- JTF redirects here. For other uses, see JTF (disambiguation).
A joint task force is a 'joint' (multi-service) ad hoc military formation. The task force concept originated with the United States Navy around the beginning of the Second World War in the Pacific. 'Combined' is the British-American military term for multi-national formations.
- CTF - Commander Task Force, sometimes Combined Task Force
- CCTF - Commander Combined Task Force
- CJTF - Combined Joint Task Force
There are two ways in which a U.S. or U.S.-allied task force may be assigned a number. The first is the originally naval scheme promulgated and governed by the U.S. Military Communications-Electronic Board, chaired by the Joint Staff J6. Task force numbers allocated under this scheme form the majority of the listings below.
The second is a by-product of the U.S. Army's procedure for forming task-organised forces for combat, differing from strictly doctrinally assigned table of organization and equipment organizations. A battalion, company, or brigade commander has very wide latitude in selecting a task force name, though often the name of the commander is used (e.g. Task Force Faith). This has often resulted in derivations from the originator unit's numerical designation being used. For example, when a special operations aviation unit was being formed in the late 1970s, the original unit drew heavily on personnel from the 158th Aviation. The designation chosen was Task Force 158, which later grew to become the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment.
No coordination appears to occur between U.S. Army task forces designated in this way, and the USMCEB scheme. This has resulted in simultaneous designations being used at the same time. For example, Combined Joint Task Force 76, possibly derived from the 76th Infantry Brigade, was in use in Afghanistan in 2004, but doubling up on the Task Force 76 designation used for decades by Amphibious Force, United States Seventh Fleet, in north Asia.
Numbered USMCEB joint task forces[edit | edit source]
Allied Communications Publication 113: Call Signs Book for Ships in its Annex B lists allocations of task force numbers from 1 to approximately 1000, allocated by the United States Military Communications-Electronic Board in blocks for use by the United States Department of Defense and allies.
Norman Polmar notes in Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, 2005, that the task forces under the commanders of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleet are mainly for contingency purposes. They are employed for specific operations and exercises.
|Joint task force||Abbrev.||Who||Notes|
|Joint Task Force 1||JTF-1||US||Operation Crossroads|
|Joint Task Force 2||JTF-2||US/CAN||In September 1964, Major General George Brown was selected to organize and command JTF-2, a Joint Chiefs of Staff organization formed at Sandia Base, New Mexico, to the test the services' weapon systems. It was staffed by personnel of all three services. Low Altitude Program nuclear test organisation, 1965-70. In 1990s seemingly transferred to Canada, possibly completely out of USMCEB formal system for use by Canadian special forces. The Canadian SOF unit that took this designation was formed on 1 April 1993.|
|Joint Task Force 3||JTF-3||US||Formed late 1949 in preparation for Operation Greenhouse nuclear test series.|
|Joint Task Force 4||JTF-4||US||Drug interdiction task force in Caribbean Sea from December 1989. Became Joint Interagency Task Force East on 1 October 1994. Later amalgamated into Joint Interagency Task Force South in 1994.|
|Joint Task Force 5||JTF-5||US||Drug interdiction task force at Coast Guard Island, Alameda, California, from December 1989. Later became Joint Interagency Task Force West.|
|Joint Task Force 6||JTF-6||US||Drug interdiction task force at El Paso, Texas, from December 1989. Became Joint Task Force North in 2004. Now seemingly Task Force 6, the naval component commander, U.S. Africa Command, an additional duty post for Commander, Sixth Fleet.|
|Joint Task Force 7||JTF-7||US||Operation Sandstone, a series of nuclear weapon tests in 1948.|
|Combined Joint Task Force 7||CJTF-7||US||CJTF 7 was the interim military formation that directed the U.S. military effort in Iraq between June 2003 and May 2004. Previously used for Operation Castle atomic tests in the 1940s-1950s|
