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John B. Nicolson (died 1846) was an officer in the United States Navy in the first half of the 19th century.

Nicolson was a native of Richmond, Virginia. He entered the Navy as a midshipman on July 4, 1805. He served in the brig USS Hornet, commanded by Master Commandant (later Commodore) Isaac Chauncey. Nicolson was promoted to lieutenant on May 20, 1812, while serving aboard the brig USS Flambeau in the Mediterranean. During the War of 1812, he served as fourth lieutenant aboard the USS United States during the battle with HMS Macedonian. He also served as first lieutenant in USS Peacock under Master Commandant Lewis Warrington and took part in the victory over HMS Epervier off the coast of Florida. After the British vessel surrendered, Nicolson took Epervier back to the United States as a prize of war.

Nicolson was promoted to Master Commandant on March 5, 1817, and to Captain on April 24, 1828. In May 1840, Commodore he was nominated by President Martin Van Buren to serve on the Board of Navy Commissioners, the administrative body which handled procurement and supply in the Navy Department. Nicolson, who filled the vacancy left by the death of Commodore Isaac Chauncey, served in the position until 1841. As one of the Navy's most senior captains, Nicolson was known by the courtesy rank of Commodore.

Commodore Nicolson died on November 9, 1846, at the age of 63. He is buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

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