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Kanhoji Angre
18th Century Maratha Navy Admiral
Born 1669
Died July 4, 1729(1729-07-04)
Place of birth Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India
Place of death Alibag, Maharashtra, India
Allegiance Maratha Navy
Years of service 1698–1729
Rank Admiral

Kanhoji Angre (Marathi language: कान्होजी आंग्रे) or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angre (Sarkhel is a title equal to Admiral of a Fleet.[1]) (August 1669 – 4 July 1729) was the first notable chief of the Maratha Navy in 18th century India. He fought against the British, Dutch and Portuguese naval interests on the coasts of India during the 18th century. As a result, they labeled him a pirate. Despite the attempts of the British and Portuguese to subdue Angre, he remained undefeated until his death.[2]

Early life[edit | edit source]

Born in the village of Angarwadi, six miles from Pune in the year of 1669, in a Sankapal family,[3] his original name was Kadu.[citation needed] They were guardians of small state named 'Vir Rana Sank' and therefore became known as Sankapal. His mother's name was Ambabai and his father, Tukoji, served at Swarnadurg for Shivaji with a command of 200 posts.[3] Little is known about his early life except that he was involved in daring exploits at sea with his father. He spent much of his childhood in Suvarnadurg Fort, where would later become governor.

Naval heroics[edit | edit source]

He was originally appointed as Surkhel or Darya-Saranga (Admiral) by the chief of Satara in c. 1698.[4][5] Under that authority, he was master of the Western coast of India from Mumbai to Vingoria (now Vengurla) in present-day state of Maharashtra, except for the property of the Muslim Siddis of Murud-Janjira who were affiliated with the powerful Mughal Empire.[6]

Kanhoji started his heroics by attacking merchant ships of the British East India Company and slowly gained respect from all the colonial powers. In 1702, he abducted a merchant vessel from Calicut with six English sailors and took it to his harbour.[6] In 1707, he attacked Bombay frigate which was blown up during fight.[6] British feared as he could take any merchant ship except large European ships.[6] When Maratha Chattrapati Shahu ascended the leadership of the Maratha Empire, he appointed Balaji Viswanath Bhatt as his Senakarta (Commander) and negotiated an agreement with Angre around 1707. This was partly to appease Angre who supported the other ruler, Tarabai, who claimed the Maratha throne. As per agreement, Angre became head of the Maratha navy. He also played a role in the Maratha conflicts against the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who was campaigning in the Deccan.

A painted scroll depicting different types of ships of the Marathan Navy including some captured English ships.

When Maratha empire was weak, Angre became more and more independent and in 1713, an army was sent headed by Peshwa Bhyroo Pant to control Angre, but Angre won the battle and held Bhyroo Pant as prisoner.[6] He planned to march to Satara where Sahoojee was acting as a head of state and Angre was called for negotiations, after which Angre was confirmed as Admiral (Surkhiel) of entire fleet.[6] Angre was also placed as chief of 26 forts and fortified places of Maharastra.[6]

In 1720, Angre captured vessel Charlotte along its owner, merchant Curgenven who was bound to China from Surat.[7] Curgenven was imprisoned for 10 years.[7]

Europeans on rolls[edit | edit source]

Angre employed Europeans, generally Dutch, to command his best vessels.[6] He also employed a Jamaican and a pirate named John Plantain and entrusted him large responsibility like chief gunner post.[8] Angre remployed Castro, who was considered as a traitor and punished by Bombay Council (British) for his failure in capturing Kanheri, which was controlled by Kanhoji Angre.[9]

Bases[edit | edit source]

  • In 1698, Angre located his first base at Vijayadurg ('Victory Fort') (formerly Gheriah), Devagad Taluk, located about 425 km from Mumbai.[10] The fort which was originally built by Bijapur Kings and strengthened by Maratha ruler Shivaji,[10] is located on the coast and has an entrance hollowed out in it to accommodate entry of a vessel from the sea.
  • Angre created a base on the fortified islands of "Kolaba" at Alibaug. Khanderi and Underi off the coast of Thal, Alibaug, and attempted to levy a tax on every merchant vessel entering the harbour.
  • He established a township called Alibag on seashore at southern tip of Mumbai.[11] The main village at that time, was today's Ramnath. Kanhoji even issued his own currency in the form of a silver coin called the Alibagi rupaiya.
  • In 1724, he built a port at Puranagad, located in Ratnagiri District, Maharastra.[12] Seven guns and 70 cannonballs were found in the port.[12] The port was also used for limited trading activities.[12]
  • He attacked English, Dutch and Portuguese ships which were moving to and from East Indies.[2]

Campaigns[edit | edit source]

