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German submarine U-43 (1939)
U-37 at Lorient in 1940
U-37, (an identical U-boat to U-43) at Lorient in 1940
Name: U-43
Ordered: 21 November 1936[1]
Builder: AG Weser, Bremen[1]
Yard number: 948[1]
Laid down: 15 August 1938[1]
Launched: 23 May 1939[1]
Commissioned: 26 August 1939[1]
Fate: Sunk south-west of the Azores by an American aircraft, July 1943. 55 dead[1]
General characteristics [2][3]
Type: Type IXA submarine
Displacement: 1,032 t (1,016 long tons) surfaced
1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged
Length: 76.6 m (251 ft 4 in) o/a
58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in) o/a
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Propulsion: 2 × MAN M9V40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, 4,400 hp (3,281 kW)
2 × SSW GU345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 hp (746 kW)
Speed: 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced
7.7 knots (14.3 km/h) submerged
Range: 19,425 nmi (35,975 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
144 nmi (267 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Complement: 48 to 56
Armament: • 6 × torpedo tubes (four bow, two stern)
• 22 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedoes
• 1 × 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun[4] (110 rounds)
• 37 mm (1 in) and 20 mm (1 in) AA guns
Service record[1][5]
Part of: 6th U-boat Flotilla
(26 August–31 December 1939)
2nd U-boat Flotilla
(1 January 1940 – 30 July 1943)
Identification codes: M 24 266
Commanders: Kptlt Wilhelm Ambrosius
(26 August 1939 – 20 October 1940)
Kptlt Wolfgang Lüth
(21 October 1940 – 11 April 1942)
Oblt zur See Hans-Joachim Schwantke
(19 March 1942 – 30 July 1943)
Operations: Fourteen:
1st patrol:
6 November–14 December 1939
2nd patrol:
13 March–6 April 1940
3rd patrol:
12–23 April 1940
4th patrol:
13 May–22 July 1940
5th patrol:
15 September–18 October 1940
6th patrol:
10 November–17 December 1940
7th patrol:
11 May–1 July 1941
8th patrol:
2 August–23 September 1941
9th patrol:
10 November–16 December 1941
10th patrol:
30 December 1941–22 January 1942
11th patrol:
4 July–15 August 1942
12th patrol:
23 September–9 December 1942
13th patrol:
9 January–31 March 1943
14th patrol:
13–30 July 1943
Victories: 21 commercial ships sunk (117,036 GRT)
one commercial ship damaged (10,350 GRT)
one commercial ship a total loss (9,131 GRT)

German submarine U-43 was a Type IXA U-boat of the Nazi German Kriegsmarine during World War II. The keel for U-43 was laid down in August 1938 at Bremen; she was launched in May 1939 and commissioned in August.[1]

Between November 1939 and July 1943, the U-boat conducted 14 combat patrols, sinking 21 merchant ships for a total of 117,036 gross register tons (GRT), damaging one ship of 10,350 GRT and another of 9,131 GRT - enough for it to be declared a total loss. U-43 was sunk on 30 July 1943 southwest of the Azores by a torpedo dropped by a United States Navy aircraft; all 55 hands were lost.[6]

Construction[edit | edit source]

U-43 was ordered for the Kriegsmarine on 21 November 1936 (as part of Plan Z and in violation of the Treaty of Versailles). Her keel was laid down on 15 August 1938 by AG Weser, Bremen as Werk 946. She was launched on 23 May 1939 and commissioned on 26 August of that same year under the command of Korvettenkapitän Wilhelm Ambrosius.[1]

Like all Type IXA submarines, U-43 had two MAN M9V40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines that put out 4,400 hp (3,281 kW) as well as two SSW GU345/34 double-acting electric motors that produced 1,000 hp (746 kW) and allowed her to travel at up to 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) while surfaced and 7.7 knots (14.3 km/h) submerged. She had a range of 19,425 nmi (35,975 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) while on the surface and 144 nmi (267 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) while submerged. U-43 had six torpedo tubes, (four in the bow, two in the stern). She also carried a total of twenty-two 533 mm (21 in) torpedoes and had a 105 mm/45 deck gun and 110 rounds. She was equipped with one 37 mm (1.5 in) and one 20 mm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun. U-43 had a crew of 55 men; however, she could hold up to 56 crew members at any given time. After being commissioned and deployed, U-43 was stationed in the German port city of Wilhelmshaven.[2][3]

