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{{short description|American screenwriter, TV producer and novelist, best known for his work on Star Trek}}
 
{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}
 
 
{{Infobox writer
 
{{Infobox writer
 
| name = Gene L. Coon
 
| name = Gene L. Coon
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| birth_name = Eugene Lee Coon
 
| birth_name = Eugene Lee Coon
 
| birth_date = {{Birth date|1924|01|07}}
 
| birth_date = {{Birth date|1924|01|07}}
| birth_place = [[Beatrice, Nebraska]]
+
| birth_place = Beatrice, Nebraska
 
| death_date = {{Death date and age|1973|07|08|1924|01|07}}
 
| death_date = {{Death date and age|1973|07|08|1924|01|07}}
| death_place = [[Los Angeles, California]]
+
| death_place = Los Angeles, California
| occupation = [[Screenwriter]], [[television producer]]
+
| occupation = Screenwriter, television producer
 
| nationality = American
 
| nationality = American
 
| ethnicity =
 
| ethnicity =
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}}
 
}}
   
'''Eugene Lee Coon''' (January 7, 1924 – July 8, 1973) was an American [[screenwriter]], [[television producer]] and [[novelist]]. He is best remembered for his work on the original ''[[Star Trek: The Original Series|Star Trek]]'' series, especially as its [[showrunner]] where he was responsible for both its idealistic tone and various key elements of the franchise.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}
+
'''Eugene Lee Coon''' (January 7, 1924 – July 8, 1973) was an American screenwriter, television producer and novelist. He is best remembered for his work on the original ''Star Trek'' series, especially as its [[showrunner]] where he was responsible for both its idealistic tone and various key elements of the franchise.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}
   
 
==Life and career==
 
==Life and career==
The eldest son of U.S. Army Sgt. Merle Jack "Pug" Coon and decorator Erma Gay Noakes, Eugene Lee Coon was born in [[Beatrice, Nebraska]], on January 7, 1924. At four years of age, he showed talent, singing on the radio at WOAW-AM in [[Omaha, Nebraska|Omaha]]. He knew twenty-four songs, including one in French and one in German. As his boyhood went on, he was a member of the [[Gage County]] [[4-H Club]] and the [[Boy Scouts of America]]. He later attended Omaha Technical High School and participated in [[Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps]] (JROTC), also playing in the school band. During this time, he was also a teenage newscaster for [[KWBE|KWBE-AM]] in Beatrice. He later moved, with his parents and younger brothers, Merle Jack Coon Jr. and Bloise Newell Coon, to [[Glendale, California]]. Another brother died at ten years old when they still lived in Beatrice. His father found employment there working with poultry, and Coon transferred to [[Glendale High School (Glendale, California)|Glendale High School]].
+
The eldest son of U.S. Army Sgt. Merle Jack "Pug" Coon and decorator Erma Gay Noakes, Eugene Lee Coon was born in Beatrice, Nebraska, on January 7, 1924. At four years of age, he showed talent, singing on the radio at WOAW-AM in Omaha. He knew twenty-four songs, including one in French and one in German. As his boyhood went on, he was a member of the [[Gage County]] [[4-H Club]] and the Boy Scouts of America. He later attended Omaha Technical High School and participated in [[Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps]] (JROTC), also playing in the school band. During this time, he was also a teenage newscaster for [[KWBE|KWBE-AM]] in Beatrice. He later moved, with his parents and younger brothers, Merle Jack Coon Jr. and Bloise Newell Coon, to Glendale, California. Another brother died at ten years old when they still lived in Beatrice. His father found employment there working with poultry, and Coon transferred to [[Glendale High School (Glendale, California)|Glendale High School]].
   
During [[World War II]], Coon served stateside in the [[United States Marine Corps]] from 1942 to 1946. Thereafter, he remained in the Marines as a reservist while studying radio communications at [[Glendale Community College (California)|Glendale Junior College]], where he performed in a production of ''[[The Night of January 16th]]''. Following additional studies at the [[University of Iowa]], he returned to active duty during the [[Korean War]] in 1950. He received additional training as a war reporter as well as running a pharmacy and building houses. He wrote about many of his experiences in the novels ''Meanwhile Back At The Front'' and ''The Short End of the Stick''.
+
During [[World War II]], Coon served stateside in the [[United States Marine Corps]] from 1942 to 1946. Thereafter, he remained in the Marines as a reservist while studying radio communications at [[Glendale Community College (California)|Glendale Junior College]], where he performed in a production of ''[[The Night of January 16th]]''. Following additional studies at the University of Iowa, he returned to active duty during the [[Korean War]] in 1950. He received additional training as a war reporter as well as running a pharmacy and building houses. He wrote about many of his experiences in the novels ''Meanwhile Back At The Front'' and ''The Short End of the Stick''.
   
Upon his demobilization in 1952, Coon found work first as a radio newscaster before turning to freelance writing under the mentorship of ''[[Los Angeles Times]]'' reporter Gene Sherman. From 1954 to 1959, he operated a pharmacy at the intersection of Beverly Boulevard and North Ardmore Avenue; during this period, Sherman covered his pharmacy exploits in Page 2 Cityside column for the newspaper. Sherman also allowed Coon to have a guest spot promoting ''Meanwhile Back at the Front'' in the column he (Sherman) wrote for ''The Farmer's Market'', using the pen name "Dick Kidson."
+
Upon his demobilization in 1952, Coon found work first as a radio newscaster before turning to freelance writing under the mentorship of ''Los Angeles Times'' reporter Gene Sherman. From 1954 to 1959, he operated a pharmacy at the intersection of Beverly Boulevard and North Ardmore Avenue; during this period, Sherman covered his pharmacy exploits in Page 2 Cityside column for the newspaper. Sherman also allowed Coon to have a guest spot promoting ''Meanwhile Back at the Front'' in the column he (Sherman) wrote for ''The Farmer's Market'', using the pen name "Dick Kidson."
   