Kanhoji intensified the attacks on colonial naval powers like Great Britain and Portugal on the western coast of India. On 4 November 1712, his navy even succeeded in capturing the armed yacht Algerine of the British President of Mumbai, William Aislabie, killing the chief of their Karwar factory, Thomas Chown, and making his wife a prisoner and the yacht and the lady were released on 13 February 1713 for a ransom of 30,000 Rupees.[13] He seized EastIndiamen, Somers and Grantham, near Goa and the vessels were on their voyage from England to Bombay.[13] In 1712, he disabled thirty-gun man-of-war which was conveying Portuguese "armado" and captured it.[13]

He signed a treaty with the President Aislabie to stop harassing the Company's fleet. Mr. Aislabie departed for England during October 1715.

After the arrival of Charles Boone as the new Governor of Mumbai on 26 December 1715, Boone made several attempts to capture Angre. But instead in 1718 Angre captured three ships belonging to the British leaving them to claim that Kanhoji Angre was a pirate. Angre blockaded the port of Mumbai and extracted a ransom of 8,750 pounds from the East India Company.[citation needed]

The British launched a fresh campaign in 1720, when shells from floating batteries burst in vain against the rocks of Vijaydurg fort. The attempt to land inside the fort ended in disaster, and the British squadron soon retired to Mumbai.

On 29 November 1721 a joint attempt by the Portuguese (Viceroy Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro) and the British (General Robert Cowan) to humble Kanhoji also failed miserably. This fleet consisted of 6,000 soldiers in no less than four Man of war ships led by Commander Thomas Mathews. Aided by Maratha warriors Mendhaji Bhatkar and Maynak Bhandari in his navy, he continued to harass and plunder the European ships. Commander Matthews returned to Great Britain, but was accused and convicted of trading with the pirates in December 1723.[citation needed] Also, during 1723, Governor Boone returned to Great Britain. After Boone's departure, relative calm prevailed between the British and Angre, until his death.

Battles[edit | edit source]

  • 1702 - Seizes small vessel in Cochin with six Englishmen.
  • 1706 - Attacks and defeats the Siddi of Janjira.
  • 1710 - Captures the Kennery (now Khanderi) islands near Mumbai after fighting the British vessel Godolphin for two days.[6]
  • 1712 - Captured the yacht of the British President of Mumbai, Mr. Aislabie, releasing it only after obtaining a hefty ransom of Rs. 30,000 [1].
  • 1713 - Ten forts ceded to Angre by British.[7]
  • 1717 - British ships bombard Kennery island and Angre signs treaty with Company paying Rs. 60,000.
  • 1718 - Blockaded Mumbai port and extracted ransom.
  • 1720 - British attack Vijaydurg (Gheriah), unsuccessfully.
  • 1721 - British and Portuguese jointly attack Alibagh, but are defeated.
  • 1723 - Angre attacks two British vessels, Eagle and Hunter.

Death[edit | edit source]

A British-Portuguese-Indian naval force attacks the fort of Geriah, 1756

By the time of his death on 4 July 1729, Kanhoji Angre had emerged as a master of the Arabian Sea from Surat to south [[Konkan](kokan) ]. He left behind two legitimate sons, Sekhoji and Sambhaji; three illegitimate sons, Tulaji, Manaji, and Yeshaji. Angre's Samadhi (tomb) is situated at Alibag, Maharashtra.[11]

After Kanhoji, his son Sekhoji continued Maratha exploits at sea till his death in 1733. After Sekhoji's death, the Angre might was split between two brothers, Sambhaji and Manaji, because of divisions in the family. With the Marathas neglecting the navy the British soon found it easier to defeat the remnants of the kingdom. His son Tulaji Angre in 1755 looted Shri Anantheshwar temple of Gowda Saraswat Brahmins at Manjeshwar, Kerala.[citation needed] The Angre reign over the Western coast ended with the capture of Tulaji in a joint British / Peshwa attack on the fort of Gheriah (now Vijaydurg) in February 1756.

Legacy[edit | edit source]

The Samadhi (mausoleum) of Kanhoji Angre at Alibag, Maharashtra.

Kanhoji Angre stands as one of the most notable admirals of the Maratha Navy who inflicted many casualties on colonial powers. However, the British and other shipping powers who were heckled by Angre claimed that he was a privateer, purposely forgetting that he was the appointed admiral of the Maratha Navy.

