|Sir Francis Wogan Festing|
Field Marshal Sir Francis Festing
|Born||28 August 1902|
|Died||3 August 1976(aged 73)|
|Place of birth||Dublin, Ireland|
|Place of death||Hexham, Northumberland, England, UK|
|Years of service||1921–1961|
2nd Bn East Lancashire Regiment|
29th Infantry Brigade
36th Infantry Division
British Forces in Hong Kong
Regular Commissions Board
British Troops in Egypt
Far East Land Forces
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
|Battles/wars||Second World War|
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath|
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Distinguished Service Order
Field Marshal Sir Francis Wogan Festing, GCB, KBE, DSO, DL (28 August 1902 – 3 August 1976), called 菲士挺 in Chinese, was a field marshal of the British Army. His most important posts were as Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong (1945–1946 and 1949), General Officer Commanding British Troops in Egypt (1952), General Officer Commanding Eastern Command (1954), Commander-in-Chief Far East Land Forces (1956), and Chief of the Imperial General Staff (1958–1961). He served in World War II, taking a prominent role in Operation Ironclad (the Battle of Madagascar) and the Arakan offensive of the Burma Campaign, and later advised the British Government on ending conscription and reducing the size of the Army by fifteen battalions.
Army career[edit | edit source]
Born the son of Brigadier-General Francis Leycester Festing and Charlotte Katherine Grindall Festing (née Festing) and educated at Winchester College and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Festing was commissioned into 3rd Battalion the Rifle Brigade on 23 December 1921. He was promoted to lieutenant on 23 December 1923 and became Aide-de-Camp to General Sir John Burnett-Stuart in 1926. He went on to be Air Liaison Officer for Eastern Command on 1 February 1936 and, having been promoted to captain on 1 September 1936, joined the staff at the War Office on 15 February 1938 before being promoted to major on 23 December 1938.
He served in World War II, initially as air liaison officer for the expedition to Norway and then, having been promoted to acting lieutenant colonel in April 1940, as a staff officer in the Operations Directorate at the War Office from May 1940. In September 1940 he became Commanding Officer of 2nd Battalion East Lancashire Regiment and then in April 1942 he became Commander of 29th Independent Infantry Brigade Group which was the landing force of Force 121 for Operation Ironclad, the seizure of Vichy French ports and airfields in the Indian Ocean, notably Diego Suárez, Majunga and Tamatave in Madagascar. He was awarded the DSO for his services in this campaign.
In November 1942 he took command of 36th Indian Division and at the beginning of 1944 led it in the final stages of the Arakan offensive of the Burma Campaign. In mid-1944 the division moved to Northern Burma as part of the US led Northern Combat Area Command before rejoining 14th Army. Festing had a reputation as a front line soldier as illustrated by one quote of an event on 29 October 1944:
"Myitkyina – To the growing Festing legend was added another dramatic chapter this week-end when Major-General Francis Wogan Festing personally led the advance platoon of the 36th British Division into Mawlu. The leader of the platoon was killed, leaving the unit in charge of a sergeant. Festing, who is generally at the front, took over, and, probably the highest ranking officer ever to command a platoon, led it into Mawlu."
He was mentioned in despatches on 5 April 1945, appointed CBE on 5 July 1945 and appointed CB on 6 June 1946 all in recognition of his services in Burma and awarded the Legion of Merit in the Degree of Commander by the President of the United States for his conduct throughout the War on 8 November 1945.
He was appointed Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong from August 1945 and, then having been promoted to major-general on 17 August 1946, he returned to the UK to be Director of Weapons and Development at the War Office in February 1947 where he remained until 26 June 1949 and then returned to Hong Kong. After recovering from a blood clot on the brain, he was appointed President of the Regular Commissions Board on 1 October 1950 and became Assistant Chief of Staff (Organisation and Training) at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe on 1 April 1951. He took part in the funeral procession on 11 February 1952 following the death of King George VI and was appointed KBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours 1952.
Promoted to lieutenant general on 6 February 1952, he became General Officer Commanding British Troops in Egypt in April 1952 and then General Officer Commanding Eastern Command on 1 July 1954 and, having been advanced to KCB in the New Year Honours 1956, he became Commander-in-Chief Far East Land Forces in August 1956. Promoted to full general on 29 November 1956, advanced to GCB in the Queen's Birthday Honours 1957 and having been appointed ADC to the Queen on 26 June 1958, he became Chief of the Imperial General Staff on 29 September 1958. In this capacity he advised the British Government on ending conscription and reducing the size of the Army by fifteen battalions. Having been promoted to field marshal on 1 September 1960, he retired on 1 November 1961.
