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Indonesian Army
Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat
Lambang TNI AD.png
Indonesian Army insignia
Active 1945 – present
Country Indonesia
Type Army
Size 233,000(regular)[1]
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces
Motto(s) Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
Engagements Indonesian Independence
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
Free Papua Movement
Commanders
Indonesian Army Chief of Staff General Budiman
(30 August 2013-present)
Insignia
Army Aviation Roundel Roundel of Indonesia – Army Aviation.svg

The Indonesian Army (Indonesian language: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel.[1] The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.

Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh Maluku and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.[2][3]

The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units. The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel.[4]

The Military Area Commands (Kodam) as of 2007

RM-70 rocket launchers, Indonesia has seven units, which are spread throughout the country

Military Area Commands[edit | edit source]

The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.

The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.[5]

A reorganization in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defense Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defense structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services.[6] The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.

The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers.[7] Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands, and these are:

Operational Commands[edit | edit source]

  • Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters.[10] Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified. Of note is the unusual nature of Group IV, possibly also called "Sandhy Yudha," which consists of select members from Groups I, II, and III. The duties of these specially trained personnel include attacking behind enemy lines (Infiltration tactics). Group IV also, reportedly, works with the Joint Intelligence Unit on interrogations, and carries out clandestine operations around the country.
  • Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops.[11] It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.
    • Infantry Division 1 Kostrad, with 13th Infantry Brigade and the 17th Airborne Brigade, plus Field Artillery Regiment 2
    • 2nd Division, with 6th and 9th Infantry, and the 18th Airborne Brigades, plus a field artillery regiment
    • 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade, Ujung Pandang (ex-Kopassus 3rd Group)[12]
    • KOSTRAD also commands several combat service support units such as combat engineers.
  • Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.
    • Squadron 11 Heli Serbu (light assault) (Semarang, Jawa Tengah)
    • Squadron 21 Sena (support) (Pondok Cabe, Jakarta)
    • Squadron 31 Heli Serbu (heavy assault squadron)(Semarang, Jawa Tengah)

Equipment[edit | edit source]

Small arms and infantry weapons[edit | edit source]

Name Origin Type Caliber Notes
Pindad P1/P2[13]  Indonesia Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm Local copy of the Browning Hi-Power. Approximately 30,000 P1s and 2,000 P2s manufactured.
M1911 United States Semi-automatic pistol .45 ACP
SIG Sauer P226   Switzerland Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm For use by Kopassus.
Pindad PM2[13]  Indonesia Submachine gun 9x19mm
MP5 series  Germany Submachine gun 9x19mm Used by special forces
Pindad SS1[13]  Indonesia Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Pindad SS2[13]  Indonesia Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Modernized SS1.
M16[13] United States Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Steyr AUG[13]  Austria Assault rifle 5.56x45mm For use by Kopassus.
G36[14]  Germany Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Used by special forces
Accuracy International AWM[14]  United Kingdom Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum Used by special forces
Pindad SPR-1[13]  Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-3[13]  Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-2[13]  Indonesia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7x99mm
Pindad SM3  Indonesia Light machine gun 5.56x45mm Locally produced version of the FN Minimi.
Pindad SM2  Indonesia General purpose machine gun 7.62x51mm Locally produced version of the FN MAG.
Pindad SMB-QCB  Indonesia Heavy machine gun 12.7x99mm Locally produced version of the CIS 50MG.
Name Origin Type Notes
M203 grenade launcher 'Pindad SPG1'  Indonesia Under barrel grenade launcher First locally produced grenade Launcher.
M79 grenade launcher United States Single-shot grenade launcher
AT-13 Metis M  Russia Anti tank missile launchers
AT-5 Sprandel  Russia Anti tank missile launchers
MBT LAW  Sweden Anti tank missile launchers [15][16][17]
FGM-148 Javelin United States Anti tank guided missile On order[18][19]
C90-CR (M3)  Spain Anti tank rocket launchers
PF-89  China Anti tank rocket launcher
M80 Rocket Launcher[20]  Yugoslavia Shoulder-fired missile

Main Battle Tank[edit | edit source]

