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German submarine U-596
Career (Nazi Germany) War Ensign of Germany (1938–1945).svg
Name: U-596
Builder: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Laid down: 4 January 1941
Commissioned: 13 November 1941
Fate: Scuttled on 24 September 1944 in the Mediterranean in Skaramanga Bay, near Salamis in position 37°59′N 23°34′E / 37.983°N 23.567°E / 37.983; 23.567, after being damaged by US bombs
General characteristics
Type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement: 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length: 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
Speed: 17.7 knots (20.4 mph; 32.8 km/h) surfaced
7.6 knots (8.7 mph; 14.1 km/h) submerged
Range: 15,170 km (8,190 nmi) at 10 kn (19 km/h) surfaced
150 km (81 nmi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 44–52 officers & ratings
Armament: • 5 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes (4 bow, 1 stern)
• 14 × torpedoes or 26 TMA mines
• 1 × C35 88mm gun/L45 deck gun (220 rounds)
• Various AA guns

German submarine U-596 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for the Nazi German Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 4 January 1941 by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg as 'werk' 572, launched on 17 September 1941 and commissioned on 13 November under Kapitänleutnant Gunter Jahn. He was replaced on 28 July 1943 by Oberleutnant Victor-Whilhelm Noon who was superseded by Oblt. Hans Kolbus in July 1944.

The boat's service began on 13 November 1941 with training as part of the 8th U-boat Flotilla. She was transferred to the 3rd flotilla on 1 July 1942 and moved on to the 29th flotilla on 19 November.

Operational careerEdit

In 12 patrols she sank 12 ships, including one warship for a total of 41,411 GRT.

Her initial sortie from Kiel was cut short by a battery explosion on 28 June 1942. She was obliged to put into Bergen in Norway.

1st patrolEdit

Her first patrol saw her depart Bergen on 8 August 1942, cross the North Sea and move through the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands into the Atlantic. There she sank the Suecia with a torpedo on 16 August, having first checked the ships' papers. She also sank the Empire Hartebeeste on 20 September, but was attacked by HNoMS Potentilla and HMS Viscount on 24 August. No damage was sustained. U-596 lost a man overboard on 30 August in mid-Atlantic. The boat then docked at St. Nazaire in occupied France on 3 October.

2nd patrolEdit

Her next foray from St. Nazaire took the U-boat as part of group 'Delphin' to La Spezia in northern Italy. Her route involved passing the heavily defended Strait of Gibraltar, which she successfully accomplished in the darkness during the period of the new moon from 8–10 November 1942.[1]

3rd and 4th patrolsEdit

U-596's third patrol took her past the Balearic Islands to the Algerian coast near Oran. It was unsuccessful.

Her fourth foray yielded some reward. Between Algiers and Oran she damaged the Fort Norman and the Empire Standard, both on 9 March 1943.

5th and 6th patrolsEdit

Her fifth outing, in the same area as her third and fourth patrols, was rewarded with the sinking of the Fort a la Corne west of Algiers on 30 March 1943.

Her home port was moved from La Spezia to Pola in Croatia; she sailed from there on her sixth patrol, but it was uneventful.

7th and 8th patrolsEdit

Patrol number seven was marked by the sinking of several Egyptian, a Palestinian and British-registered sailing ships off the Lebanon coast with her deck gun in August and September 1943.

During her eighth patrol, she sank the Marit off the Libyan coast on 4 October, but was attacked by the British corvette HMS Gloxina. Although slightly damaged, the U-boat escaped.

9th, 10th and 11th patrolsEdit

U-596 departed Pola on 30 November but it was not until many days later that she sank the Troop Transport Cap Padaran off Cape Spartivento in Italy on 9 December. She returned to Pola on 28 December 1943.

Another unsuccessful patrol passed between 12 February and 11 March 1944.

The boat barely left the Adriatic for patrol number eleven.

12th patrolEdit

What turned out to be the last complete patrol by a U-boat in the Mediterranean[2] began with U-596's departure from Pola on 29 July 1944. Her route was to the Gulf of Sirte on the Libyan coast. Her arrival at Salmis in Greece was followed by the USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) bombing the port on 29 September (USAAF records say the 25th). The boat was sufficiently damaged that the crew were forced to abandon her and join the general retreat through Athens.[3]

FateEdit

The submarine was scuttled on 24 September 1944 in Skaramanga Bay, near Salamis in position 37°59′N 23°34′E / 37.983°N 23.567°E / 37.983; 23.567. 1 person died; the number of survivors is unknown.

Raiding historyEdit

Date Name Nationality Convoy Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate
16 August 1942 Suecia Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden SC-95 4,966 Sunk
20 September 1942 Empire Hartebeeste Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom SC-100 5,676 Sunk
7 February 1943 HMS LCI (L) 162 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 246 Sunk
9 March 1943 Empire Standard Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom KMS-10 7,047 Damaged
30 March 1943 Fort Norman Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom KMS-10 7,133 Damaged
30 March 1943 Fort a la Corne Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom ET-16 7,133 Sunk
30 March 1943 Hallanger Flag of Norway.svg Norway ET-16 9,551 Sunk
20 August 1943 El Sayeda Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 68 Sunk
21 August 1943 Lily Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine 132 Sunk
21 August 1943 Namaz Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 50 Sunk
21 August 1943 Panikos Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 21 Sunk
30 August 1943 Nagwa Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 183 Sunk
7 September 1943 Hamidieh Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 80 Sunk
4 October 1943 Marit Flag of Norway.svg Norway XT-4 5,542 Sunk
9 December 1943 Cap Padaran Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom HA-11 8,009 Sunk

SourcesEdit

  1. Paterson, Lawrence - U-Boats in the Mediterranean 1941-1944, 2007, Chatham Publishing, ISBN 13: 9781861762900, p. 92.
  2. Paterson, p. 175
  3. Paterson, p. 178

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