Service history[edit | edit source]

1st patrol[edit | edit source]

Commissioned into the 6th U-boat Flotilla, based at Kiel,[1] U-43 left for her first combat patrol of the war on 6 November 1939, sailing around the British Isles and into the Atlantic.[7] There, on 16 November, she attacked the 4,915 ton British merchant ship Arlington Court, a straggler from Convoy SL-7A, en route from Rosario, Argentina to Hull with a cargo of 7,340 tons of maize. The ship was hit by a single torpedo 320 miles (510 km) west-south-west of Start Point in Devon. The crew abandoned ship, the U-boat fired another torpedo, which sank the ship within 30 minutes. Seven of the crew were lost, the survivors were picked up by Dutch and Norwegian freighters.[8] After the attack, U-43 was hunted by convoy escorts for 20 hours, sustaining some damage from depth charges.[1]

Continuing with her patrol, U-43 attacked Convoy 14-BS in the Bay of Biscay, and sank the 4,374 ton French merchant ship Arijon on 22 November.[9] Convoy escorts counter-attacked with 23 depth charges, but U-43 escaped without damage.[1]

Late on 25 November 1939, about 120 miles (190 km) west-north-west of Cape Finisterre (northwest Spain), U-43 attacked the unescorted 2,483 ton British collier Uskmouth. Both G7a torpedoes malfunctioned (a common problem in the early years of the war), so the U-boat opened fire with her deck gun. After a while she fired another torpedo, but missed, so recommenced shelling. After firing 149 rounds, U-43 left the ship on fire and slowly sinking. Two crewmen were killed, while 23 survivors were picked up by an Italian merchant ship.[10]

On the morning of 8 December U-43 was attacked by an unidentified aircraft and severely damaged.[1] She returned to Wilhelmshaven six days later, on the 14th.[5]

2nd patrol[edit | edit source]

After the 6th U-boat Flotilla was disbanded in December 1939, U-43 was assigned to the 2nd U-boat Flotilla based in Wilhelmshaven. U-43 departed from there on 13 March 1940 and sailed along the coast of Norway, north of Scotland, and into the waters west of Ireland, but had no success.[11] The First Watch Officer (second-in-command of the U-boat) Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Wilhelm Behrens fell overboard and was lost on 31 March.[1] U-43 returned to Wilhelmshaven, after 25 days at sea, on 6 April.[5]

3rd patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43's third voyage began on 12 April 1940. She patrolled the North Sea and along the Norwegian coast, supporting the invasion of that country.[12] On 22 April she was bombed by two British Hudson aircraft and suffered slight damage.[1] She returned to Wilhelmshaven the next day.[5]

4th patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43 sailed from Wilhelmshaven on 13 May 1940 and out into the Atlantic.[13] Her first attack took place on 28 May, south-west of Land's End, when she fired a torpedo at the British merchant ship Alca. She missed, and then opened fire with her deck gun. The armed ship returned fire, but neither vessel made any hits; the U-boat broke off the attack.[1]

U-43 finally found success on 21 June when she attacked Convoy 65-X south-west of Figueira da Foz, Portugal, hitting the 8,627 ton British tanker Yarraville with a single torpedo. The ship caught fire and sank. Five crew members were killed, the 45 survivors were picked up by a French trawler.[14]

Late on 30 June U-43 hit the 13,376 ton British merchant ship SS Avelona Star with a single torpedo 220 miles (350 km) northwest of Cape Finisterre. The ship, part of Convoy SL-36, was en route from Buenos Aires to London with a cargo of 5,630 tons of frozen meat and 1,000 tons of oranges. The crew abandoned the ship, which foundered the next day. One crewman was killed in the attack, the 84 survivors were picked up by the British merchant ship Beignon, which was subsequently torpedoed and sunk by U-30 on 1 July. Three survivors from Avelona Star were killed.[15]

On the evening of 9 July U-43 sank the unescorted 3,944 ton British merchant ship Aylesbury about 200 miles (320 km) southeast of Ireland. Hit by two torpedoes, the ship sank in 15 minutes. All 35 crew survived.[16]

