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Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix[1] (* 10 February 1698, Berlin;[1][2] † 23 March 1765,[3][4] Berlin[3][4][5]) was a Royal Prussian Lieutenant General,[2][6] the eldest son of another Royal Prussian Lieutenant General[2] and early French noble Huguenot immigrant to Brandenburg-Prussia. His father was one of King Frederick the Great's most active and most treasured officers.[3][7] Twice wounded and left for dead on the battlefield, he covered the name von Forcade de Biaix in glory. Together with his wife, he fathered 23 children.[3]

He was Regimentschef of the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment,[6][8] recipient of the Kingdom of Prussia's highest military order of merit for heroism, Knight of the Order of Pour le Mérite,[2] Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle,[2][6][7][9] Domherr von Havelberg,[7] Drost zu Neuenrade in the County of Mark,[2] Amtshauptmann von Zinna,[2][3][6][7] President of the Ober-Collegium Sanitatis in Berlin and Lieutenant governor of Breslau.[6]

In 1851, his name was immortalized on the north facing commemorative plaque on the Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great in Berlin.

Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix is referred to in some historical sources, as the Marquis de Biaix.[7][10] As with his father, there is no evidence that he was ever a Marquis. Biaix was not a marquisate, but instead a noble fief (see also Manorialism).

Early life[edit | edit source]

Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix was the eldest son of Lieutenant General Jean de Forcade de Biaix (1663–1729) and his wife, the Baroness Juliane von Honstedt, daughter of the Major General Baron Quirin von Honstedt,[2][11][12] from Württemberg but in the service of Prussia. His baptismal Godfather was none less than Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg and King in Prussia in 1698, who became Frederick I of Prussia the first King of Prussia aka "the Mercenary King" in 1701.

His father was a Huguenot religious exile[3][13] who was among the earliest arrivals in Brandenburg-Prussia,[14] after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau[7] in October 1685. Unlike his father and his eldest brother, preferring to not abjure from his Calvinist beliefs, he left his native Béarn in France for Brandenburg-Prussia, where Frederick I of Prussia, then Elector of Brandenburg, was not only encouraging, but actively facilitating, Huguenot immigration.

Little else is known about his early life.

Military career[edit | edit source]

The lives and careers of both Forcade and his father are intricately linked to the history of the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment, founded in 1713 and disbanded in 1806. Forcade spent the majority of his career on the infantry side of this regiment. The regiment also included a company of Grenadiers, the 2nd Grenadier Company. It was garrisoned in Berlin from 1716 until 1806. He later commanded the entire regiment, including the Grenadiers, for 17 years, (14 July 1748 - 23 March 1765). His father commanded the regiment during 13 years (February 1716 - 2 February 1729). During much of its existence, as well as more than 200 years after, it was referred to as Forcade's Regiment. The Regiment is immortalized in the German military marching composition "Das Regiment Forcade" that was in use as late as World War II.

Forcade entered Prussian military service in 1713[1][2] during the reign of King Frederick William I of Prussia (1713–40), beginning what would become one of the most notable military careers in the history of the Kingdom of Prussia, spanning some 53 years,[5] and further serving under King Frederick the Great (1740–65).

Great Northern War (1715)[edit | edit source]

Following Brandenburg-Prussia's declaration of war against Sweden in the summer of 1715, Forcade fought in the Pomeranian Campaigns. He fought at the Siege of Stralsund[1][4] (15 June 1715 - 23 December 1715), where he was wounded for the first time, the storming of the Peenemuende Lair (21–22 August 1715) and on Ruegen Island (16–18 November 1715).

First Silesian War (1740–42)[edit | edit source]

He fought near Glogau (29 December 1740 - 2 January 1741), Breslau (29 December 1740 - 2 January 1741), Ottmachau Palace (12 January 1741), Troppau (23 January 1740), Graetz (25 January 1741), the Battle of Mollwitz[1][4] (10 April 1741), at Neisse (19 October 1741 - 31 October 1741), Laa (12 March 1742), Bruenn (31 March 1742 - 3 April 1742), Austerlitz (10 April 1742) and Wartha (25–26 May 1742).

