|Jean Samuel Pauly|
April 13, 1766|
|Died||1821 (aged 54–55)|
|Other names||Samuel Johann Pauli|
Career[edit | edit source]
In 1798, at 32, Pauly became an Artillery sergeant. He fought as a member of the Swiss Army, together with the French, under Masséna. During his campaigns, in 1799, Pauly wrote a manual about the usage of firearms.
Pauly moved to Paris in 1802 where he worked on designing an airship and maintained contact with the weapon manufacturer of Saint-Étienne. In 1804 he designed an automatic bridge. Pauly used for himself the title "Colonel Jean Samuel Pauly". He established a gunsmith worshop where he developed mercury fulminate platina. In 1809 he employed the German Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse who would later become the inventor of the famous Dreyse rifle.
Self-contained cartridge[edit | edit source]
In Paris in 1808, in association with French gunsmith François Prélat, Pauly created the first fully self-contained cartridges: the cartridges incorporated a copper base with integrated potassium chlorate primer powder (the major innovation of Pauly), a paper casing and a round bullet. The cartridge was loaded through the breech and fired with a needle or a pin. The needle-activated central-fire breech-loading gun would become a major feature of firearms thereafter. The corresponding firearm was also developed by Pauly. Pauly made an improved version which was protected by a patent on 29 September 1812. The cartridge was further improved by the French gunsmith Casimir Lefaucheux in 1836.
Notes[edit | edit source]
- "Johannes Samuel Pauly, later known as Jean Samuel or Samuel John, was born near Berne, Switzerland, in 1766" in Encyclopedia of Firearms - Page 225 by Harold Leslie Peterson
- Firearms by Roger Pauly p.94
- Chemical Analysis of Firearms, Ammunition, and Gunshot Residue by James Smyth Wallace Page 24 
- Pistols: an illustrated history of their impact by Jeff Kinard Page 106 
- A History of Firearms By W. Y. Carman p.121
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