U-43's fourth and final success on her fourth patrol took place on the morning of 17 July when she sank the 3,509-ton British merchant ship Fellside, a straggler from convoy OA-184, about 135 miles (217 km) north-west of Bloody Foreland (Cnoc Fola), Donegal. The U-boat's first torpedo passed under the vessel, but the second struck the ship and caused her to sink within five minutes. Twelve of the crew were killed, 21 survivors were rescued.[17] U-43 arrived back at Wilhelmshaven on 22 July after 71 days at sea.[5]

5th patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43 sailed from Wilhelmshaven on 9 September 1940, stopping at Bergen, Norway for three days before sailing on the 15th for another Atlantic patrol.[18] She sank only one ship, the 5,802 ton British merchantman Sulairia, separated from Convoy OB-217, on 25 September. The U-boat hit the ship with a single torpedo causing her to sink 356 miles (573 km) west of Achill Head, County Mayo.[19] One man was lost, the remaining 56 crewmen were picked up by HMCS Ottawa.[20]

U-43 then made for her new home port at Lorient in France, where the 2nd U-boat Flotilla had relocated in June after the fall of that country, arriving there on 18 October.[5] Her commander, Wilhelm Ambrosius, was promoted to Korvettenkapitän on 1 November,[21] and left U-43, going on to take command of the 22nd U-boat Flotilla in January 1941. Command of the U-boat passed to Oberleutnant zur See Wolfgang Lüth, who would go on to become the second most successful German submarine commander of the war.[22][23]

6th patrol[edit | edit source]

Under her new captain, U-43 left Lorient on 10 November 1940 and returned to the waters west of Ireland, where she sank three more merchant ships and damaged a fourth.[24]

On the morning of 2 December she attacked Convoy OB-251 west-south-west of Rockall and sank two ships. Her first victim was the 7,113 ton British merchant ship Pacific President, which was hit by two torpedoes and quickly sank with the loss of her crew of 50 men.[25] Forty-five minutes later U-43 hit the 12,247 ton British oil tanker Victor Ross with two torpedoes. A third torpedo was fired five minutes later, but missed, the U-boat evaded a ramming attempt by crash-diving shortly afterwards. However, she persisted and hit the ship with a fourth torpedo 20 minutes later, sinking her. There were no survivors from her 44 crew.[26]

In the evening of 6 December, U-43 spotted a ship and pursued her for three and a half hours before firing a single torpedo, which missed. The U-boat fired another torpedo 20 minutes later, hitting the unknown ship and sinking her in 63 seconds. The vessel is believed to be the 1,902 ton Norwegian merchant ship Skrim, which had lost contact with Convoy OB-252 two days before in heavy weather and was never seen again.[27]

Finally, on 13 December, U-43 fired two torpedoes at the unescorted 10,350 ton British merchant ship Orari about 450 miles (720 km) southwest of Ireland. One torpedo hit the ship in the stern. However, U-43 had no torpedoes left, and the sea was too rough for her to use her deck gun. The crew of the ship managed to plug the hole with tarpaulins, and the ship made it under her own power to the Clyde.[28]

U-43 returned to Lorient on 17 December 1940 after a patrol of 38 days.[5] On 4 February 1941, while at Lorient docks, U-43 was sunk after a valve was accidentally left open, putting the U-boat out of action for the next three months.[1]

7th patrol[edit | edit source]

After this enforced absence U-43 began her next patrol on 11 May 1941, still under the command of Wolfgang Lüth, who had been promoted to Kapitänleutnant on 1 January.[29] Once again she sailed out into the mid-Atlantic, where she sank three ships.[30]

Early on the morning of 15 May U-43 opened fire with her deck gun and anti-aircraft guns on the 488 ton French three-masted sailing ship Notre Dame du Châtelet, en route from St. Malo to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to fish. After being hit by 45 shells the ship sank. Lüth suspected that the vessel was reporting the positions of U-boats to Allied forces, while the 10 survivors thought they had been attacked by a British submarine. They, from her crew of 38, abandoned ship in two lifeboats. Two were picked up by the Italian submarine Otaria on 23 May.[31]

On the evening of 6 June U-43 put two torpedoes into the 4,802 ton Dutch merchant ship Yselhaven about 600 miles (970 km) east of Newfoundland. The ship, separated from Convoy OB-328, sank within two minutes. Only 10 of her crew of 34 survived to be rescued by the Finnish merchantman Hammarland on 15 June.[32]