Second Silesian War (1744–45)[edit | edit source]

Forcade and the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment fought at Prague (2–18 September 1744), Pless aka Josephstadt (27 November 1744), Patschkau (27 December 1744) the Battle of Hohenfriedberg[1][4] (4 June 1745), Gross- and Klein Bocken (31 July 1745), around Neustadt in Böhmen (11–12 September 1745), at the Battle of Soor[1][3][4][7] (30 September 1745) and at Trautenbach and Schatzlar (16 October 1745).

The regiment lost its Regimentschef, Major General Wolf Alexander Ernst Christoph von Blanckensee, at the Battle of Soor. Forcade himself, was shot through the calf of his right foot.[4] Badly wounded,[3][6][7] he was left for dead on the battlefield.[4][5] King Frederick the Great attributed the glory of the victory to him for his actions on the battlefield that day,[4][5] and, in January 1746, awarded him the Kingdom of Prussia's highest order of merit, the Pour le Mérite,[3][4][6][7] as well as a pension of 600 Thaler[3][4][6][7] and the title of Domherr von Havelberg.[3][4][6][7]

Another episode in 1746 demonstrates just how much King Frederick the Great treasured Forcade. During a ritual presentation at court at the Berlin Palace, Forcade had to lean on a window because of his wounded right foot. The King personally brought him a chair, graciously saying: "My dear Colonel von Forcade, so brave and worthy a man, as He is, well deserves that even the King himself brings him a chair."[3][4][5][7][15][16]

  • In 1747, on occasion of the baptism of his son, Friedrich Heinrich Ferdinand Leopold, His Majesty the King Frederick the Great was the Godfather. As a gift, the King ordered von Forcade to accept the title of Drost zu Neuenrade (the Official responsible for the militarily administrative district of Neuenrade) in the County of Mark with the royal command that it be later transferred to the child.[7]
  • May 1747, promoted to Major General,[4] with rank retroactive to 4 December 1743.[4][6]
  • Appointed on 14 July 1748 as Regimentschef[1] of his father's old regiment,[1] the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment,[1][6] at the time also referred to as Donha's Regiment, after his predecessor, Count Christoph zu Dohna.[4][7][8]

Third Silesian War (1756–63)[edit | edit source]

Forcade commanded his regiment in early engagements near Pirna (11 September 1756 - 16 October 1756).

Forcade and the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment were particularly active during the Seven Years' War.

1757[edit | edit source]

He commanded his regiment, fighting alongside of his men, at

Forcade's infantry lost 600 men during each of the battles at Prague and Leuthen.

When the King took possession of Leuthen, he personally wrote of von Forcade:

English translation: "My dear Lieutenant General von Forkade. I know that he has endured much at this siege, and it is our fortune because of him, that we were soon able to become masters of the city, because he otherwise, without my being able to help or relieve him, would have had to endure even more. So I thank him for it, and because he endured the most here : so shall he also alone have the honor from it. So, I herewith award him not only the Order of the Black Eagle, but also appointed him as Lieutenant governor of Breslau. I have awarded the vacant {command of} the Bremen Grenadier Company in Golz' Regiment to his eldest son, who is my Adjutant, because he well deserves it".

1758[edit | edit source]

Forcade was wounded again at the Zorndorf.[4][5][6] The Prussians lost 12,800 men, the Russians lost 18,000 men at Zorndorf. Forcade lost 1,600 of his men that day, 800 each from his infantry and Grenadiers, as well as the Grenadier's commanding officer, Major Ernst Sigismund von Wedell.

He again lost 1,600 of his men again at Hochkirch, 800 each from his infantry and Grenadiers, where the Prussians were defeated on the battlefield.