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
GermanyLeopard 2A4 Main Battle Tank 2 38 With approximately U.S. $ 287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4, Leopard 2 Revolution 63 units and 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.[21][22] Two delivered.[23][24]
GermanyLeopard 2 Revolution Main Battle Tank - 61 With approximately U.S. $ 287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4, Leopard 2 Revolution 63 units and 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.[25][26]

Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Armored Personnel Carriers[edit | edit source]

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
France AMX-13 Light tank 275 Including self-propelled artillery variants. To be upgraded
United KingdomFV101 Scorpion 90 Reconnaissance vehicle 90
GermanyMarder 1A3 Infantry fighting vehicle 2 48 [23] With the assistance of German Rheinmetall, PT Pindad will make the production line from the early stages until finished.[27][28][29]
South KoreaDoosan DST Tarantula Amphibious Armored Fighting Vehicle 22 .[30][31][32][33]
FranceAMX-VTT Armoured Personnel Carrier 200
FranceVéhicule de l'Avant Blindé (VAB) Armoured Personnel Carrier 46 14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.[34]
United KingdomAlvis Stormer Armoured Personnel Carrier 50 Includes the armoured personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.[35]
IndonesiaPindad Panser Armoured Personnel Carrier 285 2008–2010 20 units were received in February 2009,[36] 40 were received in July 2009[37] while another 33 were received in Jan 2010.[38]
IndonesiaPindad Panser APR-1V Armoured Personnel Carrier 14 2004 Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
United KingdomFV601 Saladin Armoured Car 69
United StatesCadillac Gage Commando Light Armoured Car 200
IndonesiaPindad Komodo Light Tactical Vehicle 56 . The Indonesian Army has officially ordered 6 Komodos. The Mistral Mobile SAM launcher is also scheduled for orders with the Indonesian Army with a total of 56 Komodos.[39][40] An additional fifty Komodos are ordered from Pindad.[41] 8 Komodos modified to house communications equipments were also ordered.[42][43]
FranceRenault Sherpa 2 Light Tactical Vehicle 30 July 2011 Announced in July 2011[44]
Soviet UnionBTR-40 Light Tactical Vehicle 130 Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.[45]

Utility and logistics vehicles[edit | edit source]

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
M151 MUTT Light utility vehicle
Land Rover LWB Light utility vehicle
Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP Light utility vehicle
Nissan Q4W73 Light truck
DAF YA400 Transport truck
Unimog Medium truck
Isuzu Elf[46] Medium truck
Steyr 680M Medium truck
Bedford MK Light truck
Steyr 17M29 Medium truck
Cakra FAV Fast attack vehicle

Artillery and Air Defence Systems[edit | edit source]

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
France Nexter CAESAR 155mm Self-propelled howitzer 2 35 Ordered in 2012, 2 battalions, 18 guns each[47][48]
South Korea KH-179 155mm Self-propelled howitzer - 56 Ordered in 2013, for 3 battalions[49]
Brazil ASTROS II 180mm Multiple rocket launcher 2 34 Ordered in 2012, 2 battalions, 18 launchers each[50]
Indonesia NDL-40 Multiple rocket launcher 50 77 mm rockets. Built by PTDI
SwedenBofors 40 mm[citation needed] Autocannon
Soviet Union 57 mm AZP S-60 57mm Anti-aircraft artillery 256
Switzerland Oerlikon Skyshield[51] 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery unknown .[52][53]
Switzerland Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon[51] 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery unknown .[54][55]
United StatesM101 howitzer & KH 178 105mm[56] Towed artillery 54
Singapore FH-2000[56] Towed artillery 8
Soviet Union ZUR-23-2KG 23 mm Towed artillery 14 .[57]
China Giant Bow I 23 mm Towed artillery 18 .[58]
Sweden RBS-70 Surface-to-air missile 45 .[59][60][61]
China TD-2000B Surface-to-air missile unknown .[62][63]
United Kingdom Rapier missile Surface-to-air missile 120 Retired in 2007, replaced by Starstreak and Grom
United Kingdom Starstreak (missile)[64] surface-to-air missile unknown
France Mistral Surface-to-air missile, MANPADS unknown .[65]
China QW-3[51] Surface-to-air missile, MANPADS unknown .[62][66]
Poland POPRAD Grom (missile) man-portable air-defense system 155

