An 1801 Gilbert Stuart portrait of Barry.
|Born||March 25, 1745|
|Died||September 13, 1803(aged 58)|
|Place of birth||Tacumshane, County Wexford, Ireland|
|Place of death||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.|
St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church|
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
United States Navy
|Years of service||1775–1783, 1797–1803|
John Barry (March 25, 1745 – September 13, 1803) was an officer in the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War and later in the United States Navy. He is widely credited as "The Father of the American Navy" (and shares that moniker with John Paul Jones) and was appointed a Captain in the Continental Navy on December 7, 1775. He was the first Captain placed in command of a US warship commissioned for service under the Continental flag.
After the war, he became America's first commissioned naval officer, at the rank of Commodore, receiving his commission from President George Washington in 1797.
Early life and education[edit | edit source]
Career[edit | edit source]
Barry received his first captain's commission in the Continental Navy on March 14, 1776, signed by John Hancock, president of the Continental Congress. Barry was a religious man and began each day at sea with a reading from the Bible. He had great regard for his crew and their well being and always made sure they were properly provided for while at sea.
Command of Delaware[edit | edit source]
Command of Raleigh[edit | edit source]
In 1778 Barry assumed command of the USS Raleigh, capturing three prizes before being run aground in action on September 27, 1778. Her crew scuttled her, but she was raised by the British who refloated her for further use in the Royal Navy.
Command of Lexington[edit | edit source]
Captain Barry was given command of USS Lexington, of 14 guns, on December 7, 1775. It was the first commission issued by the Continental Congress. The Lexington sailed March 31, 1776. On April 7, 1776, off the Capes of Virginia, he fell in with the Edward, tender to the British man-of-war HMS Liverpool, and after a desperate fight of one hour and twenty minutes captured her and brought her into Philadelphia.
On June 28, Pennsylvania's brig Nancy arrived in the area with 386 barrels of powder in her hold and ran aground while attempting to elude British blockader Kingfisher. Barry ordered the precious powder rowed ashore during the night leaving only 100 barrels in Nancy at dawn. A delayed action fuse was left inside the brig, which exploded the powder just as a boatload of British seamen boarded Nancy. This engagement became known as the Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet.
Barry continued in command of Lexington until October 18, 1776, and captured several private armed vessels during that time.
Command of Alliance[edit | edit source]
He and his crew of the USS Alliance fought and won the final naval battle of the American Revolution off the coast of Cape Canaveral on March 10, 1783. He was seriously wounded on May 29, 1781, while in command of Alliance during her capture of HMS Atalanta and Trepassey. Barry was successful in suppressing three mutinies during his career as an officer in the Continental Navy.
John Barry was once offered 100,000 British pounds and command of any frigate in the entire British Navy if he would desert the American Navy. Outraged at the offer, Captain Barry responded that not all the money in the British treasury or command of its entire fleet could tempt him to desert his adopted country.
Appointed senior captain upon the establishment of the U.S. Navy, he commanded the frigate United States in the Quasi-War with France. Barry authored a signal book published in 1780 to improve communications at sea among vessels traveling in formation.
Commodore commission[edit | edit source]
On February 22, 1797, he was issued Commission Number 1 by President George Washington, backdated to June 4, 1794. His title was thereafter "Commodore." He is recognized as not only the first American commissioned naval officer but also as its first flag officer.
Barry's last day of active duty was March 6, 1801, when he brought the USS United States into port, but he remained head of the Navy until his death on September 12, 1803, from asthma. Barry died childless.
Later life and death[edit | edit source]
Barry died at Strawberry Hill, in present-day Philadelphia on September 13, 1803, and was buried in the graveyard of Old St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Center City, Philadelphia.
Personal life[edit | edit source]
On October 24, 1768, Barry married Mary Cleary, who died in 1774. On July 7, 1777, he married Sarah Austin, daughter of Samuel Austin and Sarah Keen of New Jersey. Barry had no children, but he helped raise Patrick and Michael Hayes, children of his sister, Eleanor, and her husband, Thomas Hayes, who both died in the 1780s.
Commemorations[edit | edit source]
- The US Revenue Cutter Commodore Barry, captured in the War of 1812 off Maine
- Commodore Barry Park in Brooklyn, New York. It is the oldest park in the borough. It was renamed for Commodore Barry in 1951, due to its location next to the Brooklyn Navy Yard that Barry helped found.