|Joint Task Force 8||JTF-8||US||Operation Dominic nuclear test organisation, April–November 1962.|
|Joint Task Force 11||JTF-11||US||During World War II, Task Force 11 was a United States Navy aircraft carrier task force in the Pacific theater.|
JTF at Soto Cano Air Base, 1983. By 1984 redesignated Joint Task Force Bravo
|Task Force 12||TF-12||US||Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, Pacific / Patrol and Reconnaissance Force, Pacific (PATRECONFORPAC).|
|Task Force 16||TF-16||US||Maritime Defense Zone, U.S. Pacific Fleet, commanded by a Coast Guard officer (2005). Previously celebrated carrier task force during World War II.|
|Task Force 17||TF-17||US||Naval Air Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet (2005). Previously celebrated carrier task force during World War II.|
|Task Force 18||TF-18||US||Sealift forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet (2005). USS Hornet (CV-8)'s task force for 1942 Doolittle Raid.|
|Task Force 20||TF-20||US||Deputy Commander, Fleet and Joint Operations, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, with responsibility for subordinate seagoing formations, until 1 October 2012.|
|Task Force 21||TF-21||US||Transformation of the United States Army|
|Task Forces 30-39||TF-30||US||All allocated to United States Third Fleet|
|Task Force 31||TF-31||US|
|Task Force 37||TF-37||US|
|Task Force 38||TF-38||US||Fast Carrier Task Force, World War II (Also Task Force 38.3)|
|Task Force 44||TF-44||US|
|Task Forces 50-57||TF-50||US||All allocated to United States Fifth Fleet|
|Task Force 57||TF-57||US|
|Task Force 58||TF-58||US||Recently Maritime Surveillance Force in the North Persian Gulf. Fast Carrier Task Force, World War II.|
|Task Force 60||TF-60||US||United States Sixth Fleet; Battle Force from c.1950s-c.2010|
|Task Force 61||TF-61||US||United States Sixth Fleet|
|Task Force 67||TF-67||US|
|Task Force 73||TF-73||US||Commander, Logistics Group, Western Pacific, Seventh Fleet, Singapore.|
|Task Force 74||TF-74||US||Submarine Force, U.S. Seventh Fleet. Previously Enterprise task force during Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.|
|Task Force 76||TF-76||US||Amphibious Force, United States Seventh Fleet. CJTF 76 was a designation given to a division-sized U.S. Army task force in Afghanistan, seemingly outside the formal USMCEB system.|
|Task Force 77||TF-77||US||Carrier Striking Force, United States Seventh Fleet. Currently built around Carrier Strike Group Five.|
ALSO: Former Task Force 145
|Task Force 80||TF-80||US||TF-80 is currently the Maritime Headquarters component for the U.S. Fleet Forces Command. Task Force 180 redirects to TF-80|
|Combined Joint Task Force 82||CJTF-82||US|
|Task Force 84||TF-84||US||Seemingly Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, Atlantic (ASWFORLANT).|
|Task Force 88||TF-88||US||Used during World War II for Task Force 88 (Operation Dragoon); after World War II for Task Force 88 (Operation Argus). Also used by a USSOCOM task force, seemingly not within the USMCEB numbering scheme.|
|Task Force 90||TF-90||US|
|Task Force 91||TF-91||US||U.S. Naval Forces Alaska, commanded by Commander 17th Coast Guard District, United States Coast Guard.|
|Task Force 93||TF-93||US||Commander Alaskan Sea Frontier, late 1960s. Rear Admiral Donald M. White during SS Robert Louis Stevenson sinking incident, late 1960s.|
|Task Force 100||TF 100||US||Involved in USS Liberty incident, 1967. Previously at times held by Deputy Commander-in-Chief United States Naval Forces Europe (DCINCUSNAVEUR).|
|Combined Joint Task Force - 101||CJTF 101||US||(Refer Combined Joint Task Force 82)|
|Task Forces 102-109||TF 102||US||All now seemingly allocated to United States Tenth Fleet.|
|Task Force 115||TF 115||US||Coastal Surveillance Force, Naval Forces Vietnam|
|Task Force 116||TF 116||US||River Patrol Force, Naval Forces Vietnam|
|Task Force 117||TF 117||US||Mobile Riverine Force, Naval Forces Vietnam|
