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Japanese cruiser Kinu
Japanese cruiser Kinu in 1931.jpg
Career (Japan) Japanese Navy Ensign
Name: Kinu
Namesake: Kinu River
Ordered: 1920 Fiscal Year
Builder: Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kobe
Laid down: 17 January 1921
Launched: 29 May 1922
Commissioned: 10 November 1922[1]
Struck: 20 December 1944
Fate: sunk 26 October 1944
bombed by USN aircraft
SW of Masbate, Sibuyan Sea
11°45′N 123°11′E / 11.75°N 123.183°E / 11.75; 123.183
General characteristics
Class & type: Nagara-class cruiser
Displacement: 5088 tons (standard)
5832 tons (full load)
Length: 534 ft 9 in (162.99 m)
Beam: 48 ft 5 in (14.76 m)
Draught: 16 ft (4.9 m)
Propulsion: 4 shaft Gihon geared turbines
12 Kampon boilers
90,000 shp
Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h)
Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h)
Complement: 438
Armament: 7 × 5.5-inch (140 mm) guns (7x1)
2 × 25 mm AA guns,
6 × 13mm AA guns,
8 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4x2)
48 mines
Armor: 62 mm (belt)
30 mm (deck)
Aircraft carried: 1 x floatplane, 1 catapult

Kinu (鬼怒 軽巡洋艦 Kinu keijun'yōkan?) was a Nagara-class light cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after the Kinu River in Tochigi prefecture Japan.

Background[]

Kinu was the fifth vessel completed in the Nagara class of light cruisers, and like other vessels of her class, she was intended for use as the flagship of a destroyer flotilla.

Service career[]

Early career[]

Kinu was completed on 10 November 1922 at Kawasaki Heavy Industries's Kobe yards. From 1934 to 1935 it was largely used as a training vessel. As the Second Sino-Japanese War began to escalate, it supported landings of Japanese troops in central and southern China, and patrolled the China coast from 1937 to 1938.

On 20 November 1941, Kinu was flagship of Rear Admiral Setsuzo Yoshitomi's SubRon 4, based at Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, with SubDiv 18's I-53, I-54 and the I-55 and SubDiv 19's I-56, I-57 and the I-58. It was engaged in covering landings of Japanese forces in the invasion of Malaya at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

The Hunt for Force Z[]

On 9 December 1941, I-65 reported sighting of Royal Navy Force Z (the Royal Navy battleship HMS Prince of Wales, battlecruiser HMS Repulse and supporting destroyers). The report was received by Kinu, Yura and the 81st Naval Communications Unit in Saigon. The reception was poor and it took another 90 minutes to decode and relay the message to Vice Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa aboard his flagship, Chōkai. However, the I-65's report was incorrect about the heading of Force Z, throwing the Japanese fleet into confusion. A Kawanishi E7K "Alf" from Kinu buzzed I-65, its pilot mistaking her for an enemy submarine. The following day, Force Z was overwhelmed by torpedo bombers of the 22nd Air Flotilla from Indochina.

Invasion of Malaya and Dutch East Indies[]

On 13 December 1941, Kinu departed Cam Ranh Bay, Indochina with Chōkai, Mogami and Mikuma and destroyers Hatsuyuki and Shirayuki to provides cover for invasion landing at Kuantan, Malaya, and from 17–24 December 1941, to cover landings in Brunei and Miri, Seria, Lutong and Kuching in Sarawak. The 2500 men of the "Kawaguchi Detachment" and the No. 2 Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force (SNLF) quickly captured Miri's airfield and oil fields. The operation was completed, and Kinu returned to its base at Cam Ranh Bay, Indochina by the end of the year.

From January through March, 1942, Kinu continued to provide coverage for Japanese landings in Malaya, Sarawak and Java. On 1 March 1942, Kinu's convoy was attacked in the Java Sea 90 miles (140 km) west of Surabaya by ten obsolete Vickers Vildebeest biplane bombers and 15 fighters of the Australian and New Zealand Air Forces. Kinu was slightly damaged by near-misses and three men were killed by shrapnel. The following day, north of Surabaya, Kinu was attacked by the submarine USS S-38, which launched four torpedoes, all of which missed.

From 10 March 1942, Kinu was assigned to CruDiv 16 and was based at Makassar, Celebes and then Ambon.

The New Guinea campaigns[]

From 29 March – 23 April 1942, Kinu was assigned to Rear Admiral Ruitaro Fujita's "N" Expeditionary Force for the invasion of Dutch New Guinea, which included the seaplane carrier Chitose, destroyers Yukikaze and Tokitsukaze, torpedo boats Tomozuru, Hatsukari, transports and a Naval Landing Force.[2] Afterwards, for most of the month of May, Kinu returned to Kure, Hiroshima for an overhaul. After returning to the southern front, Kinu was assigned to patrols of the Java Sea from June through September.

On 13 September 1942, Kinu embarked the 2nd Infantry Division at Batavia with the light cruiser Isuzu for the Solomon Islands. It disembarked the troops at Shortland Island and Bougainville on 22 September 1942 and remained on patrol in the Timor Sea and eastern Dutch East Indies through January 1943. On 21 January 1943, Kinu was ordered to proceed to Makassar to assist its sister ship, light cruiser Natori which had been damaged by a single USAAF B-24 Liberator bomber at Amboina harbor on Ambon Island, and escorted the injured cruiser back to Singapore. Kinu continued to patrol from Makassar through June, with an occasional troop and resupply run to New Guinea.