In the early hours of 17 June, U-43 torpedoed and sank the 2,727 ton British merchant ship Cathrine, part of Convoy SL-76, which was loaded with 3,700 tons of manganese ore, about 250 miles (400 km) south-west of Cape Clear (southern Ireland). Only three men survived from her crew of 27; they spent 33 days in a lifeboat before being found by a British trawler.[33] U-43 returned to Lorient on 1 July after a patrol lasting 52 days.[5]

8th and 9th patrols[edit | edit source]

U-43's next patrol, beginning on 2 August 1941, took her back out into the mid-Atlantic for 53 days, but she had no success before returning to Lorient on 23 September.[34]

U-43 went to sea again on 10 November 1941, this time she was more successful, sinking three ships near the Azores.[35]

Early on the morning of 29 November, U-43 fired two torpedoes at the 5,569 ton British merchant ship Thornliebank, part of Convoy OS-12, and loaded with general cargo and munitions, about 240 miles (390 km) north-north-west of the Azores. Both torpedoes struck the ship, which exploded violently. There were no survivors from the crew of 75 men. Despite being about 1,200 metres (0.75 mi) distant, debris from the explosion struck the surfaced U-boat, slightly injuring a crewman; the next day an unfuzed 10 cm (3.9 in) shell was found lodged in the conning tower.[36]

On the evening of 30 November, the 4,868-ton British merchant ship Ashby, a straggler from Convoy OS-12, was hit by one of two torpedoes fired by U-43, 170 miles (270 km) south-south-east of Flores in the Azores. The ship sank within four minutes with the loss of 17 of her crew of 50. The survivors were picked up by the Portuguese destroyer Lima.[37] After the attack the U-boat was depth charged for several hours by convoy escorts, but managed to escape unharmed.[1]

At about 17:00 on 1 December 1941, U-43 and U-575 spotted the 7,542 ton unescorted and unarmed tanker Astral. Both U-boats gave chase, but after four hours U-575, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Heydemann, observed the large American flag painted on her side and abandoned the pursuit. U-43 continued to follow the neutral ship, firing a torpedo at her around midnight, which missed. The ship immediately began to sail a zigzag evasive course at full speed, but the U-boat had no problem following her in the light of the full moon. The next morning U-43 hit the Astral with two torpedoes. The ship, loaded with 78,200 barrels (12,430 m3) of gasoline and kerosene, exploded and sank within minutes. There were no survivors from her crew of 37. The Astral was the third of four American merchant ships sunk by U-boats prior to America's entry into the war.[38] U-43 returned to Lorient on 16 December.[5]

10th patrol[edit | edit source]

Lüth's last patrol with the boat began on 30 December 1941, when U-43 sailed from Lorient into the mid-Atlantic, where she sank three more ships.[39] The first was the 5,246 ton Swedish cargo ship Yngaren, straggling from convoy HX-168 due to bad weather, about 600 miles (970 km) west of Ireland. On the morning of 12 January 1942 the ship was hit by two torpedoes and sank within a minute. Six British passengers and 32 crewmen were lost, the only two survivors were spotted on a raft on 10 February by a British patrol aircraft, which directed a fishing trawler to their position the next day.[40]

Early in the morning of 14 January, U-43 attacked Convoy ON-55 south of Iceland and sank the 6,641 ton British merchant ship Empire Surf. Only six of the crew of 53 survived to be picked up by HMS Alisma.[41] About two hours later U-43 attacked the convoy again and sank the 5,707 ton Panama-registered American merchant ship Chepo. There were 21 survivors from her 38 crew.[42] The U-boat then sailed to Kiel, arriving on 22 January. Command of the U-boat passed to her 1.WO, Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Joachim Schwantke, as Lüth left to commission U-181.