|Joint Task Force 120||JTF 120||US||In times of crisis and during certain exercises, Commander Second Fleet became Commander, JTF 120. This joint task force drew from the Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Army airborne and air assault units, U.S. Air Force aircraft and support personnel, U.S. Marine Corps amphibious forces, and at times, the United States Coast Guard. Ran Operation Uphold Democracy, the invasion of Grenada in 1982.|
|Task Force 121||TF 121||US||Task Force 1099 also redirects to Task Force 121.|
|Task Force 124||TF 124||US||Strategic Communications Wing One, Tinker AFB, Oklahoma (E-6A Mercury aircraft)|
|Task Force 125||TF 125||US||Designation for Commander, Western Hemisphere Group, when acting as a naval component commander for U.S. Southern Command. Obsolete.|
|Task Force 130||TF 130||US||Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Pacific, for Project Apollo. Flagship USS Arlington (AGMR-2).|
|Task Force 134||TF 134||US||Commander, Task Force 134, COMSUBPAC, is an operational commander responsible to USSTRATCOM for strategic deterrent submarine operations.|
|Task Force 136||TF 136||US||Under the commander of Commander, Second Fleet, was quarantine force during Cuban Missile Crisis. Led for a time by Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla 2 aboard USS Canberra.|
|Task Force 140||TF 140||US||Project Mercury Recovery Force (early 1960s), later Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Atlantic (for Apollo 9). In 1980s, as JTF 140, designation for Second Fleet for Caribbean contingency operations. Ocean Venture '90 was a JCS directed field exercise sponsored by the U.S. Atlantic Command and executed by JTF 140, a standing JTF assigned to LANTCOM which had existed since 1979. Utilised for Haiti operations during 1994.|
|Task Force 144||TF 144||US||CTF 144, Commander Submarine Forces/COMSUBLANT. Operational commander for Atlantic ballistic missile submarines, responsible to Commander, U.S. Strategic Command.|
|Task Force 145||TF 145||US|
|Task Force 151||TF 151||US||Combined Maritime Forces|
|Joint Task Force 160||JTF 160||US||Directed Operation Sea Signal. This humanitarian operation receiving Haitian refugees at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, took place from August 1994 to February 1996.|
Task Force 160 was a non-USMCEB, U.S. Army allocation.
|Combined Joint Task Force-180||JTF 180||US||Appears to be the permanently assigned designator for HQ XVIII Airborne Corps when operating as a combined joint task force or joint task force, for example in Afghanistan after 2002. Task Force 180 redirects to Task Force 80|
|Task Force 214||TF 214||US||Twentieth Air Force, while acting as the ICBM task force for United States Strategic Command|
|Task Force 294||TF 294||US||U.S. Air Force air refueling forces while acting as a task force for United States Strategic Command|
|Task Force 301||TF 301||CAN||Royal Canadian Navy, Atlantic Coast|
|Task Force 311||TF 311||UK||Commander, Task Force 311 (CTF-311), located in Northwood, Middlesex, is the Royal Navy's sole submarine operating authority (SUBOPAUTH). CTF-311 maintains operational control of all Britain's attack submarines, wherever they may be.|
|Task Force 317||TF 317||UK||Falklands Task Force; see British naval forces in the Falklands War|
|Task Force 345||TF 345||UK||UK Mediterranean naval task force during Suez Crisis of 1956. Now is reported as '..CTF 345 is the organisation that provides command and control of the UK deterrent' at Northwood Headquarters. Rear Admiral Ian Corder commanded the task force as of September 2012.|
|Task Force 373||TF 373||US||JSOC or SOCCENT special operations forces task force in Afghanistan|
|Task Force 402||TF 402||US|
|Joint Task Force 435||JTF 435||US||(Combined Joint Interagency Task Force 435) Afghanistan theatre detention operations|
|Task Force 473||TF 473||France||Seemingly permanently assigned to the carrier battle group ('aeronaval group') build around Charles de Gaulle. Part of Force d'action navale.|
|Task Force 508||TF 508||NATO (or member)||As of late 2013, Operation Ocean Shield Somali counter-piracy force. CTF 508 was Rear Admiral Eugenio Diaz del Rio on board flagship ALVARO DE BAZAN on 14 January 2014.|
|Joint Task Force 510||JTF 510||US||Special Operations Command Pacific standing joint task force for rapid deployment. Involved in Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, 2002.|
|Joint Task Force 622||JTF 622||AUS||Operation VIC FIRE ASSIST|