- Four U.S. Navy ships
- In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS John Barry was named in his honor.
- John Barry Hall at the US Merchant Marine Academy
- Commodore Barry Bridge, which crosses the Delaware River from Chester, Pennsylvania to Bridgeport, New Jersey.
- John Barry Hall at Villanova University
- Commodore Barry Club (Philadelphia Irish Center) Emlen St & Carpenter Lane, Mt Airy, Phila Pennsylvania
- Barry Township, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania
- The Commodore Barry Bridge over the Delaware River
- Commodore John Barry Elementary School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Commodore John Barry Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois
- Commodore John Barry Division of Ancient Order of Hibernians, Annapolis, Maryland
- John Barry Bar, Grand Hyatt Muscat, Muscat, Oman
- September 13, Commodore John Barry Day in New Jersey public schools
- Commodore John Barry Memorial Plaque at Staten Island Borough Hall
- A new plaque with a cannon was dedicated on March 10, 2007 in Port Canaveral.
- A plaque stands in the city of Boston at Boston Common
- A plaque commemorating Barry and his crew of the Alliance for the final naval battle of the American Revolution is located at Jetty Park in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
- A stone plaque commemorating his grave site is located at Old St. Mary's Church in Philadelphia, PA.
- Commodore John Barry stands in Franklin Square (Washington, D.C.).
- A large statue of Barry stands directly in front of the formal entrance to Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA.
- A statue of Barry overlooks the Crescent Quay in Wexford town in Ireland. It was a gift to the town from the United States and was delivered by a United States Navy Destroyer USS John R. Pierce (DD-753). The statue was unveiled in 1956, and each year a parade and wreath-laying ceremony takes place at the statue to celebrate "Barry Day", commemorated by the Irish Naval Service and the Minister for Defence.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Continental Navy
- Bibliography of early American naval history
- Irish military diaspora
- William Brown (admiral), "Father of the Argentine Navy"
- List of people on stamps of Ireland
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Clark, William Bell (1938). Gallant John Barry 1745 1803 The Story Of A Naval Hero Of Two Wars
The Macmillan Company, New York. pp. 554. Url
- Fink, Leo Gregory (1962). Barry or Jones, "Father of the United States Navy"; Historical Reconnaissance
Jefferies & Manz, Inc, Philadelphia. pp. 138. Url
- Ignatius, Martin; Griffin, Joseph (1897). The history of Commodore John Barry. pp. 261. Url
Published by the Author, Philadelphia (1903). Commodore John Barry: "the father of the American navy". pp. 424. Url
- McGrath, Tim (2010). John Barry: An American Hero in the Age of Sail. pp. 704. ISBN 978-1-59416-104-9. Url
- Meany, William Barry (1911). Commodore John Barry, the father of the American navy:
a survey of extraordinary episodes in his naval career. pp. 74. Url
- Williams, Thomas (2008). America's First Flag Officer: Father of the American Navy. pp. 260. ISBN 978-1-4343-8654-0. Url
- [[William M. Fowler
Charles Scribner and Sons, New York |Fowler, William M.]] (1976). Rebels under sail: the American Navy during the Revolution. pp. 356. ISBN 978-0-684-14583-9. Url
References[edit | edit source]
- Williams, 2008 p.5
- Meany, 1911 p.1
- Williams, 2008 p.73
- Meany, 1911 p.22
- Ignatius, Griffin, 1897 pp.42-44
- Williams, 2008 p.72
- "Lexington". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/l6/lexington-i.htm.
- "The Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet". Wildwood Crest Historical Society. http://www.cresthistory.org/turtlegut.php.
- "Alliance". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/a7/alliance-i.htm.
- The American Irish Blog
- Woods, D. & Sterling, C. Signaling and communicating at sea. Arno Press, 1980. p. 195
- specifically issued by a Joint Congressional Resolution and proclaimed by President George W. Bush on December 22, 2006.
- Meany, 1911 pp.56-57
- This article incorporates public domain material from the Naval History & Heritage Command document "Captain John Barry".
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Barry.|
- Webb, Alfred (1878). " Barry, John". A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son. Wikisource
- Father of the American Navy
- Portraits of Barry
- Barry-Hayes Collection, papers at Independence Seaport Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, digitized by Villanova University's Digital Library, Villanova, Pennsylvania.
- John Barry (naval officer) at Find a Grave
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|