On 23 June 1943, while at Makassar Roads. Kinu and Kuma were anchored at Juliana Quay alongside the Ōi and Kitakami. The cruisers were attacked by 17 B-24 Liberator bombers of the 319th Squadron/90th Bomb Group (H) of the 5th Air Force. All four were straddled by near-misses, but suffered only slight damage. Kinu was ordered back to Japan for refit and modifications, arriving at Kure on 2 August 1943.

While at Kure, Kinu’s No. 5 and No.7 140-mm guns were removed as were her catapult and derrick. A twin 127-mm HA gun was fitted as were two triple mount Type 96 25-mm AA guns. This brought the Kinu’s 25-mm AA gun total to ten barrels (2x3, 2x2). A type 21 air search radar was also fitted and depth charge rails were added to her stern. Refit and modifications are completed 14 October 1943, and Kinu immediately departed back for Singapore with troops and supplies. Kinu remained in Singapore, or Malacca or Penang in Malaya or at Batavia in the Dutch East Indies through January 1944.

On 23 January 1944, Kinu with Aoba accompanied by the Ōi and Kitakami, and escorted by the destroyer Shikinami made a troop transport run from Singapore to Port Blair, Andaman Islands. On its return voyage to Singapore, Kinu towed the Kitakami, which was damaged by a submarine attack. Kinu remained on patrol in the western Dutch East Indies through April. From April, Kinu starting escorting transport runs from Saipan via Palau to the Celebes and other locations in the Dutch East Indies.

On 27 May 1944, the United States begins "Operation Horlicks" to retake Biak. Kinu, Aoba, and destroyers Shikinami, Uranami and Shigure departed Tarakan to reinforce Biak with 2,300 troops from Zamboanga on Mindanao; however, after being sighted by B-24 bombers and receiving word of the American invasion of Saipan, the operation was canceled and the troops were disembarked at Sorong instead. On 6 June 1944, while anchored off Weigo Island, Vogelkop, New Guinea, Kinu and Aoba were attacked unsuccessfully by B-24 bombers of the Fifth Air Force's 380th Group. Kinu remained on station for a week, and then returned to her patrol area in the western Dutch East Indies through the end of August.

In the Philippines[]

On 25 September 1944, during Japanese "Operation Sho-I-Go" to boost the defenses the Philippines, Kinu, Aoba and the destroyer Uranami were assigned to Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita's First Raiding Force. On 11 October 1944 Aoba collided with Kinu in a training accident off Lingga. Both ships were slightly damaged. On 21 October 1944 Crudiv 16 was detached from Vice Admiral Kurita's Force to assist the Southwest Area Fleet's transport of 2,500 soldiers of the IJA 41st Regiment from Cagayan, Mindanao to Ormoc, Leyte. The convoy was spotted by USS Bream on 23 October 1944. The Bream fired six torpedoes at Aoba, one of which hit her No. 2 engine room. Rear Admiral Sakonjo transferred to the Kinu, which towed Aoba to the Cavite Navy Yard near Manila for emergency repairs. The following day, as Kinu and Uranami sortied from Cavite for Cagayan, they were attacked by aircraft from Task Group 38.3's carriers USS Essex and USS Lexington. Near misses caused light structural damage, but strafing killed 47 crewmen aboard the Kinu and 25 crewmen on the Uranami. On 25 October 1944, Kinu arrived at Cagayan. The naval transports T.6, T.9 and T.10 each embarked 350 troops and the T.101 and T.102 each loaded 400 men, Kinu embarked 347 men and Uranami 150 men. On 26 October 1944 in the Visayan Sea Kinu and Uranami were attacked by 75-80 aircraft from two groups of Task Group 77.4's escort carriers. TBM Avenger torpedo-bombers from the USS Natoma Bay and 12 Avengers and FM-2 Wildcat fighters of VC-21 from USS Marcus Island made repeated bomb, rocket and strafing hits on Kinu and Uranami. An Avenger from the USS Manila Bay scored two direct bomb hits on Kinu and several rocket hits on Uranami, which sank around noon. At 1130, two more waves of aircraft attacked. A third bomb hit the aft engine room and set Kinu on fire. The Japanese transports rescued most of the Kinu's crew of 813 men, including Captain Kawasaki. Rear Admiral Sakonjo transferred his flag to the transport T.10 and made Manila the next day. At 1730, the Kinu sank by the stern in 150 feet (46 m) of water 44 miles (71 km) southwest of Masbate, Philippine Islands. Kinu was removed from the Navy List on 20 December 1944. On 15 July 1945 divers from the USS Chanticleer explored the sunken Kinu and recovered classified documents and several coding machines.

References[]

Books[]

  • Brown, David (1990). Warship Losses of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-914-X. 
  • D'Albas, Andrieu (1965). Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II. Devin-Adair Pub. ISBN 0-8159-5302-X. 
  • Dull, Paul S. (1978). A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-097-1. 
  • Evans, David (1979). Kaigun : Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7. 
  • Howarth, Stephen (1983). The Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895-1945. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11402-8. 
  • Jentsura, Hansgeorg (1976). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-893-X. 
  • Lacroix, Eric; Linton Wells (1997). Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-311-3. 
  • Whitley, M.J. (1995). Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-141-6. 

External links[]

Notes[]

  1. Lacroix, Japanese Cruisers, p. 794.
  2. Klemen, L. "The Fall of Dutch New Guinea, April 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/new_guinea.html. 

See also[]


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