11th patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43's first patrol under her new commander began on 4 July 1942, as she sailed from Kiel via the 'gap' between Iceland and the Faroe Islands into the mid-Atlantic. However, she achieved no success, and arrived back at Lorient on 15 August after 43 days at sea.[43]

12th patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43's next patrol was more successful, departing from Lorient on 23 September 1942, sailing across the Atlantic and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.[44]

On the morning of 18 November, U-43 fired four torpedoes at Convoy SC-109 and hit the 9,131 ton American tanker Brilliant, loaded with 90,704 barrels (14,420.8 m3) of fuel oil. A 40-foot (12 m) diameter hole was made in her side, and the cargo caught fire. While some of the crew abandoned ship, those remaining aboard managed to put the fires out; making only three knots, the ship limped the 300 miles (480 km) to Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland, arriving on 24 November. Brilliant eventually left Newfoundland on 18 January 1943 under tow, but after two days the ship broke in half. The fore section sank immediately, while the aft section drifted for some days before it was found and the 44 crew rescued. The aft section was taken in tow, but sank the next day.[45] U-43 arrived back at Lorient on 9 December after a patrol of 78 days.[5]

13th patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43's first patrol of 1943 began on 9 January, patrolling the waters between the Azores and the West African coast.[46] On 3 March she spotted a vessel, identified it as a British Blue Star Line merchant ship, and hit it with three torpedoes, it sank it within two minutes. Only later did U-43 learn that it was the 5,154 ton German blockade runner Doggerbank, formerly the British Speybank that had been captured by the auxiliary cruiser Atlantis in January 1941. The ship was carrying 7,000 tons of rubber, fats, fish oil, and other raw materials from Yokohama to France; she was several days ahead of her scheduled arrival date.[47] U-43 returned to Lorient on 31 March after 82 days at sea.[5]

14th patrol[edit | edit source]

U-43's final patrol began when she sailed from Lorient on 13 July 1943 and headed southwest into the Atlantic.[5] On the evening of 19 July, in company with U-403 in the Bay of Biscay, the two U-boats were attacked by a British Liberator Mk.V bomber of No. 86 Squadron RAF. U-403 crash-dived immediately, covered by the AA fire of U-43, which then dived. The Liberator was slightly damaged and a crewman wounded, but dropped two homing torpedoes. Neither U-boat was damaged and both escaped.[1]

Sinking[edit | edit source]

On 30 July 1943, U-43 was attacked again, this time by an Avenger torpedo bomber from the American escort carrier USS Santee. The aircraft dropped a FIDO homing torpedo and sank the U-boat southwest of the Azores, in position 34°57′N 35°11′W / 34.95°N 35.183°W / 34.95; -35.183 (U-43 (sunk)).[48] All 55 crew members went down with the submarine.[1]

Summary of raiding history[edit | edit source]

During her service in the Kriegsmarine, U-43 sank 21 merchant ships for a total of 117,036 GRT, damaged one vessel of 10,350 GRT, and another of 9,131 GRT - enough for it to be declared a total loss.[49]