|Joint Task Force 627||JTF 627||AUS||SUBmarine Search And Rescue (SUBSAR) May be designator for Commander Australian Fleet; CTF 627 was allocated to this officer under his previous title of Maritime Commander Australia in 1999-2000.|
|Joint Task Force 630||JTF 630||AUS||Op Larry Assist after Cyclone Larry, March 2006. Commander was Mick Slater.|
|Joint Task Force 631||JTF 631||AUS||Operation Astute - Timor Leste International Stabilisation Force|
|Joint Task Force 633||JTF 633||AUS||HQJTF 633, based in the United Arab Emirates, provides command and control of all ADF elements deployed throughout the Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO) as part of Operation Slipper. JTF 633 is commanded by Major General Craig Orme. Previous commanders have included MAJGEN Stuart Smith. Included Security Detachment Iraq|
|Joint Task Force 634||JTF 634||AUS||Supported 2007 Melbourne APEC Conference. Commander: Brigadier Andrew Smith, Cdr 7th Brigade.|
|Joint Task Force 637||JTF 637||AUS||Operation Kiribati Assist; Operation Queensland Flood Assist|
|Joint Task Force 639||JTF 639||AUS||Op Resolute - Border Protection Command|
|Joint Task Force 645||JTF 645||AUS||CHOGM 2001, CHOGM 2002|
|Joint Task Force 662||JTF 662||AUS||Vic Bushfires?|
|Joint Task Force 663||JTF 663||AUS||Operation Render Safe 2011. HMAS Gascoyne, HMAS Diamantina, HMNZS Resolution (A14), HMNZS Wellington.|
|Joint Task Force 664||JTF 664||AUS||Operation Yasi Assist|
|Joint Task Force 665||JTF 665||AUS||(JTF 665 Commander Brigadier David Saul)|
|Joint Task Force 950||JTF 950||US||Commander, Second Fleet whilst in a training role.|
|Task Force 1099||US||(See Task Force 121)|
Named joint task forces[edit | edit source]
|Task Force ALBA||Swiss||Humanitarian operation in Albania during 1999.|
|Task Force Aegis||US||Redirects to Combined Joint Task Force 82|
|Task Force Alpha||UK||Redirects to 7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)|
|Task Force Baum||US||Concentration camp rescue force "set up by U.S. Army general George S. Patton"|
|Task Force Bayonet||US||Task Force Bayonet (disambiguation)|
|Task Force Black||US||Redirects to Task Force 88 (anti-terrorist unit)|
|Task Force Blue||US||United States Navy SEALs|
|Task Force Danbi||South Korea||Haiti earthquake relief 2010|
|Task Force Eagle||NATO||IFOR|
|Task Force East||US||US European Command initiative to strengthen relationships with Eastern European allies|
|Task Force Faith||US||US Army unit during the Korean War|
|Task Force Falcon (US)||US||US Army Task Force serving as part of KFOR in Kosovo|
|Task Force Frigid||US||After World War II, the War Department decided that U.S. Army personnel must be able to live and operate in any degree of cold. A group of task forces was therefore organized to test U.S. Army equipment in the cold. Task Force Frigid and Task Force Williwaw were dispatched to what is now Fort Greely, Alaska during the winters of 1946 and 1947.|
|Task Force Harvest||NATO||Operation Essential Harvest|
|Task Force Hawk||US||Kosovo|
|Task Force Helmand||NATO||Part of ISAF in Helmand Province, Afghanistan|
|Task Force K-Bar||US||"The first major ground deployment in the US-led invasion of Afghanistan"|
|Task Force Kandahar||NATO||ISAF in Kandahar, Afghanistan|
|Task Force Kean||UN||North Korea|
|Task Force Leatherneck||US||Located at Camp Leatherneck, Helmand Province, Afghanistan. Marine Air-Ground Task Force currently operating in Helmand Province. 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade during 2009-10 for Operation Enduring Freedom. Also used by the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions during their deployments to Afghanistan|
|Task Force Libeccio||CAN||Operation Mobile#Royal Canadian Air Force - 2011 military intervention in Libya.|
|Task Force Lightning||US||25th Infantry Division (United States)|
|Task Force Manchu||US||Second Battle of Naktong Bulge#The end of Task Force Manchu|
|Task Force Mustang||US||Combat Aviation Brigade, 36th Infantry Division, Texas Army National Guard|
|Task Force ODIN||US||US Army aviation battalion created to combat improvised explosive devices in Iraq|
|Task Force Phoenix||CJTF Phoenix||US||Initially organized by CENTCOM to train and mentor the newly created Afghan National Security Forces|