1759[edit | edit source]

  • the Battle of Friedland in Bohemia (9 September 1759); Infantry

During this successful battle, Forcade's infantry took 700 prisoners and destroyed an important munitions depot.

1760[edit | edit source]

At the Battle of Torgau, Forcade lost 15 officers and more than 600 men.

1761[edit | edit source]

1762[edit | edit source]

Although Forcade's Grenadiers won the Battle of Grethen against 4,000 Austrians, they lost their commanding officer, Major Joachim Friedrich von Rathenow, who died from his wounds a week after the battle.

The Treaty of Hubertusburg[edit | edit source]

In 1763, following the Treaty of Hubertusburg,[4] he received a gift of 8,000 Thaler[4] from King Frederick the Great.[3][6]

A cabinet order of the King on 19 May 1763 created a War Tribunal, presided over by Lieutenant General von Forcade, together with Lieutenant Generals von Wedell, von Czetteritz and von Wylich.[18]

Final Years[edit | edit source]

The proverb "Brave wie Forcade" (Brave like Forcade) became a standard expression of valor in the Prussian Army during the 18th century. "Das Regiment Forcade (hat nie ein Feind besiegt)" (lyrics by Georg von Kries, melody by Hans Hertel, 1906) was long a standard, at times mandatory, composition in the German military song repertoire.

His Legacy[edit | edit source]

Following Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix's death in 1765, his widow received a handwritten letter,[4] in French, from King Frederick the Great, that reads:

English translation: "I take advantage of the first {free} moment of my convalescence to let you know the part I take in the loss you experienced, and what I want to do to relieve your justifiable pain. I give you a first pension of five hundred crowns for the long and faithful {years of} service that your husband rendered me; a second identical sum, in consideration of your happy fertility; and a third, also of five hundred crowns, to help you raise your children. I can only recommend that you make sure that they follow in the footsteps of their father."[7][19]

Madame von Forcade undoubtedly highly appreciated this well-deserved gesture. She made sure that their children respected the King's wishes; all five sons were commissioned officers; five of the six daughters married military men, and the sixth joined a religious order.

Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix and his wife are interred together in the Old Garrison Cemetery in Berlin.

A 19th century theatrical play centered around Frederick the Great, affectionately referred to as (Old Fritz), and Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix {citation needed}.

In 1851, General von Forcade was immortalized on the north facing commemorative plaque on the Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great in Berlin.

Family[edit | edit source]

Coat of Arms[edit | edit source]

Forcade-Biaix Coat of Arms, Prussian Branch, circa 1820

The family motto of the Prussian branch is "In Virtute Pertinax".[20]

Coat of Arms: An escutcheon with the field divided into four parts. Left half: argent tincture, a gules lion holding a sinople eradicated oak tree between its paws; azure tincture charged with three or mullets; Right half: a gules castle with three towers on an argent tincture; sinople tincture charged with three argent roses below it. A Grafenkrone (Count's coronet) as helmut on top of the escutcheon, crested with a or fleur-de-lis. Two or lions supporting the escutcheon. Motto: "In Virtute Pertinax".

Heraldic Symbolism: The lion symbolizes courage; the eradicated oak tree symbolizes strength and endurance; the towers are symbols of defense and of individual fortitude; the mullets (5-star) symbolizes divine quality bestowed by god; the rose is a symbol of hope and joy; the fleur-de-lis is the floral emblem of France; the coronet is a symbol of victory, sovereignty and empire. A Count's coronet to demonstrate rank and because the family originally served the counts of Foix and Béarn during the English Wars in the Middle Ages.