Beginning in 1956, Coon was primarily involved in scripting teleplays for popular western and action television shows, including ''[[Dragnet (1951 TV series)|Dragnet]]'' (1951), ''[[Wagon Train]]'' (1957), ''[[Maverick (TV series)|Maverick]]'' (1957), and ''[[Bonanza]]'' (1959). At Universal in the early 1960s, he turned ''[[McHale's Navy]]'' (1962) from a one-hour drama into a successful 30-minute sitcom. Together with the writer Les Colodny, Coon floated the idea for ''[[The Munsters]]'' (1964), as a satirical take on ''[[The Donna Reed Show]]'' (1958), to [[MCA Inc.|MCA]] chairman [[Lew Wasserman]]. The result of this last, whose format was worked out by [[Allan Burns]] and [[Chris Hayward]] and whose characters and situations were developed by Norm Liebman and Ed Haas, was yet another hit show, under the creative auspices of Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher. MCA, then the parent company of [[Universal Studios]], produced the show through its Revue TV and Kayro-Vue Productions banners.
+
Beginning in 1956, Coon was primarily involved in scripting teleplays for popular western and action television shows, including ''[[Dragnet (1951 TV series)|Dragnet]]'' (1951), ''Wagon Train'' (1957), ''Maverick'' (1957), and ''Bonanza'' (1959). At Universal in the early 1960s, he turned ''[[McHale's Navy]]'' (1962) from a one-hour drama into a successful 30-minute sitcom. Together with the writer Les Colodny, Coon floated the idea for ''The Munsters'' (1964), as a satirical take on ''[[The Donna Reed Show]]'' (1958), to [[MCA Inc.|MCA]] chairman [[Lew Wasserman]]. The result of this last, whose format was worked out by [[Allan Burns]] and [[Chris Hayward]] and whose characters and situations were developed by Norm Liebman and Ed Haas, was yet another hit show, under the creative auspices of Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher. MCA, then the parent company of Universal Studios, produced the show through its Revue TV and Kayro-Vue Productions banners.
   
 
===''Star Trek''===
 
===''Star Trek''===
 
{{Main|Star Trek: The Original Series}}
 
{{Main|Star Trek: The Original Series}}
His ''Wagon Train'' scripts contained strong moral lessons concerning personal redemption and opposing war, and he later repeated very similar themes in his ''Star Trek'' scripts. (The latter series, though it owed much to [[C. S. Forester]]'s novels about [[Horatio Hornblower]] and [[Jonathan Swift]]'s satire ''[[Gulliver's Travels]]'', had had to be sold to the NBC television network using the unofficial nickname of "''Wagon Train'' to the stars".) Coon joined ''[[Star Trek: The Original Series|Star Trek]]'' during the first season; [[David Gerrold]] credited him with being a skilled [[showrunner]] before Coon left in the middle of the second season.<ref name="bbcgerrold">{{cite web | url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/gerrold/printpage.html | title=David Gerrold – The Trouble with Tribbles writer | publisher=BBC | access-date=May 7, 2011}}</ref> Coon was responsible for many rewrites of ''Star Trek'' scripts.
+
His ''Wagon Train'' scripts contained strong moral lessons concerning personal redemption and opposing war, and he later repeated very similar themes in his ''Star Trek'' scripts. (The latter series, though it owed much to C. S. Forester's novels about Horatio Hornblower and [[Jonathan Swift]]'s satire ''[[Gulliver's Travels]]'', had had to be sold to the NBC television network using the unofficial nickname of "''Wagon Train'' to the stars".) Coon joined ''Star Trek'' during the first season; [[David Gerrold]] credited him with being a skilled [[showrunner]] before Coon left in the middle of the second season.<ref name="bbcgerrold">{{cite web | url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/gerrold/printpage.html | title=David Gerrold – The Trouble with Tribbles writer | publisher=BBC | access-date=May 7, 2011}}</ref> Coon was responsible for many rewrites of ''Star Trek'' scripts.
   
 
His credited creations for ''Star Trek'' include the [[Klingon]]s and the [[United Federation of Planets#Organian Peace Treaty|Organian Peace Treaty]] (in "[[Errand of Mercy]]"), [[Khan Noonien Singh]] (in "[[Space Seed]]", where he adapted a [[Carey Wilber]] story), [[Zefram Cochrane]] (in "[[Metamorphosis (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Metamorphosis]]"), the advancement and the definition of the [[Prime Directive]] in "[[The Return of the Archons]]" and "[[Bread and Circuses (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Bread and Circuses]]" respectively, the official naming of the [[United Federation of Planets]] itself in "[[Arena (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Arena]]" (in which he inadvertently plagiarized a [[Frederic Brown]] story), and the official naming of [[Starfleet#Starfleet Command|Starfleet Command]] in "[[Court Martial (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Court Martial]]". Since he also had the responsibility of revising scripts, he worked uncredited on many other episodes. He also mentored the young Gerrold and helped him polish the script for the episode "[[The Trouble with Tribbles]]".{{r|bbcgerrold}} Other ''Star Trek'' episodes that he wrote included "[[The Devil in the Dark]]" and "[[A Taste of Armageddon]]". He is credited with much of the character development of ''Star Trek''{{'}}s characters, much of the humor of ''Star Trek'', and the "[[The Bickersons|bickersonesque]]" disagreements between Spock and McCoy.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}
 
