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He 114
Heinkel he 114 san diego air and space museum 2.jpg
Heinkel He 114
Role Reconnaissance floatplane
National origin Germany
Manufacturer Heinkel
First flight 1936
Introduction 1939
Retired 1945 (Luftwaffe)
1960 (Romania)
Primary users Germany
Sweden
Romania

The Heinkel He 114 was a biplane reconnaissance seaplane produced for the Kriegsmarine in the 1930s for use from warships. It replaced the company's He 60, but did not remain in service long before being replaced in turn by the Arado Ar 196 as Germany's standard spotter aircraft.

Design and developmentEdit

While the fuselage and flotation gear of the He 114 were completely conventional, its wing arrangement was highly unusual. The upper set of wings was attached to the fuselage with a set of cabane struts, as in a parasol wing monoplane, whereas the lower set was of much lesser span while having approximately the same chord. (Note that this general layout isn't especially unusual, and is known as a "Sesquiplane", or a biplane which has a smaller lower wing. Typically, the lower wing is about 3/4 of the span of the upper wing, and has a smaller chord as well. The He 114 has a much shorter lower wing than usual, but has the same chord as the upper wing, which keeps the wing area ratio similar.)

Operational historyEdit

The He 114 was never a great success, was not built in large numbers, and served with the Luftwaffe for only a short time. While the He 60 had handled very well on the water but been sluggish in the air, the He 114's handling while afloat was poor and its performance in the air scarcely better than the aircraft it replaced.

12 aircraft were exported to Sweden (where they were designated S 12) and 24 to Romania, where the last 8 remained in service until 1 May 1960.

SurvivorsEdit

On 27 June 2012, two divers Pascale Roibu and Iulian Rusu found one seaplane Heinkel 114 in Siutghiol Lake near Mamaia, Constanta, Romania. Recently near Heinkel 114 the two divers found pieces of another seaplane Blohm & Voss BV 138.

VariantsEdit

He 114A-0
10 pre-production aircraft, powered by a 656 kW (880 hp) BMW 132Dc engine.
He 114A-1
Training version, powered by a 656 kW (880 hp) BMW 132Dc engine. 33 built.
He 114A-2
Main production shipborne version.
He 114B-1
Export version of the He 114A-2 for Sweden. 12 built.
He 114B-2
Export version of the He 114A-2 for Romania. Six built.
He 114B-3
Export version for Romania. 12 built.
He 114C-1
Reconnaissance biplane for the Luftwaffe. 14 built.
He 114C-2
Unarmed shipborne (Kriegsmarine commerce raider) version. Four built.

OperatorsEdit

Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Germany
Flag of Romania.svg Romania
Flag of Spain.svg Spain
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden

Specifications (He 114A-2)Edit

Data from Warplanes of the Luftwaffe. [1]

General characteristics
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Length: 38 ft 2½ in (11.65 m)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 7½ in (13.60 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 2 in (5.23 m)
  • Wing area: 455 ft² (42.3 m²)
  • Empty weight: 5,070 lb (2,300 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 8,091 lb (3,670 kg)
  • Powerplant:BMW 132K 9-cylinder radial engine, 960 hp (716 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 181 kn, 208 mph (335 km/h)
  • Range: 497 nmi, 571 mi (920 km)
  • Service ceiling: 16,075 ft (4,900 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1082 ft/min (5.5 m/s [2])
  • Wing loading: 17.8 lb/ft² (86.8 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.12 lb/hp (0.20 kW/kg)
  • Climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft): 4.5 min</ul></ul>Armament
  • 1 × 7.92x57mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun in flexible mount for observer
  • 2 × 50 kg (110 lb) bombs

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Donald 1994, p.107.
  2. Smith and Kay 1972, p.268.

BibliographyEdit

  • Donald, David, ed. Warplanes of the Luftwaffe. London: Aerospace, 1994. ISBN 1-874023-56-5.
  • Smith J. R. and Kay, Anthony. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1972. ISBN 0-370-00024-2.
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