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Kosovo Force
[[File:Coat of arms of the Kosovo Force|240x240px|frameless}}|Emblem of KFOR in both the Latin and Cyrillic scripts|alt=]]
Emblem of KFOR in both the Latin and Cyrillic scripts
Active 1999–present
Country 31 countries
Type Command
Part of NATO

The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo[a].[1]

KFOR entered Kosovo on 12 June 1999 under a United Nations mandate, two days after the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. At the time of UN Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was facing a grave humanitarian crisis, with military forces from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in daily engagement. Ethnic tensions were at their highest and the death toll had reached a historic high. Nearly one million people had fled Kosovo as refugees.[2] KFOR has gradually transferred responsibilities to Kosovo police and other local authorities.[3] As of November 30, 2012, KFOR consists of 5,081 troops.[4][5]

ObjectivesEdit

KFOR Sectors 2002

Map of the KFOR-Sectors, 2002

NATO’s initial mandate was:[6]

  • to deter renewed hostility and threats against Kosovo by Yugoslav and Serb forces;
  • to establish and maintain a secure environment in Kosovo, including public safety and civil order;
  • to demilitarise the Kosovo Liberation Army;
  • to support the international humanitarian effort;
  • to coordinate with and support the international civil presence.

Today, KFOR focuses on building a secure environment in which all citizens, irrespective of their ethnic origins, can live in peace and, with international aid, democracy and civil society are gradually gaining strength. KFOR tasks have included:

  • assistance with the return or relocation of displaced persons and refugees;
  • reconstruction and demining;
  • medical assistance;
  • security and public order;
  • security of ethnic minorities;
  • protection of patrimonial sites;
  • border security;
  • interdiction of cross-border weapons smuggling;
  • implementation of a Kosovo-wide weapons, ammunition and explosives amnesty programme;
  • weapons destruction;
  • support for the establishment of civilian institutions, law and order, the judicial and penal system, the electoral process and other aspects of the political, economic and social life of the province.

The Contact Group countries have said publicly that KFOR will remain in Kosovo to provide the security necessary to support the provisions of a final settlement of Kosovo's status.[7]

StructureEdit

KFOR Structur.2006

KFOR Task Forces, 2006

KFOR

German KFOR badge

German KFOR armoured vehicle, 1999

German Army KFOR soldiers and a Marder infantry fighting vehicle in southern Kosovo in 1999

German KFOR troops patrol southern Kosovo, summer 1999

German KFOR soldiers patrol southern Kosovo in 1999

KFOR contingents were originally grouped into 4 regionally based multinational brigades. The brigades were responsible for a specific area of operations, but under a single chain of command under the authority of Commander KFOR. In August 2005, the North Atlantic Council decided to restructure KFOR, replacing the four existing multinational brigades with five task forces, to allow for greater flexibility with, for instance, the removal of restrictions on the cross-boundary movement of units based in different sectors of Kosovo.[7] Then in February 2010, the Multinational Task Forces became Multinational Battle Groups and in March 2011, KFOR was restructured again, into just two multinational battlegroups; one based at Camp Bondsteel, and one based at Peć.[8]

Contributing statesEdit

At its height, KFOR troops numbered 50,000 and came from 39 different NATO and non-NATO nations. The official KFOR website indicated that in 2008 a total 14,000 soldiers from 34 countries were participating in KFOR.[9]

The following is a list of the total number of troops which have participated in the KFOR mission. Much of the force has been scaled down since 2008, and so current numbers are reflected here as well:[4][5]

Contributing NATO countriesEdit

  • Flag of Albania.svg Albania (10, joined 2009)
  • Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria (11)
  • Flag of Canada.svg Canada (1,470 - now 5)
  • Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia (20, joined 2009)
  • Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic (97 - now 10)
  • Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark (308 now 35)
  • Estonia Estonia - (1)
  • Flag of France.svg France (7,000 - now 325)
  • Flag of Germany.png Germany (8,500 - now 743)
  • Flag of Greece.svg Greece (1,000 - now 118)
  • Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary (223 - now 197)
  • Flag of Italy.svg Italy (5,000 - now 564)
  • Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania (30, now 1)
  • Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg (23 - now 22)
  • Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands (3,600 - now 3)
  • Flag of Norway.svg Norway (4 - now 3)
  • Flag of Poland.svg Poland (800 - now 230)
  • Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal (171)
  • Flag of Romania.svg Romania (62 - now 60)
  • Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia (316)
  • Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey (752 – now 402)
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom (19,000 troops - now 1)
  • United States (7,000 - now 768)