His credited creations for ''Star Trek'' include the [[Klingon]]s and the [[United Federation of Planets#Organian Peace Treaty|Organian Peace Treaty]] (in "[[Errand of Mercy]]"), [[Khan Noonien Singh]] (in "[[Space Seed]]", where he adapted a [[Carey Wilber]] story), [[Zefram Cochrane]] (in "[[Metamorphosis (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Metamorphosis]]"), the advancement and the definition of the [[Prime Directive]] in "[[The Return of the Archons]]" and "[[Bread and Circuses (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Bread and Circuses]]" respectively, the official naming of the [[United Federation of Planets]] itself in "[[Arena (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Arena]]" (in which he inadvertently plagiarized a [[Frederic Brown]] story), and the official naming of [[Starfleet#Starfleet Command|Starfleet Command]] in "[[Court Martial (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Court Martial]]". Since he also had the responsibility of revising scripts, he worked uncredited on many other episodes. He also mentored the young Gerrold and helped him polish the script for the episode "[[The Trouble with Tribbles]]".{{r|bbcgerrold}} Other ''Star Trek'' episodes that he wrote included "[[The Devil in the Dark]]" and "[[A Taste of Armageddon]]". He is credited with much of the character development of ''Star Trek''{{'}}s characters, much of the humor of ''Star Trek'', and the "[[The Bickersons|bickersonesque]]" disagreements between Spock and McCoy.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}
   
Following arguments with Roddenberry over the tone of the installment "[[Bread and Circuses (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Bread and Circuses]]", partly a satire on the medium of television, Coon left the writing staff and designated [[John Meredyth Lucas]] as showrunner. Lucas, who had already written the installments "[[The Changeling (Star Trek: The Original Series)|The Changeling]]" and "[[Patterns of Force (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Patterns of Force]]" for the program, quoted Coon as saying, after announcing to him (Lucas) that he (Coon) was leaving, "Why the hell don't '''''you''''' take over? You produced ''[[The Fugitive (TV series)|The Fugitive]]'' and ''[[Ben Casey]]'' and that shit".<ref>''Star Trek Memories'', p. 324 (paperback edition). Dictated by William Shatner. Transcribed by Christopher Kreski.</ref> Lucas suspected Coon may have been secretly diagnosed with cancer, but he never definitely learned whether this was the case.
+
Following arguments with Roddenberry over the tone of the installment "[[Bread and Circuses (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Bread and Circuses]]", partly a satire on the medium of television, Coon left the writing staff and designated [[John Meredyth Lucas]] as showrunner. Lucas, who had already written the installments "[[The Changeling (Star Trek: The Original Series)|The Changeling]]" and "[[Patterns of Force (Star Trek: The Original Series)|Patterns of Force]]" for the program, quoted Coon as saying, after announcing to him (Lucas) that he (Coon) was leaving, "Why the hell don't '''''you''''' take over? You produced ''The Fugitive'' and ''[[Ben Casey]]'' and that shit".<ref>''Star Trek Memories'', p. 324 (paperback edition). Dictated by William Shatner. Transcribed by Christopher Kreski.</ref> Lucas suspected Coon may have been secretly diagnosed with cancer, but he never definitely learned whether this was the case.
   
Coon contributed to four scripts for the third season under the [[pseudonym]] of '''Lee Cronin''', as he was by then under contract to [[Universal Pictures|Universal Studios]].
+
Coon contributed to four scripts for the third season under the pseudonym of '''Lee Cronin''', as he was by then under contract to [[Universal Pictures|Universal Studios]].
   
 
===Post–''Star Trek''===
 
===Post–''Star Trek''===
Following his period with ''Star Trek'', Coon produced the Universal Studios series ''[[It Takes a Thief (1968 TV series)|It Takes a Thief]]'', starring [[Robert Wagner]], during which time he mentored [[Glen A. Larson]]. He also continued to write for ''[[Kung Fu (TV series)|Kung Fu]]'' and ''[[The Streets of San Francisco]]''. In 1973, he served as co-writer with Gene Roddenberry on the NBC-TV movie ''[[The Questor Tapes]]''. The movie was to serve as a pilot for a new series, but Roddenberry balked at changes made by NBC (eliminating the character of Jerry Robinson, Questor's human companion/mentor). He died before the pilot aired in early 1974. Although he turned down the opportunity to work on ''[[Star Trek: The Animated Series]]'', he continued to work with Roddenberry, co-writing ''[[Genesis II (film)|Genesis II]]'' and the proposal for ''[[Spectre (1977 film)|Spectre]]''. He also founded UniTel Associates, one of the earliest production companies aimed at the home video market.
+
Following his period with ''Star Trek'', Coon produced the Universal Studios series ''[[It Takes a Thief (1968 TV series)|It Takes a Thief]]'', starring [[Robert Wagner]], during which time he mentored [[Glen A. Larson]]. He also continued to write for ''Kung Fu'' and ''[[The Streets of San Francisco]]''. In 1973, he served as co-writer with Gene Roddenberry on the NBC-TV movie ''[[The Questor Tapes]]''. The movie was to serve as a pilot for a new series, but Roddenberry balked at changes made by NBC (eliminating the character of Jerry Robinson, Questor's human companion/mentor). He died before the pilot aired in early 1974. Although he turned down the opportunity to work on ''Star Trek: The Animated Series'', he continued to work with Roddenberry, co-writing ''Genesis II'' and the proposal for ''Spectre''. He also founded UniTel Associates, one of the earliest production companies aimed at the home video market.
   