Parents[edit | edit source]

Jean de Forcade de Biaix[21] (1663-1729), was a Royal Prussian Lieutenant General.[7][13][21] He was the Regimentschef[13] of the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment, Commandant of the Royal Residence in Berlin,[7][13] Gouverneur militaire of Berlin and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle.[7]

He married the Baroness Juliane von Honstedt,[2][3][7] from the noble house of Erdeborn, on 15 April 1697. She was the daughter of Major General[2] Quirin, Erbherr (Allod) von Honstedt[2][11][12] (see also Hohnstedt), Herr of Sulzau, Weikenburg and Erdeborn,[12] and his wife Maria Magdalena Streiff von Löwenstein,[2][12] of Falkenau, Diedenhosten and Bacour.[12]

Marriage[edit | edit source]

Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix originally intended to marry a daughter of French Baron François Mathieu Vernezobre de Laurieux (1690–1748). The rich baron and his family had left Paris after the collapse of John Law's Mississippi Company in 1720 and befriended King Frederick William I of Prussia. When the King ordered Vernezobre to marry his daughter to von Forcade de Biaix, who she rejected, the marriage was only averted when Vernezobre agreed to undertake the construction of a prestigious city residence for the King in the Husarenstraße, later renamed Wilhelmstrasse in his honor, after his death in 1740.

He subsequently married in 1727 at the French Cathedral in Berlin with Marie de Montolieu, Baronne de St.-Hippolyte[3][4] aka Maria von Montaulieu, Freiin von St.-Hippolyte (* 23 August 1709, Berlin; † 15 September 1767,[22] Berlin[22]), daughter of Sardinian and Prussian Major General[4] Louis de Montolieu, Baron de St.-Hippolyte († 1738, Berlin), also a Huguenot exile.

Children[edit | edit source]

The couple had 23 children[3][4][22] together, of which four were stillborn[4] and 11 survived[3][4] their parents. Among them:

  • Friedrich Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix[23] (* about 1729; † 3 September 1778, Frankfurt/Oder[23]), the eldest son,[23] Royal Prussian Colonel, Schwadronschef (Rittmeister) of the 2nd Grenadier Company in the 24th Prussian Infantry Regiment, and, after 1 July 1761, acting Regimentschef[23] of the [24th Prussian Infantry Regiment][23] garrisoned in Frankfurt/Oder,[23] recipient of the Kingdom of Prussia's highest military order of merit for heroism, Knight of the Order of Pour le Mérite[23]
  • Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix[23] (* about 1731; † 1806[23]), the second-born son,[23] Royal Prussian Major[23] in the 1st Hussar Regiment[23]
  • Louise Susanne von Forcade de Biaix (* about 1734, Berlin) ∞ Karl Bernhard von Prittwitz und Gaffron (* 29 March 1735; † 1786)[24]
  • Elisabeth Henriette Marie von Forcade de Biaix (* 21 December 1735, Berlin; † 24 September 1774, Berlin) ∞ 22 August 1756 with Lieutenant General Philipp Friedrich Lebrecht von Lattorff (1733–1808)
  • Charlotte Sophie Therese Marthe von Forcade de Biaix (* 25 October 1743, Berlin; † 23 March 1799, Steinfurth) ∞ in September 1775[25] Johann Hugo Wilhelm, Freiherr Löw von und zu Steinfurth (* 25 August 1750; 23 May 1786), Royal Prussian and Knight of the Order of Joseph
  • Friedrich Heinrich Ferdinand Leopold von Forcade de Biaix[23] (* 19 December 1747,[23] Berlin; † 12 October 1808,[23] Schleibnitz Manor,[26] Silesia), retired Royal Prussian Lieutenant Colonel, participated in the Rhine Campaigns,[23] recipient of the Kingdom of Prussia's highest military order of merit for heroism, Knight of the Order of Pour le Mérite (1774),[23] Drost zu Neuenrade in the County of Mark[23] after his father's death; married in 1765[23] at Ossen Manor to Wilhelmine von Koshembahr und Skorkau[23] from the house of Ossen[7] (3 sons[23] from this marriage)
  • Albertine Wilhelmine von Forcade de Biaix (* about 1748, Berlin; † 12 August 1777, Berlin) ∞ Gotlieb Joachim Hindenberg (1736–1803)[27]
  • Georg Friedrich von Forcade de Biaix (* 16 October 17??; † 31 August 1811) ∞ Johanna Sophie (* 8 June 1755; † 21 August 1802)

