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Johann Adolf Freiherr[1] von Thielmann (27 April 1765 Dresden – 10 October 1824 Coblenz) was a Saxon soldier who served with Saxony, Prussia and France during the Napoleonic Wars.

Biography[edit | edit source]

Entering the Saxon cavalry in 1782, he saw service against the French in the Rhine campaigns and served on the side of Prussia in the Jena campaign. After the disaster of Jena, Thielmann was sent by Saxony as ambassador to Napoleon I, became his ardent admirer, and did much to bring about the Franco-Saxon alliance. Thielmann accompanied the Saxon contingent which fought at the siege of Danzig and at Friedland.

In 1809, as colonel of Freikorps, he opposed the advance of the Austrians into Saxony, and was rewarded for his services with the grade of major-general, further promotion to lieutenant-general following in 1810. As commander of the Saxon Heavy Cavalry Brigade he took part in the advance on Moscow two years later, and his exceptional bravery at Borodino attracted the attention of Napoleon, who took Thielmann into his own suite. His own sovereign at the same time made him Freiherr.

In the war of the Sixth Coalition, Thielmann, now von Thielmann, took a prominent part. As governor of Torgau, by his king's orders he at first observed the strictest neutrality, but on receipt of an order to hand over the fortress to the French he resigned his command and, accompanied by his staff officer Aster, joined the allies. As a Russian general he was employed in reorganizing the Saxon army after Leipzig, and in 1814 he commanded the Saxon corps operating in the Low Countries.

Graves of three Prussian generals at the cemetery of Coblenz — von Thielmann's is in the foreground to the right

Early in the following year he became a lieutenant-general in the Prussian service, and in command of the 3rd army corps he took part in the Waterloo campaign.[2] From the field of Ligny he retired with the rest of Blücher's army on Wavre, and when the other corps marched towards Waterloo, von Thielmann defended this movement against Grouchy, fighting in the Battle of Wavre (18–19 June 1815), thus contributing materially to the victory at Waterloo.

Later in life, he was a corps commander at Münster (VII Corps) and at Coblenz (VIII Corps), and at the latter place he died as a general of cavalry.

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Regarding personal names: Freiherr was a title, before 1919, but now is regarded as part of the surname. It is translated as Baron. Before the August 1919 abolition of nobility as a separate estate, titles preceded the full name when given (Prinz Otto von Bismarck). After 1919, these titles, along with any nobiliary prefix (von, zu, etc.), could be used, but were regarded as part of the surname, and thus came after a first name (Otto Prinz von Bismarck). The feminine forms are Freifrau and Freiin.
  2. Carl von Clausewitz, author of the influential book On War, was appointed von Thielmann's chief of staff.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • von Hütel, Biographische Skizze des Generals von Thielmann,Berlin, 1828.
  • von Holzendorff, Beiträge zur Biographie des Generals Freiherrn von Thielmann, Dresden, 1830.
  • von Petersdoff, General Johann Adolf Freiherr von Thielmann, Leipzig, 1894.

References[edit | edit source]

  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911) "Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Thielmann, Johann Adolf, Freiherr von" Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) Cambridge University Press 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Thielmann, Johann Adolf, Baron". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

External links[edit | edit source]

  • Hermann von Petersdorff (1894). "Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB)" (in de). Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 755–759. 

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