 
Coon was known as one of the fastest writers in Hollywood, and it was not unusual for him to rewrite a script for [[shooting script|shooting]] overnight, or over a weekend.<ref name="bbcbarrett">{{cite web | title=Majel Barrett – Nurse Chapel, the Computer and Gene Roddenberry's wife | url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/barrett/ |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050315003552/http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/barrett/ |archive-date=March 15, 2005 | publisher=BBC Cult | access-date=July 24, 2018}}</ref> He had a dry sense of humor, as reflected in his two novels. After years of separation, Coon again found his first love, model Jackie Mitchell. In 1967 he divorced his wife Joy so that he could be with Jackie, with whom he spent the last five years of his life.
 
Coon was known as one of the fastest writers in Hollywood, and it was not unusual for him to rewrite a script for [[shooting script|shooting]] overnight, or over a weekend.<ref name="bbcbarrett">{{cite web | title=Majel Barrett – Nurse Chapel, the Computer and Gene Roddenberry's wife | url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/barrett/ |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050315003552/http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/barrett/ |archive-date=March 15, 2005 | publisher=BBC Cult | access-date=July 24, 2018}}</ref> He had a dry sense of humor, as reflected in his two novels. After years of separation, Coon again found his first love, model Jackie Mitchell. In 1967 he divorced his wife Joy so that he could be with Jackie, with whom he spent the last five years of his life.
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A chain smoker of cigarillos for most of his life, the man whom fellow writer / producer [[Glen A. Larson]] referred to as "the spirit and soul of ''Star Trek''{{-"}}, died of lung and throat cancer—one week after being diagnosed—in July 1973 at the age of 49. Another possible cause of his cancer was radiation from [[Nevada Test Site|Nevada bomb testing sites]] he attended with his mentor [[Gene Sherman (reporter)|Gene Sherman]] and his first wife Joy in the 1950s.{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}
 
A chain smoker of cigarillos for most of his life, the man whom fellow writer / producer [[Glen A. Larson]] referred to as "the spirit and soul of ''Star Trek''{{-"}}, died of lung and throat cancer—one week after being diagnosed—in July 1973 at the age of 49. Another possible cause of his cancer was radiation from [[Nevada Test Site|Nevada bomb testing sites]] he attended with his mentor [[Gene Sherman (reporter)|Gene Sherman]] and his first wife Joy in the 1950s.{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}
   
[[D. C. Fontana]] dedicated her novelization of ''[[The Questor Tapes]]'' to him. [[William Shatner]] dedicated a chapter in his 1993 memoir ''[[Star Trek Memories]]'' to him, titled "The Unsung Hero", in which he attributed many aspects of ''Star Trek'' to him. [[Leonard Nimoy]] did likewise in his own memoir (''I Am Spock''), as did [[Herbert Franklin Solow|Herbert F. Solow]] and [[Robert H. Justman]] with ''Inside Star Trek: The Real Story''. In the closing credits of the 1999 ''Star Trek'' tribute [[film]] ''[[Free Enterprise (film)|Free Enterprise]],'' he is referred to as "The Forgotten Gene" (in comparison to the recognition received by his close friend and collaborator, ''Star Trek'' creator [[Gene Roddenberry]]).
+
[[D. C. Fontana]] dedicated her novelization of ''[[The Questor Tapes]]'' to him. [[William Shatner]] dedicated a chapter in his 1993 memoir ''[[Star Trek Memories]]'' to him, titled "The Unsung Hero", in which he attributed many aspects of ''Star Trek'' to him. [[Leonard Nimoy]] did likewise in his own memoir (''I Am Spock''), as did [[Herbert Franklin Solow|Herbert F. Solow]] and [[Robert H. Justman]] with ''Inside Star Trek: The Real Story''. In the closing credits of the 1999 ''Star Trek'' tribute film ''Free Enterprise,'' he is referred to as "The Forgotten Gene" (in comparison to the recognition received by his close friend and collaborator, ''Star Trek'' creator [[Gene Roddenberry]]).
   
 
During the weekend of March 2–4, 2018, there was a tribute in his hometown of Beatrice, Nebraska.
 
During the weekend of March 2–4, 2018, there was a tribute in his hometown of Beatrice, Nebraska.
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==Works==
 
==Works==
   
=== Television ===
+
===Television===
He worked on ''[[Dragnet (franchise)|Dragnet]]'', ''[[Bonanza]]'', ''[[Zorro (1957 TV series)|Zorro]]'', ''[[Peter Gunn]]'', ''[[Mr. Lucky (TV series)|Mr Lucky]]'', ''[[Have Gun – Will Travel]]'', ''[[Wagon Train]]'', ''[[The Wild Wild West]]'', ''[[The Four Just Men (TV series)|The Four Just Men]]'', ''[[Combat!]]'', and ''[[McHale's Navy]]''. Later his role was producer for ''The Wild Wild West''.
+
He worked on ''[[Dragnet (franchise)|Dragnet]]'', ''Bonanza'', ''[[Zorro (1957 TV series)|Zorro]]'', ''[[Peter Gunn]]'', ''[[Mr. Lucky (TV series)|Mr Lucky]]'', ''[[Have Gun – Will Travel]]'', ''Wagon Train'', ''[[The Wild Wild West]]'', ''The Four Just Men'', ''[[Combat!]]'', and ''[[McHale's Navy]]''. Later his role was producer for ''The Wild Wild West''.
   