Other Family[edit | edit source]

Titles and Offices[edit | edit source]

Historical terms, in particular those related to offices, titles and awards, are often outdated in their usage to the point that modern dictionaries no longer contain them. To understand their meaning in the present day context it is necessary to look into dictionaries from the period. Historical terms in German used in the production of this article, and their English definitions, include:

Regimentschef[edit | edit source]

The appointment to Regimentschef, a Regimental Commander in the Prussian Army, was usually for life. For this reason, most regiments were known and referred to by the name of their Chef, the commander, for example Forcade's Regiment instead of the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment.

Note: In a similar tradition, a Schwadronschef was a Squadron Commander (of horse-mounted troops), usually for life, or until retirement or discharge for disability. The terms Schwadronschef and Rittmeister are synonymous and are often used interchangeably in the 18th century.

Amtmannschaft von Zinna[edit | edit source]

the Office of High Bailiff of Zinna

  • Amtmannschaft (die): synonym with "Drostei"; the Seneschal's Lordship, Dignity, Power or Jurisdiction, the Bailiwick See: Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 1: ... Containing the Letters A - G of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796, Page 102 (in German and English)

Amtshauptmann von Zinna[edit | edit source]

High Bailiff of Zinna

  • Amtshauptmann (der): the Lord Seneschal, a Lord High-Constable, an Upper Bailiff. See: Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 1: ... Containing the Letters A - G of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796, Page 102 (in German and English)

Domherr von Havelberg[edit | edit source]

Canon of Havelberg

  • Domherr (der): Latin "Canicius"; a Canon, a Prebendary, a Canonist See: Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 1: ... Containing the Letters A - G of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796, Page 602 (in German and English)

Domherstelle zu Havelberg[edit | edit source]

the Canonship of Havelberg

  • Domherrstelle (die): a Canonship, the Place of a Canon in a Cathedral or Collegiate Church See: Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 1: ... Containing the Letters A - G of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796, Page 602 (in German and English)

Drost zu Neuenrade[edit | edit source]

High Bailiff of Neuenrade

  • Drost (der): synonym with "Landdrost", "Landshauptmann" and "Landsvogt"; a Lord Seneschal, a Governor of a certain part of a country, an Upper Bailiff, a Castellan See: Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 1: ... Containing the Letters A - G of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796, Page 618 (in German and English)

President of the Ober-Collegium Sanitatis[edit | edit source]

In accordance with the Medical Edict of 12 November 1685 a central national "Collegium Medicum" was created in Berlin to supervise the medical professions. In 1719, the "Collegium Sanitatis" was founded, in large part due to the impact of the Plague of 1709-11. Its mission was paramedical policing, in particular sanitation policing in the community, and disease control. The two were later merged into the "Ober-Collegium Sanitatis".

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 Lange, Page 91 (in German)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 König, Band 1, Page 430 (in German)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 2, Page 179 (in German)
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 König, Band 1, Page 431 (in German) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "König, Band 1, Page 431" defined multiple times with different content
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Lange, Page 92 (in German)
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 Heinsius, Issue 52, Page 241, Nr. V (in German)
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 4, Page 390 (in German)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Gieraths, Band 8, Page 79 (in German)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Ledebur, Band 17, Page 43 (in German)
  10. Priesdorff, Band 1, Page 354, Nr. 371 (in German)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 2, Page 436 (in German)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 5, Page 245 (in German)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 König, Band 1, Page 429 (in German)
  14. Chaix d'Est-Ange, Tome 18, Page 316 (in French)
  15. Komander, Page 310 (in German)
  16. Naumann, Band 1, Page 522 (in German)
  17. Gieraths, Band 8, Page 111 (in German)
  18. Winter, Page 155 (in German)
  19. Paganel, Volume 1, Page 425 (in French)
  20. Champeaux, Page 105 (in French)
  21. 21.0 21.1 Picamilh, Tome 1, Page 421 (in French)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Heinsius, Issue 73, Page 825, Nr. XI (in German)
  23. 23.00 23.01 23.02 23.03 23.04 23.05 23.06 23.07 23.08 23.09 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13 23.14 23.15 23.16 23.17 23.18 23.19 23.20 Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 4, Page 391 (in German)
  24. Prittwitz, Page 202 (in German)
  25. Heinsius, Issue 157, Page 471, Nr. 5 (in German)
  26. Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 2, Page 180 (in German)
  27. Kieckebusch, Page 202 (in German)