Kanhoji is also credited with the foresight that a Blue Water Navy's role is to keep the enemy engaged away from the shores of the land. At one time he was so successful that he even employed certain Europeans in his fleet, including making one Dutchman his Commodore. At the height of power, Kanhoji's commanded hundreds of warships and the British Navy could do little to combat the Maratha Navy.[14]

Kanhoji's harassment of British commercial interests (who hence called him a pirate) and the Battle of Swally led them to establish a small naval force that eventually became the modern Indian Navy. A statue of Angre stands tall in Naval Dockyard in Mumbai. The fort which overlooks the Naval Docks may not be there but the boundary wall is still intact and within it lays the Headquarters of Western Naval Command and is called INS Angre (Indian Naval Ship Angre).

End of Angres[edit | edit source]

The descendents of Angres continued to hold Kolaba till 1840s and in 1843, it was annexed to British East India Company as per a despatch to Governor General of Bombay dated 30 December 1843.[15]

Publication of family history[edit | edit source]

Chandrojirao Angre, a descendent of Kanhoji Angre and a contemporary Jijabai of same family supported the publication of History of the Angres in 1939 at Alibag Mumbai.[15]

Tributes[edit | edit source]

  • The Western Naval command of the Indian Navy was named INS Angre [16] on 15 September 1951 in honour of Kanhoji Angre. Other important naval offices are also located at INS Angre.[16] His statue is erected at the old Bombay Castle located within the enclave located at the Naval Dockyard, South Mumbai.
  • During April 1999, the Indian Postal Service released a Rupee 3 stamp showing a ghurab of Kanhoji Angre's fleet as depicted in a c. 1700 AD painting.
  • The old Kennery Lighthouse, on Khanderi Island which marks the southern boundary of the Mumbai Port, was renamed as Kanhoji Angre Light House.
  • The huge residential colony of Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers at Alibaug is named as " Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre Nagar".
  • During the Malwani Jatrotsav festival in 1995 at Parel, Mumbai, a simulation of the naval battle between Angre and the British fleet led by Charles Boon was conducted using remote-control wooden boats in an open tank (70' x 30'). Radio Controlled boats carved out of Teak wood and powered by high torque motors were constructed by Vivek S. Kambli and Vishesh S. Kambli. A thrilling soundtrack complemented this Audio Visual 3 Dimensional depiction of an important chapter from Maratha Naval history. The show lasted 10 days and was witnessed by thousands of eager Mumbai citizens.
  • An all-weather port at Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, named as Angre port, was inaugurated on 24 April 2012 by 9th descendent of Kanhoji Angre.[17]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Rajaram Narayan Saletore (1978), p.109.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Sura Books. pp. 74. ISBN 81-7478-419-5, 9788174784193. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=7rAWdvwl_1IC&pg=PT6&dq=Kanhoji+Angre&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uYNHT7-RJ4TWrQeZodybDw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Kanhoji%20Angre&f=false. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kurup, K K N (1997). India's Naval Traditions: The Role of Kunhali Marakkars. New Delhi: Northern Book centre. pp. 72–75. ISBN 9788172110833. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=HKmXcBCKEcAC&pg=PA75&dq=kanhoji+angre&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8BXIUM_5GIiPrgfg9oGYDA&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=kanhoji%20angre&f=false. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  4. Rajaram Narayan Salethore (1978) P.99.
  5. http://historion.net/j.biddulph-pirates-malabar-englishwoman-india/page-27.html
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Colonel John Biddulph (1907), p.37.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Rajaram Narayan Saletore (1978), p.106.
  8. Rajaram Narayan Saletore (1978), p.102.
  9. Rajaram Narayan Saletore (1978), p.105.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Madaan, Neha (3 April 2012). "ASI takes up renovation of Vijaydurg". http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04-03/pune/31280860_1_fortification-asi-official-cannon-balls. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 epaper (2012). "Alibag Popular Weekend Getaway". http://lite.epaper.timesofindia.com/mobile.aspx?article=yes&pageid=23&sectid=edid=&edlabel=BGMIR&mydateHid=13-11-2009&pubname=&edname=&articleid=Ar02300&publabel=MM. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Madaan, Neha (29 January 2012). "Fort mapping to study Maratha architecture". http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-01-29/pune/30675845_1_fort-mapping-architecture. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Colonel John Biddulph (1907), p.38.
  14. http://www.thepiratesrealm.com/Kanhoji%20Angria.html
  15. 15.0 15.1 Govt. of, Maharastra. "British Period". Mumbai: The Gazeteers Dept. Govt. of Maharastra. http://cultural.maharashtra.gov.in/english/gazetteer/KOLABA/his_british_period.html. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "INS Angre". Global security.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/ins-angre.htm. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  17. "Angre port located in Ratnagiri inaugurated". 24 April 2012. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/april-25-2012/angre-port-located-in-ratnagiri-inaugurated/articleshowpics/12867250.cms. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

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