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
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! Year !! Show !! # !! Episode !! Role !! Alias !! Aired
 
! Year !! Show !! # !! Episode !! Role !! Alias !! Aired
 
|-
 
|-
| 1956 ||''[[Medic (TV series)|Medic]]'' || 5 Episodes || || Writer || ||
+
| 1956 ||''Medic'' || 5 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan=2|1957 || "[[The Restless Gun]]" || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
| rowspan=2|1957 || "[[The Restless Gun]]" || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[Suspicion (TV series)|Suspicion]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''Suspicion'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1957-58 ||''[[Schlitz Playhouse of Stars|Schlitz Playhouse]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
| 1957-58 ||''[[Schlitz Playhouse of Stars|Schlitz Playhouse]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
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| rowspan=3|1958 ||''[[Rescue 8]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
| rowspan=3|1958 ||''[[Rescue 8]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[Cimarron City (TV series)|Cimarron City]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''Cimarron City'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Zorro (1957 TV series)|Zorro]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Zorro (1957 TV series)|Zorro]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1958-63 ||''[[Wagon Train]]'' || 24 Episodes || || Writer || ||
+
| 1958-63 ||''Wagon Train'' || 24 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan=7|1959 || ''[[Maverick (TV series)|Maverick]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
| rowspan=7|1959 || ''Maverick'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Have Gun – Will Travel]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Have Gun – Will Travel]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
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|''[[Dragnet (1951 TV series)|Dragnet]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Dragnet (1951 TV series)|Dragnet]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[The Four Just Men (TV series)|The Four Just Men]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''The Four Just Men'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Lock-Up (TV series)|Lock Up]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Lock-Up (TV series)|Lock Up]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[Riverboat (TV series)|Riverboat]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''Riverboat'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[General Electric Theater]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[General Electric Theater]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
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| 1959-60 || ''[[Mr. Lucky (TV series)|Mr. Lucky]]'' || 10 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
| 1959-60 || ''[[Mr. Lucky (TV series)|Mr. Lucky]]'' || 10 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1959-61 || ''[[Bonanza]]'' || 4 episodes || || Writer || ||
+
| 1959-61 || ''Bonanza'' || 4 episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan=3|1960 || ''[[The Rebel (TV series)|The Rebel]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
| rowspan=3|1960 || ''The Rebel'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Peter Gunn]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Peter Gunn]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
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|''Dan Raven'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''Dan Raven'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan=3|1961 || ''[[Acapulco (TV series)|Acapulco]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
+
| rowspan=3|1961 || ''Acapulco'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[Whispering Smith (TV series)|Whispering Smith]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''Whispering Smith'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Ichabod and Me]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Ichabod and Me]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
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| rowspan=3|1962 ||''Follow the Sun'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
| rowspan=3|1962 ||''Follow the Sun'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[Rawhide (TV series)|Rawhide]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''Rawhide'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[McHale's Navy]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[McHale's Navy]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
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| 1963 ||''[[Alcoa Premiere]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
| 1963 ||''[[Alcoa Premiere]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1964 ||''[[Destry (TV series)|Destry]]'' || 3 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || ||
+
| 1964 ||''Destry'' || 3 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan=2|1965 ||''[[Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
| rowspan=2|1965 ||''[[Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
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|''[[My Favorite Martian]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[My Favorite Martian]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1965-67 ||''[[Laredo (TV series)|Laredo]]'' || 6 Episodes || || Writer || ||
+
| 1965-67 ||''Laredo'' || 6 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1965-71 ||''[[The Virginian (TV series)|The Virginian]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || ||
+
| 1965-71 ||''The Virginian'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan=3|1966 ||''[[The F.B.I. (TV series)|The F.B.I.]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
| rowspan=3|1966 ||''[[The F.B.I. (TV series)|The F.B.I.]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
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|''[[The Wild Wild West]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
|''[[The Wild Wild West]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1967-69 ||''[[Star Trek: The Original Series]]'' || 13 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || Lee Cronin ||
+
| 1967-69 ||''Star Trek: The Original Series'' || 13 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || Lee Cronin ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1968 ||''[[Off to See the Wizard]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
| 1968 ||''[[Off to See the Wizard]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
Line 151: Line 149:
 
| 1968-69 ||''[[It Takes a Thief (1968 TV series)|It Takes a Thief]]'' || 6 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
| 1968-69 ||''[[It Takes a Thief (1968 TV series)|It Takes a Thief]]'' || 6 Episodes || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan=2|1969 ||''[[The Name of the Game (TV series)|The Name of The Game]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer, Producer || ||
+
| rowspan=2|1969 ||''The Name of The Game'' || 1 Episode || || Writer, Producer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Then Came Bronson]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || Lee Cronin ||
 
|''[[Then Came Bronson]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || Lee Cronin ||
Line 159: Line 157:
 
|''[[The Immortal (1970 TV series)|The Immortal]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[The Immortal (1970 TV series)|The Immortal]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970-71 ||''[[The Mod Squad]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
| 1970-71 ||''The Mod Squad'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan=2|1971 ||''[[Nichols (TV series)|Nichols]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
| rowspan=2|1971 ||''Nichols'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Bearcats!]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Bearcats!]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 ||''[[The Sixth Sense (TV series)|The Sixth Sense]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
| 1972 ||''The Sixth Sense'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan=3|1973 ||''[[Hawkins (TV series)|Hawkins]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
| rowspan=3|1973 ||''Hawkins'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|''[[Kung Fu (TV series)|Kung Fu]]'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
+
|''Kung Fu'' || 1 Episode || || Writer || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''[[Assignment Vienna]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
 
|''[[Assignment Vienna]]'' || 2 Episodes || || Writer || ||
Line 181: Line 179:
 
*''[[Man in the Shadow (1957 American film)|Man in the Shadow]]'' (1957)
 
*''[[Man in the Shadow (1957 American film)|Man in the Shadow]]'' (1957)
 
*''[[No Name on the Bullet]]'' (1959)
 
