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John William Finn
A monochrome photograph of a man in white clothing wearing a medal
John William Finn wearing his Medal of Honor
Born (1909-07-24)24 July 1909
Died 27 May 2010(2010-05-27) (aged 100)
Place of birth Los Angeles County, California, U.S.
Place of death Chula Vista, California, U.S.
Buried at Saint Carmel Cemetery,[1] Campo Indian Reservation[2] (32°39′03″N 116°21′54″W / 32.650866°N 116.365063°W / 32.650866; -116.365063Coordinates: 32°39′03″N 116°21′54″W / 32.650866°N 116.365063°W / 32.650866; -116.365063)
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1926–1956
Rank US-O3 insignia.svg Lieutenant

World War II

Awards Medal of Honor ribbon.svg Medal of Honor
Purple Heart ribbon.svg Purple Heart

John William Finn (24 July 1909 – 27 May 2010) was a sailor in the United States Navy who, as a chief petty officer, received the United States military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions during the attack on Pearl Harbor in World War II. As a chief aviation ordnanceman stationed at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay, he earned the medal by manning a machine gun from an exposed position throughout the attack, despite being repeatedly wounded. He continued to serve in the Navy and in 1942 was commissioned an ensign. In 1947 he was reverted to chief petty officer, eventually rising to lieutenant before his 1956 retirement. In his later years he made many appearances at events celebrating veterans. At the time of his death, Finn was the oldest living Medal of Honor recipient, the last living recipient from the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the last United States Navy recipient of World War II.

Early life[edit | edit source]

Born on 24 July 1909,[3] in Compton, California, Finn dropped out of school after the seventh grade.[4] He enlisted in the Navy in July 1926, shortly before his seventeenth birthday, and completed recruit training in San Diego.[4][5] After a brief stint with a ceremonial guard company, he attended General Aviation Utilities Training at Naval Station Great Lakes, graduating in December. By April 1927 he was back in the San Diego area, having been assigned to Naval Air Station North Island. He initially worked in aircraft repair before becoming an aviation ordnanceman and working on anti-aircraft guns. He then served on a series of ships: USS Lexington, USS Houston, USS Jason, USS Saratoga, and USS Cincinnati.

Finn was promoted to chief petty officer (E-7, the highest enlisted rank in the Navy at that time[6]) in 1935 after only nine years of active duty. He later commented on his promotions, "Everybody thought I was a boy wonder. I was just in the right place at the right time."[7] As a chief, Finn served with patrol squadrons in San Diego, Washington, and Panama.[5][8]

Attack on Pearl Harbor[edit | edit source]

A woman stands next to a man dressed in chief petty officer dress whites admiring a medal of honor the man is wearing

Alice Finn (left) admires the Medal of Honor her husband John W. Finn (right) received for his defense of Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

By December 1941, Finn was stationed at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. As a chief aviation ordnanceman, he was in charge of twenty men whose primary task was to maintain the weapons of VP-11, a PBY Catalina flying boat squadron. At 7:48 a.m. on the morning of Sunday, 7 December 1941, Finn was at his home, about a mile from the aircraft hangars, when he heard the sound of gunfire. Finn recalled how a neighbor was the first to alert him, when she knocked on his door saying, "They want you down at the squadron right away!" He drove to the hangars, catching sight of Japanese planes in the sky on the way, and found that the airbase was being attacked, with most of the PBYs already on fire.[4][8][9]

Finn's men were trying to fight back by using the machine guns mounted in the PBYs, either by firing from inside the flaming planes or by detaching the guns and mounting them on improvised stands. Finn later explained that one of the first things he did was to take control of a machine gun from his squadron's painter. "I said, 'Alex, let me take that gun' ... knew that I had more experience firing a machine gun than a painter."[8][9]

Finding a movable tripod platform used for gunnery training, Finn attached the .50 caliber machine gun and pushed the platform into an open area, from which he had a clear view of the attacking aircraft. He fired on the Japanese planes for the next two hours, even after being seriously wounded, until the attack had ended. In total, he received 21 distinct wounds, including a bullet through his right foot and an injury to his left shoulder, which caused him to lose feeling in his left arm.[4]

"I got that gun and I started shooting at Jap planes," Finn said in a 2009 interview. "I was out there shooting the Jap planes and just every so often I was a target for some," he said, "In some cases, I could see their [the Japanese pilots'] faces."[9]

Despite his wounds, Finn returned to the hangars later that day. After receiving medical treatment, he helped arm the surviving American planes.[4][8] His actions earned him the first Medal of Honor to be awarded in World War II.[10][11][12] He was formally presented with the decoration on 14 September 1942, by Admiral Chester Nimitz, for courage and valor beyond the call of duty. The ceremony took place in Pearl Harbor on board USS Enterprise.[4][8]