References[edit | edit source]

  • Archiv der Stiftung Zentralstelle für Personen- und Familiengeschichte, Berlin-Dahlem
  • Chaix d'Est-Ange, Gustave: Dictionnaire des Familles françaises anciennes ou notables à la fin du XIXe siècle: FEL - FOR, Tome 18, 1922, Pages 315-316. (in French)
  • Champeaux, Joseph de: Devises, cris de guerre, légendes, dictons, Dijon 1890, Page 105. (in French)
  • Danty, Pierre: Revue de Pau et du Béarn, Une famille béarnaise au service de la Prusse : les Forcade-Biaix, La Société des Sciences Lettres et Arts de Pau et du Béarn, 1978, Nr. 6, Pages 269-272. (in French)
  • Dufau de Maluquer, Armand de & Jaurgain, Jean de: Armorial de Béarn, 1696-1701 : extrait du recueil officiel dressé par ordre de Louis XIV [sous la direction de C. d'Hozier] / texte publié d'après les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale et accompagné de notes bigraphiques, historiques et généalogiques, Tome 2, Pau 1893, Pages 473-474. (in French)
  • Erman, Jean Pierre & Reclam, Peter Christian Friedrich: Mémoires Pour Servir à l'Histoire des Réfugiés François dans les États du Roi - Tome 9: Tableau des Militaires et des Nobles Appartenans aux Colonies Françoises des États du Roi depuis l'Époque du Refuge, Berlin 1799, Pages 119-121. (in French)
  • Gieraths, Günther: Die Kampfhandlungen der brandenburgisch-preussischen Armee, 1626-1807, Band 8, Berlin 1964, Pages 79 & 111. (in German)
  • Heinsius, Johann Samuel (Verlag): Fortgesetzte neue genealogisch-historische Nachrichten von den vornehmsten Begebenheiten, welche sich an den europäischen Höfen zutragen, worinn zugleich vieler Stands-Personen Lebens-Beschreibungen vorkommen. Der 49.-54. Theil (1764-1765), Leipzig 1766, Page 241, Nr. V (in German)
  • Heinsius, Johann Samuel (Verlag): Fortgesetzte neue genealogisch-historische Nachrichten von den vornehmsten Begebenheiten, welche sich an den europäischen Höfen zutragen, worinn zugleich vieler Stands-Personen Lebens-Beschreibungen vorkommen. Der 73.-84. Theil (1766-1767), Leipzig 1768, Page 825, Nr. XI (in German)
  • Heinsius, Johann Samuel (Verlag): Fortgesetzte neue genealogisch-historische Nachrichten von den vornehmsten Begebenheiten, welche sich an den europäischen Höfen zutragen, worinn zugleich vieler Stands-Personen Lebens-Beschreibungen vorkommen. Der 157.-168. Theil (1774-1776), Leipzig 1775-1777, Page 471, Nr. 5 (in German)
  • Kieckebusch, Werner von: Studien zur Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur der Zisterzienser, Band 28. Chronik des Klosters zum Heiligengrab von der Reformation bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Page 202. (in German)
  • König, Anton Balthasar: Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und Militairpersonen, welche sich in Preußischen Diensten berühmt gemacht haben: A - F, Band 1, Pages 429-432. (in German)
  • Komander, Gerhild H. M.: Der Wandel des "Sehepuncktes". Die Geschichte Brandenburg-Preußens in der Graphik von 1648 bis 1810. Münster 1995, Pages 310-311. (in German)
  • Kroener, Bernhard: Potsdam: Staat, Armee, Residenz in der preussisch-deutschen Militärgeschichte. (in German)
  • Lange, Eduard: Die Soldaten Friedrich’s des Grossen, Leipzig 1853, Pages 91–92. (in German)
