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Feature 'f' is a hornwork. From Cyclopaedia.

hornwork

The Weber Church of Zittau inside a hornwork (Europaeum Theatrum, Volume 5, Plate 12. Published in 1651 in Frankfurt am Main).

A hornwork is an element of the trace italienne system of fortification. It consists of a pair of demi-bastions with a curtain wall connecting them and with two long sides directed upon the faces of the bastions, or ravelins of the inner fortifications, so as to be defended by them.[1]

The hornwork was used to extend the fortified area in a particular direction to prevent the enemy occupying an area of high ground or simply strengthen the overall fortifications in the expected direction of attack.[2] A crownwork serves a similar purpose, but unlike a hornwork, it contains full bastion.

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