He was also Honorary Colonel of the 50th (Northumberland) Machine Gun Battalion of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers from 1 February 1948, Colonel Commandant of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers from 12 March 1953, Colonel Commandant of the 3rd Green Jackets, The Rifle Brigade from 7 November 1958 and Colonel Commandant of the 3rd Battalion The Royal Green Jackets from 15 June 1968.
In retirement he became a Deputy Lieutenant of Northumberland. His interests included early firearms and Japanese Swords; he was also a practising Roman Catholic. He died at his home at Tarset near Hexham in Northumberland on 3 August 1976.
Family[edit | edit source]
In 1937 Francis Festing married Mary Cecilia, née Riddell (elder daughter of Cuthbert David Giffard Riddell, of Swinburne Castle, Northumberland), from an old recusant family. The couple had four sons: Fra' Matthew Festing (Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta), John Festing (former High Sheriff of Northumberland), Major Michael Festing and Andrew Festing (former President of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters).
Honours[edit | edit source]
Festing received several honours and honorary appointments during his life:
- UK: Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) in 1942
- UK: Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) in 1952
- UK: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) in 1957
- UK: Aide-de-camp (ADC) to Queen Elizabeth II between 1958–1960
- UK: Deputy Lieutenant (DL) for Northumberland in 1962
- ROC: Order of the Cloud and Banner
- SMOM: Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta in 1963
- UK: Honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree (Hon. DCL) from Newcastle University
- US: Commander of the Legion of Merit
References[edit | edit source]
- Note: Charlotte Katherine Grindall Festing was a second cousin of Francis Leycester Festing
- "Field Marshal Sir Francis Festing". British Military History Biographies. http://www.britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk/documents.php?aid=115&nid=16&start=5. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Heathcote, p. 118
- "No. 32892". 28 December 1923. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/32892/page/
- "No. 34256". 18 February 1936. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/34256/page/
- Heathcote, p. 119
- "No. 34489". 4 March 1938. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/34489/page/
- "No. 34582". 23 December 1938. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/34582/page/
- "No. 38225". 2 March 1948. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/38225/page/
- "No. 37655". 16 July 1946. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37655/page/
- "No. 39195". 6 April 1951. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/39195/page/
- Foster, Geoffrey, 36th Division – North Burma – 1944–45
- "No. 37015". 3 April 1945. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37015/page/
- "No. 37161". 3 July 1945. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37161/page/
- "No. 37595". 4 June 1946. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37595/page/
- "No. 37340". 6 November 1945. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37340/page/
- "No. 37701". 23 August 1946. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37701/page/
- "No. 38674". 26 July 1949. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/38674/page/
- Heathcote, p. 120
- "No. 39031". 3 October 1950. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/39031/page/
- "No. 39206". 17 April 1951. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/39206/page/
- "No. 39575". 17 June 1952. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/39575/page/
- "No. 39614". 1 August 1952. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/39614/page/
- "No. 40223". 6 July 1954. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/40223/page/
- "No. 41089". 4 June 1957. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/41089/page/
- "No. 41426". 20 June 1958. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/41426/page/
- "No. 41508". 26 September 1958. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/41508/page/
- "No. 42503". 31 October 1961. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/42503/page/
- "No. 38278". 30 April 1948. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/38278/page/
- "No. 39797". 10 March 1953. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/39797/page/
- "No. 41541". 4 November 1958. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/41541/page/
- "No. 44633". 12 June 1968. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/44633/page/
- "No. 42692". 29 May 1962. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/42692/page/
- Heathcote, p. 121
- "Field Marshal Sir Francis Wogan Festing". ThePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p32028.htm. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "Fra' Matthew Festing". Order of Malta. http://www.orderofmalta.int//the-order-and-its-institutions/246/fra-matthew-festing-2/?lang=en. Retrieved 1 January 212.
- "No. 53857". 23 November 1994. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/53857/page/
- "Honorary degrees for brothers". University of Northumbria. http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/static/insightarchive/1710445?facebox=1. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Foster, Geoffrey (1946). 36th Division – North Burma – 1944–45. privately published.
- Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Barnsley (UK): Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
- Wilkes, Lyall (1991). Festing – Field Marshal: A study of "Front Line Frankie", G.C.B., K.B.E., D.S.O.. Book Guild Ltd. ISBN 0-86332-532-7.
|Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong
Sir George Erskine
|Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong
June 1949 – September 1949
Sir Robert Mansergh
Sir Geoffrey Bourne
|GOC-in-C Eastern Command
Sir Charles Coleman
Sir Charles Loewen
|C-in-C Far East Land Forces
Sir Richard Hull
Sir Gerald Templer
|Chief of the Imperial General Staff
Sir Richard Hull
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