Date[49] Name of ship[49] Tonnage[49] Nationality[49] Convoy[49] Fate and location[49]
16 November 1939 Arlington Court 4,915  United Kingdom SL-7A Sunk at 48°14′N 11°42′W / 48.233°N 11.7°W / 48.233; -11.7 (Arlington Court (ship))
22 November 1939 Arijon 4,374  France 14-BS Sunk at 45°40′N 04°50′W / 45.667°N 4.833°W / 45.667; -4.833 (Arijon (ship))
25 November 1939 Uskmouth 2,483  United Kingdom Sunk at 43°22′N 11°27′W / 43.367°N 11.45°W / 43.367; -11.45 (Uskmouth (ship))
21 June 1940 Yarraville 8,627  United Kingdom 65-X Sunk at 39°40′N 11°34′W / 39.667°N 11.567°W / 39.667; -11.567 (Yarraville (ship))
30 June 1940 Avelona Star 13,376  United Kingdom SL-36 Sunk at 46°46′N 12°17′W / 46.767°N 12.283°W / 46.767; -12.283 (Avelona Star (ship))
9 July 1940 Aylesbury 3,944  United Kingdom Sunk at 48°39′N 13°33′W / 48.65°N 13.55°W / 48.65; -13.55 (Aylesbury (ship))
17 July 1940 Fellside 3,509  United Kingdom OA-184 Sunk at 56°09′N 12°30′W / 56.15°N 12.5°W / 56.15; -12.5 (Fellside (ship))
25 September 1940 Sulairia 5,802  United Kingdom OB-217 Sunk at 53°43′N 20°10′W / 53.717°N 20.167°W / 53.717; -20.167 (Sulairia (ship))
2 December 1940 Pacific President 7,113  United Kingdom OB-251 Sunk at 56°04′N 18°45′W / 56.067°N 18.75°W / 56.067; -18.75 (Pacific President (ship))
2 December 1940 Victor Ross 12,247  United Kingdom OB-251 Sunk at 56°04′N 18°30′W / 56.067°N 18.5°W / 56.067; -18.5 (Victor Ross (ship))
6 December 1940 Skrim 1,902  Norway OB-252 Sunk at 53°00′00″N 21°00′00″W / 53°N 21°W / 53; -21 (Skrim (ship))
13 December 1940 Orari 10,350  United Kingdom Damaged at 49°50′N 20°55′W / 49.833°N 20.917°W / 49.833; -20.917 (Orari (ship))
15 May 1941 Notre Dame du Châtelet 488  France Sunk at 48°00′00″N 14°00′00″W / 48°N 14°W / 48; -14 (Notre Dame du Châtelet (ship))
6 June 1941 Yselhaven 4,802  Netherlands OB-328 Sunk at 49°25′N 40°54′W / 49.417°N 40.9°W / 49.417; -40.9 (Yselhaven (ship))
17 June 1941 Cathrine 2,727  United Kingdom SL-76 Sunk at 49°30′N 16°00′W / 49.5°N 16°W / 49.5; -16 (Cathrine (ship))
29 November 1941 Thornliebank 5,569  United Kingdom OS-12 Sunk at 41°50′N 29°48′W / 41.833°N 29.8°W / 41.833; -29.8 (Thornliebank (ship))
30 November 1941 Ashby 4,868  United Kingdom OS-12 Sunk at 36°54′N 29°51′W / 36.9°N 29.85°W / 36.9; -29.85 (Ashby (ship))
2 December 1941 Astral 7,542 United States Sunk at 35°40′N 24°00′W / 35.667°N 24°W / 35.667; -24 (Astral (ship))
12 January 1942 Yngaren 5,246  Sweden HX-168 Sunk at 57°00′00″N 26°00′00″W / 57°N 26°W / 57; -26 (Yngaren (ship))
14 January 1942 Chepo 5,707  Panama ON-55 Sunk at 58°30′N 19°40′W / 58.5°N 19.667°W / 58.5; -19.667 (Chepo (ship))
14 January 1942 Empire Surf 6,641  United Kingdom ON-55 Sunk at 58°42′N 19°16′W / 58.7°N 19.267°W / 58.7; -19.267 (Empire Surf (ship))
18 November 1942 Brilliant 9,131 United States SC-109 Total loss at 50°45′N 45°53′W / 50.75°N 45.883°W / 50.75; -45.883 (Brilliant (ship))
3 March 1943 Doggerbank 5,154  Nazi Germany Sunk at 29°10′N 34°10′W / 29.167°N 34.167°W / 29.167; -34.167 (Doggerbank (ship))

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-43". German U-boats of World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u43.htm. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
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  13. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-43 (Fourth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_287.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
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  15. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Avelona Star (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/398.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  16. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Aylesbury (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/416.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  17. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Fellside (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/428.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
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  19. The Times Atlas of the World - Third edition, revised 1995, ISBN 0 7230 0809 4, p. 9
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  27. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Skrim (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/706.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  28. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Orari (Motor merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/717.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  29. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Kapitän zur See Wolfgang Lüth". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/men/luth.htm. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  30. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-43 (Seventh patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_291.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  31. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Notre Dame du Châtelet (Sailing ship)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/923.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  32. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Yselhaven (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/972.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  33. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Cathrine (Motor merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/995.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
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  37. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ashby (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/1209.html. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
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  41. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Empire Surf (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/1247.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  42. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Chepo (Steam merchant)". Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/1246.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  43. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-43 (Eleventh patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_295.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  44. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-43 (Twelfth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_296.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  45. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Brilliant (Motor tanker)". uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/2446.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  46. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-43 (Thirteenth patrol)". U-boat patrols. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_297.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
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  48. Cressman 1999. p. 173
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.6 "Ships hit by U-43". U-boat Successes. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u43.html. Retrieved 11 April 2010. 
  • Cressman, Robert (December 1999). The official chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2006). Knight's Cross with Diamonds Recipients 1941–45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-84176-644-5.

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