1000 carried 128 evacuees, mostly children, on a flight to Perth, though most aircraft carried 80, 20 more than the standard 60 passengers. The F28s evacuated 1250 people out of Darwin in four days.
- Turkish Airlines – January 30, 1975, (Sea of Marmara, near to Istanbul, Turkey): 41 fatalities. Crashed into the Sea of Marmara while attempting to land.
- Garuda Indonesia Airways Flight 150- 24 September 1975 near Palembang, Indonesia ): 26 fatalities. Crashed on approach in fog killing 25 people out of 61 passengers and crew. 1 person was killed on the ground.
- Garuda Indonesia Airways- July 11, 1979. 61 fatalities. Crashed into Mount Sibayak while on approach to Polonia International Airport. There was bad weather at the time of the crash.
- Turkish Airlines – December 23, 1979, (Ankara, Turkey): 39 fatalities. Because of turbulence.
- NLM CityHopper Flight 431 – October 6, 1981 (Moerdijk, North Brabant, Netherlands): 17 fatalities, the aircraft flew into a tornado which broke off one of the wings which led to a mid-air break up.
- Garuda Indonesia Domestic Flight – March 20, 1982, runway overrun at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport in bad weather, 27 fatalities.
- Air Ontario Flight 1363 – March 10, 1989 (Dryden, Ontario, Canada): 24 fatalities. Due to various factors including snow, ice and lack of use of anti-icing measures.
- USAir Flight 405 – March 22, 1992 (Queens, New York, United States): 27 fatalities. Due to ice buildup on the wings, pilot error and improper deicing procedures at LaGuardia airport
- Iran Asseman Airlines Flight 746 – October 12, 1994 ( near Natanz, Iran ): 66 fatalities.
- Air Mauritanie Flight 625 – July 1, 1994: All 4 crew and 76 of the 89 passengers on board were killed when their plane crashed at Tidjikja Airport.
- Biman Bangladesh Flight 609 – December 22, 1997 (Sylhet, Bangladesh): No fatalities, CFIT onto a rice field approx 1 mile from runway.
- TANS Peru Flight 222 – January 9, 2003: None of the 46 passengers aboard the Fokker F-28 survived after the aircraft hit a mountain near Chachapoyas, Peru
- Biman Bangladesh parked at Shahjalal International Airport – April 22, 2003 Aviation-Safety.net report
- Biman Bangladesh Flight 601 – October 8, 2004 (Sylhet, Bangladesh): No fatalities, overran runway on landing. Pictures at AirDisaster.com – Aviation-Safety.net report
- Icaro Air Flight 504 crashed during take off at Quito's Mariscal Sucre Airport No deaths, or injuries occurred.
- Aero Bermejo Flight AB134 crashed during his take off on El alto La Paz Bolivia because the engines any one survived.
In August 2006 a total of 92 Fokker F28 aircraft remained in airline service. Major operators included: Garuda Indonesia (62 in total, the largest F-28 fleet in the world), MacRobertson Miller Airlines, Ansett Group Australia (more than 15), Toumaï Air Tchad (1), AirQuarius Aviation (3), SkyLink Arabia (1), Satena (1), Gatari Air Service (5), Montenegro Airlines (5), LADE (1), Pelita Air (5), AirQuarius Aviation (4) and Merpati Nusantara Airlines (1). Biman Bangladesh Airlines (2). Some 22 airlines operated smaller numbers of the type. As of December 2012 F-28s are operated by only one commercial airlines. It is:
- Ghana Air Force (1)
- Philippine Air Force (1 – Used for domestic presidential Flights, The aircraft was named "Kalayaan")
|Length:||89 ft 11 in (27.41 m)||97 ft 2 in (29.62 m)||89 ft 11 in (27.41 m)||97 ft 2 in (29.62 m)|
|Wingspan:||77 ft 4 in (23.57 m)||82 ft 3 in (25.07 m)|
|Wing area:||822.4 sq ft (76.40 m2)||850.0 sq ft (78.97 m2)|
|Max takeoff weight:||65,000 lb (29,000 kg)||73,000 lb (33,000 kg)|
|Max cruising speed:||528 mph (849 km/h)||523 mph (843 km/h)|
|Range:||2,000 km||1,350 km (840 mi) (2,743 km)||1,180 mi (1,900 km)||1025 nm|
|Service ceiling:||35,000 ft (11,000 m)|
|Engines:||2× Rolls-Royce RB183-2 Mk555-15||2× Rolls-Royce RB183-2 Mk555-15P turbofan engines|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fokker F28 Fellowship.|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Reactores Comerciales (1999a) (en: Commercial Jetliners) ISBN 84-95088-87-8" (in Spanish). Antonio López Ortega. Agualarga Editores S.l.. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/libro?codigo=237370. Retrieved 2008-09-26.
- ↑ "What happened to the Fairchild 228?". Spring 1998.
- ↑ Flight International, 3–9 October 2006
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