  • Ledebur, Leopold von: Allgemeines Archiv für die Geschichtskunde des Preußischen Staates, Band 17, Berlin 1835, Page 43. (in German)
  • Naumann, Gottlob: Sammlung ungedruckter Nachrichten, so die Geschichte der Feldzüge der Preußen von 1740. bis 1779. erläutern, Band 1, Dresden 1782 (in German)
  • O'Gilvy, Gabriel & Bourrousse de Laffore, Pierre Jules de: Nobiliaire de Guienne et de Gascogne. Revue des familles d'ancienne chevalerie ou anoblies de ces provinces, antérieures à 1789, avec leurs généalogies et armes, Tome 3, Paris 1860, Pages 169-185. (in French)
  • Paganel, Camille-Pierre-Alexis: Histoire de Frédéric-Le-Grand, Volume 1, Paris 1830, Page 425. (in French)
  • Picamilh, Charles de: Statistique générale des Basses-Pyrénées, Tome 1, Page 421. (in French)
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  • Winter, Georg: Die kriegsgeschichtliche Überlieferung über Friedrich den Grossen kritisch geprüft an dem Beispiel der Kapitulation von Maxen, 1888, Page 155. (in German)
  • Zedlitz-Neukirch, Leopold von: Neues preußisches Adelslexicon oder genealogische und diplomatische Nachrichten von den in der preussischen Monarchie ansässigen oder zu derselben in Beziehung stehenden fürstlichen, gräflichen, freiherrlichen und adeligen Häusern mit der Angabe ihrer Abstammung, ihres Besitzthums, ihres Wappens und der aus ihnen hervorgegangenen Civil- und Militärpersonen, Helden, Gelehrten und Künstler: E - H, Band 2, 1836, Pages 179-180. (in German)
  • Zedlitz-Neukirch, Leopold von: Neues preußisches Adelslexicon oder genealogische und diplomatische Nachrichten von den in der preussischen Monarchie ansässigen oder zu derselben in Beziehung stehenden fürstlichen, gräflichen, freiherrlichen und adeligen Häusern mit der Angabe ihrer Abstammung, ihres Besitzthums, ihres Wappens und der aus ihnen hervorgegangenen Civil- und Militärpersonen, Helden, Gelehrten und Künstler: P - Z, Band 4, 1837, Pages 390-392. (in German)
  • Zedlitz-Neukirch, Leopold von: Neues preußisches Adelslexicon oder genealogische und diplomatische Nachrichten von den in der preussischen Monarchie ansässigen oder zu derselben in Beziehung stehenden fürstlichen, gräflichen, freiherrlichen und adeligen Häusern mit der Angabe ihrer Abstammung, ihres Besitzthums, ihres Wappens und der aus ihnen hervorgegangenen Civil- und Militärpersonen, Helden, Gelehrten und Künstler: Supplement, Band 5, 1839, Pages 243-245. (in German)

Literature[edit | edit source]

  • Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 1: ... Containing the Letters A - G of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796 (in German and English)
  • Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 2: ... Containing the Letters H - R of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796 (in German and English)
  • Ebers, Johann, The New And Complete Dictionary Of The German And English Languages: composed chiefly after the German Dictionaries of Mr. Adelung and of Mr. Schwan / 3: ... Containing the Letters S - Z of the German Alphabet explained in English, Leipzig 1796 (in German and English)

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