*''[[No Name on the Bullet]]'' (1959)
*''[[The Raiders (1963 film)|The Raiders]]'' (1963)
+
*''The Raiders'' (1963)
*''[[The Killers (1964 film)|The Killers]]'' (1964)
+
*''The Killers'' (1964)
*''[[First to Fight (film)|First to Fight]]'' (1967)
+
*''First to Fight'' (1967)
 
*''[[Journey to Shiloh]]'' (1968)
 
*''[[Journey to Shiloh]]'' (1968)
 
*''[[The Questor Tapes]]'' (1974)
 
*''[[The Questor Tapes]]'' (1974)
Line 190: Line 188:
 
By Gene L. Coon
 
By Gene L. Coon
   
* ''Meanwhile Back at the Front'' (New York: Crown, 1961. 309 pp.) A novel dealing with the improbable exploits of the Public Information Section of the 1st Marine Division during the Korean War.<ref>{{cite book |last=Strobridge |first=Truman R. |title=An Annotated Bibliography of the United States Marines in American Fiction |url=https://www.mcu.usmc.mil/historydivision/Pages/Staff/Publication |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130508135135/https://www.mcu.usmc.mil/historydivision/Pages/Staff/Publication%20PDFs/An%20Annotated%20Bibliography%20Of%20The%20United%20States%20Marines%20In%20American%20Fiction.pdf |archive-date=May 8, 2013 |series=Marine Corps Historical Bibliographies |location=Washington, D.C. |publisher=Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps |year=1964 |page=6 |access-date=24 July 2018 |df=mdy }}</ref>
+
* ''Meanwhile Back at the Front'' (New York: Crown, 1961. 309 pp.) A novel dealing with the improbable exploits of the Public Information Section of the 1st Marine Division during the Korean War.<ref>{{cite book |last=Strobridge |first=Truman R. |title=An Annotated Bibliography of the United States Marines in American Fiction |url=https://www.mcu.usmc.mil/historydivision/Pages/Staff/Publication |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130508135135/https://www.mcu.usmc.mil/historydivision/Pages/Staff/Publication%20PDFs/An%20Annotated%20Bibliography%20Of%20The%20United%20States%20Marines%20In%20American%20Fiction.pdf |archive-date=May 8, 2013 |series=Marine Corps Historical Bibliographies |location=Washington, D.C. |publisher=Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps |year=1964 |page=6 |access-date=24 July 2018 |df=mdy}}</ref>
 
* ''The Short End of the Stick'' (published 1964). A novel dealing with the lives and problems of American troops stationed along the [[Demilitarized Zone|DMZ]] in Korea after the war ended. It includes how they got along with and were treated by the native Koreans, focusing on sex and cultural clashes. It is also one of the earliest publications to discuss the drug problems of the bored occupation troops and how commanders dealt with them.
 
* ''The Short End of the Stick'' (published 1964). A novel dealing with the lives and problems of American troops stationed along the [[Demilitarized Zone|DMZ]] in Korea after the war ended. It includes how they got along with and were treated by the native Koreans, focusing on sex and cultural clashes. It is also one of the earliest publications to discuss the drug problems of the bored occupation troops and how commanders dealt with them.
   
Line 197: Line 195:
 
* ''Gene L. Coon: The Unsung Hero of Star Trek'' Written by Justin Murphy. Amazon Kindle, 2017. His life story covering his start singing on Omaha radio at four years old, and aspects of his early life and military career, to his postwar career beginnings as a pharmacist and his reporter apprenticeship under Gene Sherman. It continues through his early screenwriting career leading up to and after ''Star Trek'' and founding one of the first home video companies in the early 1970s.
 
* ''Gene L. Coon: The Unsung Hero of Star Trek'' Written by Justin Murphy. Amazon Kindle, 2017. His life story covering his start singing on Omaha radio at four years old, and aspects of his early life and military career, to his postwar career beginnings as a pharmacist and his reporter apprenticeship under Gene Sherman. It continues through his early screenwriting career leading up to and after ''Star Trek'' and founding one of the first home video companies in the early 1970s.
   
== See also ==
+
==See also==
 
* {{Portal-inline|Biography}}
 
* {{Portal-inline|Biography}}
   
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* {{IMDb name| id=0177731 | name=Gene L. Coon}}
 
* {{IMDb name| id=0177731 | name=Gene L. Coon}}
 
{{Memory Alpha}}
 
{{Memory Alpha}}
 
{{Authority control}}
 
   
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Coon, Gene L.}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Coon, Gene L.}}
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[[Category:20th-century American businesspeople]]
 
[[Category:20th-century American businesspeople]]
 
[[Category:Pseudonymous writers]]
 
[[Category:Pseudonymous writers]]
  +
{{Wikipedia|Gene L. Coon}}

Revision as of 19:13, 11 April 2020

Gene L. Coon
File:Genecoon.gif
Born Eugene Lee Coon
(1924-01-07)January 7, 1924
Beatrice, Nebraska
Died July 8, 1973(1973-07-08) (aged 49)
Los Angeles, California
Nationality American
Occupation Screenwriter, television producer

Eugene Lee Coon (January 7, 1924 – July 8, 1973) was an American screenwriter, television producer and novelist. He is best remembered for his work on the original Star Trek series, especially as its showrunner where he was responsible for both its idealistic tone and various key elements of the franchise.[citation needed]

Life and career

The eldest son of U.S. Army Sgt. Merle Jack "Pug" Coon and decorator Erma Gay Noakes, Eugene Lee Coon was born in Beatrice, Nebraska, on January 7, 1924. At four years of age, he showed talent, singing on the radio at WOAW-AM in Omaha. He knew twenty-four songs, including one in French and one in German. As his boyhood went on, he was a member of the Gage County 4-H Club and the Boy Scouts of America. He later attended Omaha Technical High School and participated in Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC), also playing in the school band. During this time, he was also a teenage newscaster for KWBE-AM in Beatrice. He later moved, with his parents and younger brothers, Merle Jack Coon Jr. and Bloise Newell Coon, to Glendale, California. Another brother died at ten years old when they still lived in Beatrice. His father found employment there working with poultry, and Coon transferred to Glendale High School.

