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Gothic Line order of battle is a listing of the significant formations that were involved in Operation Olive, the Allied offensive on the Gothic Line in northern Italy, August - September 1944, and in the subsequent fighting in the central Apennine mountains and on the plains of eastern Emilia–Romagna up to April 1945.

Allied Forces Headquarters Mediterranean[]

Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean:

General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson (until 12 December 1944)
Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander (from 12 December 1944)

Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean:

Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers (until September 1944)
Lieutenant General Joseph T. McNarney (from September 1944)

Chief of Staff

Lieutenant-General Sir James Gammell (to 12 December 1944)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Harding (from 12 December 1944 to 6 March 1945[1])
Lieutenant-General William Morgan (from 6 March 1945)[1]

Allied Armies in Italy (until 12 December 1944)[]

Commander-in-Chief: General Sir Harold Alexander
Chief of Staff: Lieutenant-General Sir John Harding

Allied 15th Army Group (from 12 December 1944)[]

Commander: Lieutenant General Mark Wayne Clark (promoted to full general 10 March 1945)
Chief of Staff: Major General Alfred M. Gruenther

U.S. Fifth Army[]


Lieutenant General Mark Wayne Clark (until 16 December 1944)
Lieutenant General Lucian K. Truscott (from 16 December 1944)
U.S. II Corps[]
Major General Geoffrey Keyes
U.S. IV Corps[]
Major General Willis D. Crittenberger

* Order of entry into battle

British XIII Corps (transferred to British 8th Army in January 1945)[]
Lieutenant-General Sidney Kirkman (until 25 January 1945)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Harding (from 25 January 1945)
Independent units under Army HQ[]

British 8th Army[]


Lieutenant-General Sir Oliver Leese (until 1 October 1944)
Lieutenant-General Sir Richard McCreery (from 1 October 1944)
British V Corps[]
Lieutenant-General Charles Keightley
British X Corps (until December 1944 and from February 1945)[]
Lieutenant-General Sir Richard McCreery (until 6 November 1944)
Lieutenant-General John Hawkesworth (from 6 November 1944)
British XIII Corps (transferred from U.S. 5th Army January 1945)[]

see listing above under U.S. 5th Army)

Canadian I Corps (until February 1945)[]
Lieutenant-General E. L. M. Burns (until 10 November 1944)
Lieutenant-General C. Foulkes (from 10 November 1944)
Polish II Corps[]
Lieutenant-General Władysław Anders
Other Units[]

German Army Group C[]


Field Marshal Albert Kesselring (until 25 October 1944, from January 1945 until 9 March 1945)
General Heinrich von Vietinghoff (from 25 October 1944 until January 1945 and from 9 March 1945)

German Tenth Army[]


General Heinrich von Vietinghoff (until 25 October 1944)
Lieutenant-General Joachim Lemelsen (from 25 October 1944 to 15 February 1945)
Lieutenant-General Traugott Herr (from 15 February 1945)

German LXXVI Panzer Corps[]

Lieutenant-General Traugott Herr (until 26 December 1944)
Lieutenant-General Graff Gerhard von Schwerin (from 26 December 1944 to 25 April 1945)
Major-General Karl von Graffen (from 25 April 1945)

German LI Mountain Corps[]

Lieutenant-General Valentin Feurstein until March 1945 and then Lieutenant-General Friedrich-Wilhelm Hauck

German Fourteenth Army[]

Lieutenant-General Joachim Lemelsen (to 24 October 1944 and from 17 February 1945)
Lieutenant-General Frido von Senger und Etterlin (October 1944)
Lieutenant-General Heinz Ziegler (24 October to 22 November 1944)
Lieutenant-General Traugott Herr (22 November to 12 December 1944)
Lieutenant-General Kurt von Tippelskirch (from 12 December 1944 to 16 February 1945)

German I Parachute Corps[]

Lieutenant-General Alfred Schlemm (to 30 September 1944)
Lieutenant-General Richard Heidrich (from 1 November 1944 to 23 January 1945)
Major-General Hellmuth Böhlke (from 23 January 1945 to 7 February 1945)
Lieutenant-General Richard Heidrich (from 7 February 1945)

German XIV Panzer Corps[]

Lieutenant-General Frido von Senger und Etterlin

Army Group Liguria[]

Commander: General Alfredo Guzzoni
  • 42nd Jäger Division (Major-General Walter Jost)
  • 34th Infantry Division (Major-General Theobald Lieb)
  • Italian Monterosa Mountain Division (Colonel Giorgio Milazzo)
  • Italian San Marco Marine Division (Major-General Amilcare Farina)

Army Reserve[]

Independent Units[]

German LXXV Corps (Italian-French border)[]

Lieutenant-General Hans Schlemmer

Adriatic Coast Command[]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Jackson (1988), p. 196.
  2. Jackson (1987), p. 225.


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