after the Knight's Cross presentation
|Born||14 June 1909|
|Died||4 April 1968(aged 58)|
|Place of birth||Beerfelde, Märkisch-Oderland|
|Place of death||Bochum|
Weimar Republic (to 1933)|
|Years of service||1927–1945|
torpedo boat Greif
torpedo boat Falke|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross|
|Relations||Karl Dönitz (father in law)|
Günther Hessler (14 June 1909 – 4 April 1968) was a Kriegsmarine Fregattenkapitän during World War II. He commanded the Type IXB U-boat U-107, sinking twenty-one ships on three patrols, totalling 118,822 gross register tons (GRT) of Allied shipping, of which 86,699 GRT was sunk on one patrol alone. He stands 21st on the list of highest scoring U-Boat aces of World War II. Hessler was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German language: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme bravery in combat or successful military leadership.
Career[edit | edit source]
Günther Hessler joined the Reichsmarine of the Weimar Republic on 5 April 1927 as a member of "Crew 1927" (the incoming class of 1927). He underwent basic military training in the 8th company, 2nd department of the standing ship division of the Baltic Sea in Stralsund (5 April 1927 – 3 July 1927).[Tr 1][Tr 2] Hessler was then transferred to the training ship SSS Niobe (4 July 1927 – 31 October 1927), attaining the rank of Seekadett (midshipman) on 1 October 1927. After more than 16 months aboard the light cruiser Berlin (1 November 1927 – 17 March 1929) he underwent officer cadet training at the Naval Academy at Mürwik, which included navigational training cruises on the tender Frauenlob and the survey vessel Meteor. Hessler then advanced in rank to Fähnrich zur See (officer cadet) on 1 April 1929.
On 2 October 1936 he was appointed watch officer on the Aviso Grille, Adolf Hitler's state yacht, and on 30 March 1938 transferred to the battleship Gneisenau. In 1937 he married Karl Dönitz's daughter, Ursula. The marriage produced two sons, Peter and Klaus, and a daughter, Ute. Hessler took command of torpedo-boat Falke on 27 March 1938. He remained in this position until 8 January 1940, earning the Iron Cross 2nd Class on 18 November 1939. Falke was assigned to the 5th Torpedobootflottille on 4 April 1939. On the outbreak of World War II Falke was tasked with laying defensive naval mines and escort and security duties in the North Sea. In April 1940 Hessler transferred to the U-boat arm, and six months later commissioned the U-107, without, unusually, having served as either a 1. Wachoffizier (1. WO—1st watch officer) or a Kommandantenschüler ("Commander-in-Training").
On his first patrol (24 January 1941 – 1 March 1941) Hessler sank four ships with a total of 18,514 GRT, but he became famous on his second patrol (29 March 1941 – 2 July 1941) — the most successful patrol of the entire war — sinking 14 ships with a total of 86,699 GRT. Oberleutnant zur See Helmut Witte was his first watch officer on these two patrols.
His third patrol (6 September 1941 – 11 November 1941) accounted for another three ships, totalling 13,641 tons, giving Hessler a career tally of 21 ships totalling 118,822 GRT, including two Royal Navy ocean boarding vessels HMS Crispin and Manistee. Hessler then handed over command of U-107 to Harald Gelhaus and transferred to the Befehlshaber der U-Boote (BdU). He served on the naval staff as 1. Admiralstabsoffizier (Asto—officer of the admiralty staff) from 24 November 1941 until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May 1945.
Post-war[edit | edit source]
After the war Hessler spent over a year in Allied captivity, and testified at the Nuremberg Trials on behalf of the Ubootwaffe and his father-in-law, Großadmiral Karl Dönitz. In 1947 Hessler was commissioned to write The U-Boat War in the Atlantic, a definitive account of the German U-boat offensive, by the British Royal Navy. Assisted by Alfred Hoschatt, the former commander of U-378 and also a staff officer of the BdU, he completed the three volume work in 1951. Hessler died in 1968 aged 58.