|Task Force Ranger||US||Battle of Mogadishu (1993)#Task Force Ranger|
|Task Force Scorpio||Swiss||Biological and chemical response team activated during the first Gulf War - not deployed|
|Task Force Shield||US/UK/Iraq||Set up in 2003 to provide security for Iraq's critical oil infrastructure|
|Task Force Sinai||US||U.S. element of Multinational Force and Observers (MFO)|
|Task Force Smith||US||Battle of Osan#Task Force Smith|
|Task Force Tarawa||US||The 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade during the 2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Task Force Taro||US||3rd Marine Regiment (United States)|
|Task Force Trinity||US||3rd Battalion 3rd Marines|
|Task Force Tripoli||US||USMC air ground task force formed after the fall of Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Task Force Uruzgan||Netherlands||Part of NATO's Regional Command South, ISAF, Afghanistan|
|Task Force Viking||US||Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force – North (CJSOTF–N), also known as Task Force Viking, was the U.S. joint task force responsible for the northern front during the initial period of the 2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Task Force White Eagle||?||A brigade sized detachment of Polish Land Forces in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. The brigade is under the command of the US 1st Cavalry Division.|
Others[edit | edit source]
- Task Force for Business and Stability Operations - U.S. Department of Defense commercial facilitation organization, not an operational task force.
- Task Force 6-26 - USSOCOM or JSOC task force
- Task Force 777 - Egyptian special forces hostage rescue unit
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- See Larry Bond, 'Cauldron' (fiction) or Hackworth, 'About Face'.
- Norman Polmar, Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet,' Naval Institute Press, 2005, p.37
- Puryear 1983, pp. 132–133.
- National Archives and Records Administration, Federal Record Group 374.5.2, accessed June 2013.
- Barton C. Hacker, 'Elements of Controversy'.
- Siegel, Adam B. (August 1996). The Intervasion of Haiti, Professional Paper 539. Center for Naval Analyses. pp. 12. https://www.cna.org/sites/default/files/research/5500053900.pdf.
- Science Advisor, NAVEUR/NAVAF/Sixth Fleet, Science and Technology Shortfalls, 26 June 2012, accessed January 2014.
- Globalsecurity.org, Patrol and Reconnaissance Force, Pacific
- CTF 84 Reserve Unit Established, October 5, 2005
- Mud, Muscle and Miracles, 384.
- Larry Berman, Zumwalt: The Life and Times of Admiral Elmo Russell "Bud" Zumwalt, Jr., Harper, 2012, 171.
- Strategic Communications Wing One Holds Change of Command
- Karen Smith et al., 'Is NAVSO Organized and Staffed to do its job?' Center for Naval Analysis, CRM D0005057.A1, January 2002.
- http://www.jhuapl.edu/techdigest/TD/td2904/Gibsonl.pdf, p.370
- U.S. Navy online documentation
- WA Saunders, Joint Pub 5-00.2 Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures: A Critical Review, 1992
- GlobalSecurity.org. "Operation Sea Signal", GlobalSecurity.org website, 2008. Retrieved on October 19, 2008.
- http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-2202784/Britains-secret-nuclear-bunker-Buried-100ft-inside-control-room-order-launch-strike-given.html, and Royal Navy Bridge Card, various editions.
- http://www.mc.nato.int/PressReleases/Pages/Commander-South-Korean-Task-Group-visits-NATO-Counter-Piracy-Task-Force.aspx, 14 January 2014
- Operation VIC FIRE ASSIST, army.gov.au
- AFTP 9(H), navy.gov.au
- Australian Operations in Afghanistan, accessed April 2014.
- Heightened security results in Joint Task Force, 11 April 2002, defence.gov.au/news/raafnews
- Navy Wire, 1999.
- U.S. Army Cold Regions Test Center - History, accessed June 2013.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Center for Naval Analysis, Joint Task Force Operations since 1983, CRM94-42, July 1994
- Timothy M. Bonds, Myron Hura, Thomas-Durrell Young, 'Enhancing Army Joint Force Headquarters Capabilities,' Santa Monica, CA; RAND Corporation, 2010 - includes list of joint task forces
- Task Force Consulting SAS, Task Force Consulting SAS Official website
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