Aircraft[edit | edit source]

Aircraft Type Versions In service[67] Notes
United States Boeing AH-64 Apache Attack helicopter AH-64E 8 Deal finalized[68]
United States Aero Commander Utility helicopter 680 3
United States Bell UH-1 Iroquois utility helicopter UH-1D 10
Canada Bell 412 Utility helicopter 412
412SP
412EP
14
14
10
Built under license by PTDI
Germany Eurocopter Bo 105 Utility helicopter 30 Built under license by PTDI
France Eurocopter Fennec Utility helicopter 20 Built under license by PTDI.
Russia Mil Mi-17 Transport Helicopter Mi-17-V5 15 One lost to crash 2013.[69]
Russia Mil Mi-35 Attack helicopter Mi-35 8 [70]
Spain CASA C-212 Aviocar Tactical transport 4
United States Cessna 310 Light transport 4

List of Army Chief of Staffs[edit | edit source]

Notes and references[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
  2. Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
  3. Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
  4. IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
  5. Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
  6. Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
  7. The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
  8. 8.0 8.1 Huxley 1997, p.39
  9. BBC, RI Military Area Commander Files Complaint Over Political Candidates, January 2009
  10. For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
  11. International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
  12. Independent status of 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade is as reported in Tim Huxley, 'Indonesia's armed forces face up to new threats,' Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997, p.40
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  14. 14.0 14.1 Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  15. http://pertahananbangsa.blogspot.com/2012/11/tni-ad-membeli-atgm-nlaw-dan-atgm.html
  16. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/01/indonesia-akan-beli-senjata-anti-tank.html
  17. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  18. Indonesia & Jordan; Javelin missile order - Dmilt.com, May 26, 2013
  19. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  20. "ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 - Serbia". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 24 September 2010. http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/transfers/transparency/national_reports/serbia/SER_08.pdf/view. 
  21. Kemhan Akui Kontrak Pembelian Leopard Telah Diteken
  22. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  23. 23.0 23.1 Indonesia takes delivery of first Leopard 2A4 tanks and Marder armoured vehicles from Germany - Armyrecognition.com, 25 September 2013
  24. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
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  27. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/09/tank-marder-1a3-model-tank-medium-pindad.html
  28. Marder, Lapis Baja One Stop Services
  29. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
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  44. http://www.renault-trucks-defense.com/en/news/renault-trucks-defense-receive-new-orders-from-indonesia.html
  45. BTR-40 series of wheeled armoured vehicles
  46. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  47. http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/release/3/140000/nexter%E2%80%99s-caesar-sp-gun-to-enter-indonesian-service.html
  48. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/11/indonesia-sign-contract-for-37-caesar.html
  49. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2013/07/kh-179-artileri-negeri-ginseng-untuk.html
  50. Indonesia Ordered 36 Astros II Rocket Systems
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 http://indonesia-oslo.no/air-force-orders-anti-aircraft-weapons/
  52. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
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  54. Songsong Kedatangan PSU Baru, Korpaskhas akan Kirim Personil untuk Berlatih di Swiss
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  56. 56.0 56.1 http://pussenarmed.kodiklat-tniad.mil.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=57
  57. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/04/zur-23-2kg.html
  58. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/04/giant-bow-i.html
  59. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/12/rbs-70-rudal-pencegat-supersonik-jarak.html
  60. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/04/radar-giraffe_17.html
  61. Saab AB Tawarkan Giraffe AMB dan RBS-70NG kepada TNI AD
  62. 62.0 62.1 http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/04/rudal-cina-warisan-jenderal-djoko.html
  63. Uji terima ulang Sista Hanud Terintegrasi TD-2000B Rudal Meriam
  64. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/11/rudal-starstreak-indonesia.html
  65. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/10/mistral-komodo-akan-memperkuat-arhanud.html
  66. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  67. "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  68. USA and Indonesia formalise AH-64E Apache deal - Flightglobal.com, 26 August 2013
  69. http://idrw.org/?p=29067
  70. http://www.milaviapress.com/orbat/indonesia/index.php
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External links[edit | edit source]

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