During World War II, Coon served stateside in the United States Marine Corps from 1942 to 1946. Thereafter, he remained in the Marines as a reservist while studying radio communications at Glendale Junior College, where he performed in a production of The Night of January 16th. Following additional studies at the University of Iowa, he returned to active duty during the Korean War in 1950. He received additional training as a war reporter as well as running a pharmacy and building houses. He wrote about many of his experiences in the novels Meanwhile Back At The Front and The Short End of the Stick.

Upon his demobilization in 1952, Coon found work first as a radio newscaster before turning to freelance writing under the mentorship of Los Angeles Times reporter Gene Sherman. From 1954 to 1959, he operated a pharmacy at the intersection of Beverly Boulevard and North Ardmore Avenue; during this period, Sherman covered his pharmacy exploits in Page 2 Cityside column for the newspaper. Sherman also allowed Coon to have a guest spot promoting Meanwhile Back at the Front in the column he (Sherman) wrote for The Farmer's Market, using the pen name "Dick Kidson."

Beginning in 1956, Coon was primarily involved in scripting teleplays for popular western and action television shows, including Dragnet (1951), Wagon Train (1957), Maverick (1957), and Bonanza (1959). At Universal in the early 1960s, he turned McHale's Navy (1962) from a one-hour drama into a successful 30-minute sitcom. Together with the writer Les Colodny, Coon floated the idea for The Munsters (1964), as a satirical take on The Donna Reed Show (1958), to MCA chairman Lew Wasserman. The result of this last, whose format was worked out by Allan Burns and Chris Hayward and whose characters and situations were developed by Norm Liebman and Ed Haas, was yet another hit show, under the creative auspices of Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher. MCA, then the parent company of Universal Studios, produced the show through its Revue TV and Kayro-Vue Productions banners.

Star Trek

His Wagon Train scripts contained strong moral lessons concerning personal redemption and opposing war, and he later repeated very similar themes in his Star Trek scripts. (The latter series, though it owed much to C. S. Forester's novels about Horatio Hornblower and Jonathan Swift's satire Gulliver's Travels, had had to be sold to the NBC television network using the unofficial nickname of "Wagon Train to the stars".) Coon joined Star Trek during the first season; David Gerrold credited him with being a skilled showrunner before Coon left in the middle of the second season.[1] Coon was responsible for many rewrites of Star Trek scripts.

His credited creations for Star Trek include the Klingons and the Organian Peace Treaty (in "Errand of Mercy"), Khan Noonien Singh (in "Space Seed", where he adapted a Carey Wilber story), Zefram Cochrane (in "Metamorphosis"), the advancement and the definition of the Prime Directive in "The Return of the Archons" and "Bread and Circuses" respectively, the official naming of the United Federation of Planets itself in "Arena" (in which he inadvertently plagiarized a Frederic Brown story), and the official naming of Starfleet Command in "Court Martial". Since he also had the responsibility of revising scripts, he worked uncredited on many other episodes. He also mentored the young Gerrold and helped him polish the script for the episode "The Trouble with Tribbles".[1] Other Star Trek episodes that he wrote included "The Devil in the Dark" and "A Taste of Armageddon". He is credited with much of the character development of Star Trek's characters, much of the humor of Star Trek, and the "bickersonesque" disagreements between Spock and McCoy.[citation needed]

Following arguments with Roddenberry over the tone of the installment "Bread and Circuses", partly a satire on the medium of television, Coon left the writing staff and designated John Meredyth Lucas as showrunner. Lucas, who had already written the installments "The Changeling" and "Patterns of Force" for the program, quoted Coon as saying, after announcing to him (Lucas) that he (Coon) was leaving, "Why the hell don't you take over? You produced The Fugitive and Ben Casey and that shit".[2] Lucas suspected Coon may have been secretly diagnosed with cancer, but he never definitely learned whether this was the case.

Coon contributed to four scripts for the third season under the pseudonym of Lee Cronin, as he was by then under contract to Universal Studios.

Post–Star Trek

Following his period with Star Trek, Coon produced the Universal Studios series It Takes a Thief, starring Robert Wagner, during which time he mentored Glen A. Larson. He also continued to write for Kung Fu and The Streets of San Francisco. In 1973, he served as co-writer with Gene Roddenberry on the NBC-TV movie The Questor Tapes. The movie was to serve as a pilot for a new series, but Roddenberry balked at changes made by NBC (eliminating the character of Jerry Robinson, Questor's human companion/mentor). He died before the pilot aired in early 1974. Although he turned down the opportunity to work on Star Trek: The Animated Series, he continued to work with Roddenberry, co-writing Genesis II and the proposal for Spectre. He also founded UniTel Associates, one of the earliest production companies aimed at the home video market.

Coon was known as one of the fastest writers in Hollywood, and it was not unusual for him to rewrite a script for shooting overnight, or over a weekend.[3] He had a dry sense of humor, as reflected in his two novels. After years of separation, Coon again found his first love, model Jackie Mitchell. In 1967 he divorced his wife Joy so that he could be with Jackie, with whom he spent the last five years of his life.

