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Franz Pfeffer von Salomon

Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (February 19, 1888 in Düsseldorf - April 12, 1968 in Munich) was the first commander of the SA after its 1925 restoration, which followed its temporary abolition in 1923 after the abortive Beer Hall Putsch.[1]

Pfeffer von Salomon was a Freikorps member and veteran from World War I. He gained his reputation by organizing resistance groups to stop the French occupation of the Ruhr. He was Gauleiter to Upper Bavaria; Heinrich Himmler was once his secretary. Adolf Hitler made Pfeffer commander of the SA after he swore unconditional loyalty to Hitler following the Bamberg Conference in 1926.

Pfeffer was fired in 1930 following the disagreements he had with Hitler about the role of the SA, and because he failed to stop fellow SA leader Walter Stennes from briefly occupying the Nazi Party's office in Berlin. After Pfeffer's dismissal, Hitler assumed personal Supreme Command of the SA. Thereafter, Ernst Röhm was summoned by Hitler to return to Germany from South America and to run the SA as its Chief of Staff, since Hitler had no interest in running the SA itself.

Political offices
Preceded by
Hermann Göring
Leader of the SA
Succeeded by
Adolf Hitler


  1. Hitler was incarcerated in Landsberg until 20 December 1924 for his role in the November 1923 putsch. In early January 1925 he met with Heinrich Held, the Bavarian Prime Minister, and promised that the NSDAP had abandoned the strategy of seeking a violent or unconstitutional overthrow of the government and that it would thereafter only proceed to seek power through legal and constitutional means. In February 1925 the Bavarian bans against the NSDAP and its instruments (including the Nazi newspaper Völkischer Beobachter and the SA) were lifted. See Toland chapter 4; Kershaw chapter 3.


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