In 1942 Finn was commissioned, and served as a Limited Duty Officer with the rank of ensign. In 1947 he was reverted to his enlisted rank of chief petty officer, eventually becoming a lieutenant with Bombing Squadron VB-102 and aboard USS Hancock. He retired from the Navy as a lieutenant in September 1956.[8]

Later life and legacy[edit | edit source]

a group of men stand or sit, posing for a photo

Finn, seated at bottom right, with other Medal of Honor recipients during a celebration of his 100th birthday 25 July 2009. Front row, left to right: James Allen Taylor; Sybil Stockdale, widow of James Stockdale; John W. Finn Back row, left to right: Leonard B. Keller; Harold A. Fritz; Drew Dennis Dix; Michael E. Thornton; Jay R. Vargas; Thomas R. Norris; Robert J. Modrzejewski; Walter Joseph Marm; Walter D. Ehlers; Jon R. Cavaiani

From 1956 until shortly before his death, Finn resided on a 90-acre (0.36 km2) ranch in Live Oak Springs, near Pine Valley, California. He and his wife became foster parents to five Native American children, causing him to be embraced by the Campo Band of Diegueño Mission Indians, a tribe of Kumeyaay people in San Diego. His wife, Alice Finn, died in 1998.[10] John Finn was a member of the John Birch Society.[13]

In his retirement he made many appearances at events honoring veterans.[14] On 25 March 2009, he attended National Medal of Honor Day ceremonies at Arlington National Cemetery. With the aid of walking sticks, he stood beside U.S. President Barack Obama during a wreath-laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Later that day, Finn was a guest at the White House. It was his first visit to the White House, and his first time meeting a sitting President.[8]

On June 27, 2009, a crowd of over 2,000 made up of family, friends and well-wishers came to Pine Valley to celebrate Finn's 100th birthday. The Association of Aviation Ordnancemen presented him with an American flag which had flown on each of the 11 aircraft carriers then in active service.[15]

When called a hero during a 2009 interview Finn responded:

That damned hero stuff is a bunch [of] crap, I guess. [...] You gotta understand that there's all kinds of heroes, but they never get a chance to be in a hero's position.[9]

Hearse carrying the remains of Finn.

Finn died at age 100 on the morning of 27 May 2010, at the Chula Vista Veterans Home.[14] He was buried beside his wife at the Campo Indian Reservation's cemetery, after a memorial service in El Cajon.[16] He was the last surviving Medal of Honor recipient from the attack on Pearl Harbor, the oldest living recipient, and the only aviation ordnanceman to have ever received the medal.[17] Upon his death, fellow World War II veteran Barney F. Hajiro became the oldest living Medal of Honor recipient.[8][14]

Namesake[edit | edit source]

a white ferry boat sails across dark blue waters

U.S. Navy ferry boat John W. Finn

The headquarters building for Commander, Patrol and Reconnaissance Force, United States Pacific Fleet at Marine Corps Base Hawaii Kaneohe was named in Finn's honor, and in 2009 a boat used to bring visitors to the USS Arizona Memorial was also named after him.[18] In that same year, part of Historic U.S. Route 80, was named "John Finn Route".[19] Three buildings in the former Naval Training Center San Diego were named the John and Alice Finn Office Plaza.[20] On 15 February 2012, the U.S. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced that an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer would be named USS John Finn (DDG-113) in his honor.[21]

Awards and decorations[edit | edit source]

Finn received the following awards and decorations:[11]

Medal of Honor Purple Heart Navy Unit Commendation
Good Conduct Medal with two bars Yangtze Service Medal American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal

Medal of Honor citation[edit | edit source]

an older man wearing a medal of honor looks at a book while talking to another man wearing master chief summer whites