Death and tributes

A chain smoker of cigarillos for most of his life, the man whom fellow writer / producer Glen A. Larson referred to as "the spirit and soul of Star Trek", died of lung and throat cancer—one week after being diagnosed—in July 1973 at the age of 49. Another possible cause of his cancer was radiation from Nevada bomb testing sites he attended with his mentor Gene Sherman and his first wife Joy in the 1950s.[citation needed]

D. C. Fontana dedicated her novelization of The Questor Tapes to him. William Shatner dedicated a chapter in his 1993 memoir Star Trek Memories to him, titled "The Unsung Hero", in which he attributed many aspects of Star Trek to him. Leonard Nimoy did likewise in his own memoir (I Am Spock), as did Herbert F. Solow and Robert H. Justman with Inside Star Trek: The Real Story. In the closing credits of the 1999 Star Trek tribute film Free Enterprise, he is referred to as "The Forgotten Gene" (in comparison to the recognition received by his close friend and collaborator, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry).

During the weekend of March 2–4, 2018, there was a tribute in his hometown of Beatrice, Nebraska.

Works

Television

He worked on Dragnet, Bonanza, Zorro, Peter Gunn, Mr Lucky, Have Gun – Will Travel, Wagon Train, The Wild Wild West, The Four Just Men, Combat!, and McHale's Navy. Later his role was producer for The Wild Wild West.

Year Show # Episode Role Alias Aired
1956 Medic 5 Episodes Writer
1957 "The Restless Gun" 1 Episode Writer
Suspicion 1 Episode Writer
1957-58 Schlitz Playhouse 2 Episodes Writer
1958 Rescue 8 1 Episode Writer
Cimarron City 1 Episode Writer
Zorro 2 Episodes Writer
1958-63 Wagon Train 24 Episodes Writer
1959 Maverick 1 Episode Writer
Have Gun – Will Travel 1 Episode Writer
Dragnet 1 Episode Writer
The Four Just Men 1 Episode Writer
Lock Up 1 Episode Writer
Riverboat 1 Episode Writer
General Electric Theater 1 Episode Writer
1959-60 Mr. Lucky 10 Episodes Writer
1959-61 Bonanza 4 episodes Writer
1960 The Rebel 1 Episode Writer
Peter Gunn 1 Episode Writer
Dan Raven 1 Episode Writer
1961 Acapulco 2 Episodes Writer
Whispering Smith 1 Episode Writer
Ichabod and Me 1 Episode Writer
1962 Follow the Sun 1 Episode Writer
Rawhide 1 Episode Writer
McHale's Navy 2 Episodes Writer
1963 Alcoa Premiere 1 Episode Writer
1964 Destry 3 Episodes Writer, Producer
1965 Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre 1 Episode Writer
My Favorite Martian 1 Episode Writer
1965-67 Laredo 6 Episodes Writer
1965-71 The Virginian 2 Episodes Writer, Producer
1966 The F.B.I. 1 Episode Writer
Combat! 3 Episodes Writer
The Wild Wild West 1 Episode Writer, Producer
1967-69 Star Trek: The Original Series 13 Episodes Writer, Producer Lee Cronin
1968 Off to See the Wizard 2 Episodes Writer
1968-69 It Takes a Thief 6 Episodes Writer, Producer
1969 The Name of The Game 1 Episode Writer, Producer
Then Came Bronson 1 Episode Writer Lee Cronin
1970 Paris 7000 1 Episode Writer
The Immortal 1 Episode Writer
1970-71 The Mod Squad 1 Episode Writer
1971 Nichols 1 Episode Writer
Bearcats! 1 Episode Writer
1972 The Sixth Sense 1 Episode Writer
1973 Hawkins 1 Episode Writer
Kung Fu 1 Episode Writer
Assignment Vienna 2 Episodes Writer
1974 The Streets of San Francisco 1 Episode Writer

Films

  • The Girl in the Kremlin (1957)
  • Man in the Shadow (1957)
  • No Name on the Bullet (1959)
  • The Raiders (1963)
  • The Killers (1964)
  • First to Fight (1967)
  • Journey to Shiloh (1968)
  • The Questor Tapes (1974)

Books

By Gene L. Coon

  • Meanwhile Back at the Front (New York: Crown, 1961. 309 pp.) A novel dealing with the improbable exploits of the Public Information Section of the 1st Marine Division during the Korean War.[4]
  • The Short End of the Stick (published 1964). A novel dealing with the lives and problems of American troops stationed along the DMZ in Korea after the war ended. It includes how they got along with and were treated by the native Koreans, focusing on sex and cultural clashes. It is also one of the earliest publications to discuss the drug problems of the bored occupation troops and how commanders dealt with them.

About Gene L. Coon

  • Gene L. Coon: The Unsung Hero of Star Trek Written by Justin Murphy. Amazon Kindle, 2017. His life story covering his start singing on Omaha radio at four years old, and aspects of his early life and military career, to his postwar career beginnings as a pharmacist and his reporter apprenticeship under Gene Sherman. It continues through his early screenwriting career leading up to and after Star Trek and founding one of the first home video companies in the early 1970s.

See also

  • Template:Portal-inline

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "David Gerrold – The Trouble with Tribbles writer". BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/gerrold/printpage.html. 
  2. Star Trek Memories, p. 324 (paperback edition). Dictated by William Shatner. Transcribed by Christopher Kreski.
  3. "Majel Barrett – Nurse Chapel, the Computer and Gene Roddenberry's wife". BBC Cult. https://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/st/interviews/barrett/. 
  4. Strobridge, Truman R. (1964). An Annotated Bibliography of the United States Marines in American Fiction. Marine Corps Historical Bibliographies. Washington, D.C.: Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. p. 6. https://www.mcu.usmc.mil/historydivision/Pages/Staff/Publication. Retrieved 24 July 2018. 

External links

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