Summary of career[edit | edit source]
Ships attacked[edit | edit source]
As a U-boat commander of U-107 Günther Hessler is credited with the sinking of 19 merchant ships with a total of 108,411 gross register tons (GRT) and two auxiliary warships of 10,411 GRT.
|Date||Name of ship||Flag||Tonnage||Fate|
|3 February 1941||Empire Citizen||United Kingdom||4,683||sunk at|
|3 February 1941||HMS Crispin||United Kingdom||5,051||sunk at|
|6 February 1941||Maplecourt||Canada||3,388||sunk at|
|23 February 1941||HMS Manistee (F 104)||United Kingdom||5,360||sunk at|
|8 April 1941||Eskdene||United Kingdom||3,829||sunk at|
|8 April 1941||Helena Margareta||United Kingdom||3,316||sunk at|
|9 April 1941||Harpathian||United Kingdom||4,671||sunk at|
|9 April 1941||Duffield||United Kingdom||8,516||sunk at|
|21 April 1941||Calchas||United Kingdom||10,305||sunk at|
|30 April 1941||Lassell||United Kingdom||7,417||sunk at|
|17 May 1941||Marisa||Netherlands||8,029||sunk at|
|18 May 1941||Piako||United Kingdom||8,286||sunk at|
|27 May 1941||Colonial||United Kingdom||5,108||sunk at|
|28 May 1941||Papalemos||Greece||3,748||sunk at|
|31 May 1941||Sire||United Kingdom||5,664||sunk at|
|1 June 1941||Alfred Jones||United Kingdom||5,013||sunk at|
|8 June 1941||Adda||United Kingdom||7,816||sunk at|
|13 June 1941||Pandias||Greece||4,981||sunk at|
|24 September 1941||John Holt||United Kingdom||4,975||sunk at|
|24 September 1941||Dixcove||United Kingdom||3,790||sunk at|
|24 September 1941||Lafian||United Kingdom||4,876||sunk at|
Awards[edit | edit source]
- Iron Cross (1939)
- U-boat War Badge (1939) (3 July 1941)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 24 June 1941 as Kapitänleutnant and commander of U-107
- German Cross in Gold on 9 November 1944 as Korvettenkapitän with the Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote
- Mentioned twice in the Wehrmachtbericht on 1 May 1941 and 8 June 1941
Wehrmachtbericht references[edit | edit source]
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|Thursday, 1 May 1941||Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung des Kapitänleutnants Heßler meldet die Versenkung eines Dampfers von 7000 BRT. Damit hat dieses Unterseeboot auf seiner jetzigen Unternehmung bereits 42 650 BRT feindlichen Handelsschiffraum versenkt.||A submarine under the leadership of Captain Lieutenant Heßler reported the sinking of 7000 GRT steamer. So far this submarine has sunk 42 650 GRT of enemy merchant shipping on this undertaking.|
|Sunday, 8 June 1941||Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung von Kapitänleutnant Heßler versenkte 21 250 BRT. Damit hat dieses Boot bei dieser Unternehmung insgesamt sieben Schiffe mit zusammen 42 641 BRT vernichtet.||A submarine under the leadership of Captain Lieutenant Heßler sunk 21 250 GRT. So that this boat has destroyed a total of seven ships in this undertaking, totalling 42 641 GRT.|
Works[edit | edit source]
- Great Britain Ministry of Defence (Navy) and Hessler, Günther (1989). U Boat War in the Atlantic 1939–1945: German Naval History. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0117726031.
Translation notes[edit | edit source]
- 2nd department —II. Abteilung
- standing ship division —Schiffsstammdivision
References[edit | edit source]
- "Fregattenkapitän Günter Hessler". uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/men/hessler.htm. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- Busch and Röll 2003, p. 146.
- Hildebrand; Röhr and Steinmetz 1993, p. 84.
- "Patrol of U-107 from 24 Jan 1941 to 1 Mar 1941". uboat.net. http://uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_3724.html. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Patrol of U-107 from 29 Mar 1941 to 2 Jul 1941". uboat.net. http://uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_3725.html. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Busch and Röll 2003, p. 147.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 387.
- Patzwall and Scherzer 2001, p. 183.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 516.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 553.
- Busch, Hans-Joachim; Röll (2003) (in German). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [The U-Boat War 1939–1945 — The Knight's Cross Bearers of the U-Boat Force from September 1939 to May 1945]. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) (in German). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches]. Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert; Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe. 3. Ratingen, Germany: Mundus Verlag. ASIN B003VHSRKE.
- Kurowski, Franz (1995). Knight's Cross Holders of the U-Boat Service. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-748-2.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001) (in German). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2]. Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Navy]. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007) (in German). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives]. Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- (in German) Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, 1 September 1939 to 31 December 1941]. München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2.
[edit | edit source]
- "Günter Hessler". uboat.net. http://uboat.net/men/hessler.htm. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- "Günter Hessler" (in German). U-995.COM. http://www.u-995.com/guenter_hessler.html. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- "Günter Hessler" (in German). Lexikon der Wehrmacht. http://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Personenregister/H/HesslerG.htm. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- "Günter Hessler" (in German). Deutsches Marinearchiv. http://www.deutsches-marinearchiv.de/Archiv/1935-1945/Personen/Ritterkreuz/f-h/hessler.htm. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
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