John W. Finn (left) at Naval Amphibious Base Coronado in 2001

MOH right.gif

For extraordinary heroism, distinguished service, and devotion above and beyond the call of duty. During the first attack by Japanese airplanes on the Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, Territory of Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, he promptly secured and manned a .50 caliber machine gun mounted on an instruction stand in a completely exposed section of the parking ramp, which was under heavy enemy machine gun strafing fire. Although painfully wounded many times, he continued to man this gun and to return the enemy's fire vigorously and with telling effect throughout the enemy strafing and bombing attacks and with complete disregard for his own personal safety. It was only by specific orders that he was persuaded to leave his post to seek medical attention. Following first-aid treatment, although obviously suffering much pain and moving with great difficulty, he returned to the squadron area and actively supervised the rearming of returning planes. His extraordinary heroism and conduct in this action are considered to be in keeping with the highest traditions of the Naval Service.[22]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History & Heritage Command.
  1. Lieut John William Finn at Find a Grave
    "List by Alphabet ( F-J )". Medal of Honor Historical Society of the United States. 2013. http://www.mohhsus.com/medal-of-honor/list-by-alphabet-2/list-by-alphabet-f-g-h-i-j. Retrieved 23 March 2013. "FINN, John William (World War II) Saint Carmel Cemetery (Campo Reservation Cemetery), Live Oak Springs, California" 
    Bob Hufford (27 May 2010). "Lieut John William Finn". Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/52924541. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  2. Willbanks, James H., ed (2011). America's Heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 183. ISBN 9781598843934. https://books.google.com/books?id=1j4d53cZWO4C&lpg=PA103&ots=bKi37E0jk4&dq=Finn%20buried%20Campo&pg=PA103#v=onepage&q=Finn%20buried%20Campo&f=false. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  3. "JOHN WILLIAM FINN". http://navylog.navymemorial.org/finn-john-0. Retrieved 22 July 2019. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Collier, Peter (2006). Medal of Honor: Portraits of Valor Beyond the Call of Duty. New York: Workman Publishing Company. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-57965-314-9. https://archive.org/details/medalofhonorport00coll. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Leahy, J. F. (2004). Ask the Chief: Backbone of the Navy. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 191. ISBN 978-1-59114-460-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=ljcFDOC6q3UC. Retrieved 6 October 2009. 
  6. http://www.history.navy.mil/browse-by-topic/organization-and-administration/ranks/enlisted-personnel/history-of-the-chief-petty-officer.html
  7. http://www.quarterdeck.org/book/finn.htm
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Perry, Tony (29 May 2010). "WWII veteran, the oldest surviving Medal of Honor recipient, dies at 100". The Virginian Pilot via the Los Angeles Times. p. 6. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Shaughnessy, Larry (15 September 2009). "Oldest Medal of Honor recipient, 100, downplays 'hero' talk". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/US/09/15/finn.medal.of.honor/index.html. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Shapiro, T. Rees (29 May 2010). "Lt. John W. Finn, Medal of Honor recipient, Dies At 100". p. B5. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/05/28/AR2010052804477.html. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "John Finn". American Valor. GWETA. 2003. https://www.pbs.org/weta/americanvalor/stories/finn.html. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  12. Doug Sterner (2013). "History". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/medal-history.php. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
    Julie Watson (28 May 2010). "John Finn dies — earned WWII Medal of Honor". http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/John-Finn-dies-earned-WWII-Medal-of-Honor-3263478.php. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  13. "Men of honor: among the elite fellowship of those who have earned our nation's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, the John Birch society is well represented.". The New American. Archived from the original on 20 October 2003. https://www.questia.com/read/1G1-110025659. Retrieved 7 April 2006. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Gonzalez, Blanca (27 May 2010). "John Finn, hero at Pearl Harbor, dies at 100". Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. https://www.webcitation.org/5q4nKLZL0?url=http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2010/may/27/john-finn-hero-at-pearl-harbor-dies-at-100/. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  15. Wilkens, John (25 July 2009). "Ex-sailor, 100, to get special birthday salute". The San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www3.signonsandiego.com/stories/2009/jul/25/1m25finn234155-ex-sailor-100-get-special-birthday-/?military&zIndex=138111. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  16. Onell R. Soto; Jeanette Steele (4 June 2010). "Family and friends bid farewell to John Finn". http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2010/jun/03/family-and-friends-bid-farewell-john-finn/. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
    Blanca Gonzalez (28 May 2010). "John Finn, hero at Pearl Harbor, dies at 100". http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2010/may/27/john-finn-hero-at-pearl-harbor-dies-at-100/. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  17. "Medal of Honor recipient turning 100". Navy Times. 29 May 2009. http://www.navytimes.com/news/2009/05/ap_moh_recipient_100_052909/. Retrieved 6 October 2009. 
  18. MS2 Robert Stirrup (9 December 2009). "Medal of Honor Recipient Lt John Finn Visits Namesake Arizona White Boat". Navy Region Hawaii Public Affairs. United States Navy. http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=50096. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
    Eileen Martinez; Grace Hew Len (9 April 2009). "USS Arizona Memorial and U.S. Navy to Dedicate New Biodiesel Ferry Boat". World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/valr/parknews/biodeisel-ferry-boats.htm. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
    "About MCCS". Marine Corps Community Services Hawaii. http://mccshawaii.com/aboutmccs/. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  19. "John Finn's Birthday Celebration". 29 June 2009. http://www.fillmoregazette.com/military/ci-veterans-resource-center-grand..?page=16. 
  20. Sam Hodgson (27 September 2006). "John and Alice Finn Office Plaza for sale". http://www.sddt.com/Search/article.cfm?SourceCode=20060927cxd#.UVoPmJO38zw. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  21. "Navy Names Five New Ships". United States Navy. 15 February 2012. http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=65361. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  22. "Lieutenant John William Finn, USN, (1909–2010)". Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Navy. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130303141919/http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-f/j-finn.htm. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 

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