Contributing non-NATO countriesEdit

  • Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia (35)
  • Flag of Austria.svg Austria (561 – now 394)
  • Flag of Finland.svg Finland (395 - now 19)
  • Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland (279 – now 12)
  • Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco (170)
  • Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden (1100 – now 56)
  • Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland (220 – now 219)
  • Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine (1,300 - now 162)

Withdrawn countriesEdit

  • Flag of Spain.svg Spain (1,712 - now 0)
  • Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium (1,100 - now 0)
  • Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia (20, now 0)
  • Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland (? - now 0)
  • Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates (1500 - now 0)
  • Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation (4,000 - now 0)
  • Flag of India.svg India (800 - now 0)
  • Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia (0)
  • Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina (550-750 - now 0)
  • Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina (200, now 0 - 2000 to present Hospital (ret) + Combat Engineer company)

[10] [11]

  • Georgia (country) Georgia (182 - now 0)[12]
  • Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia (40 - now 0)
  • Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan (34 - now 0)[13]
  • Flag of Chile.svg Chile (? now 0)
  • Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia (? - now 0)
  • Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines (? - now 0)

KFOR CommandersEdit

  1. Mike Jackson (United Kingdom, 10 June 1999 – 8 October 1999)
  2. Klaus Reinhardt (Germany, 8 October 1999 – 18 April 2000)
  3. Juan Ortuño Such (Spain, 18 April 2000 – 16 October 2000)
  4. Carlo Cabigiosu (Italy, 16 October 2000 – 6 April 2001)
  5. Thorstein Skiaker (Norway, 6 April 2001 – 3 October 2001)
  6. Marcel Valentin (France, 3 October 2001 – 4 October 2002)
  7. Fabio Mini (Italy, 4 October 2002 – 3 October 2003)
  8. Holger Kammerhoff (Germany, 3 October 2003 – 1 September 2004)
  9. Yves de Kermabon (France, 1 September 2004 – 1 September 2005)
  10. Giuseppe Valotto (Italy, 1 September 2005 – 1 September 2006)
  11. Roland Kather (Germany, 1 September 2006 – 31 August 2007)
  12. Xavier de Marnhac (France, 31 August 2007 – 29 August 2008)
  13. Giuseppe Emilio Gay (Italy, 29 August 2008 – 8 September 2009)
  14. Markus J. Bentler (Germany, 8 September 2009 – 1 September 2010)
  15. Erhard Bühler (Germany, 1 September 2010 – 9 September 2011)
  16. Erhard Drews (Germany, 9 September 2011 – 7 September 2012)
  17. Volker Halbauer (Germany, 7 September 2012 – 6 September 2013)
  18. Salvatore Farina (Italy, 6 September 2013 – 3 September 2014)
  19. Francesco Figliuolo (Italy, 3 September 2014 – 7 August 2015)
  20. Guglielmo Luigi Miglietta (Italy, 7 August 2015 – 1 September 2016)
  21. Giovanni Fungo (Italy, 1 September 2016 – 15 November 2017)
  22. Salvatore Cuoci (Italy, 15 November 2017– present)
KFOR Sectors 2002

Map of the KFOR-Sectors, 2002

Note: The terms of service are based on the official list of the KFOR commanders[14] and another article.[15]

Kosovo, peacekeeping and human traffickingEdit

Since the establishment of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in 1999, according to some international organizations Kosovo became a major destination country for women and young girls trafficked into forced prostitution, in part as a result of the presence of peacekeeping forces. According to Amnesty International, most women trafficked into Kosovo from abroad are from Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Ukraine.[16][17][18]

KFOR fatalitiesEdit

RCMP in Kosovo

U.S. Marines provide security for Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers as they investigate a mass grave in July 1999.

Since the KFOR entered Kosovo in June 1999, 168 NATO soldiers have been killed, mostly in accidents.

On October 19, 2004, it was confirmed that 115 NATO soldiers had been killed during the operation.[19] After that 50 more NATO soldiers were confirmed to have died, including 42 Slovak soldiers in a military plane crash in Hungary.

The fatalities by country are: 42 Slovak, 26 German,[20] 34 Unidentified, 18 American, 12 Russian, 8 British, 7 Swedish, 6 Italian, 5 French, 5 Polish, 4 Spanish, 3 Ukrainian, 2 Turkish, 1 Austrian, 1 Danish, 1 Dutch, 1 Greek, 1 Hungarian,[21] 1 Norwegian, 1 Romanian, 1 Slovenian, 1 Swiss, 1 United Arab Emirates and 1 Portuguese.

Eight UNMIK police officers have been killed in Kosovo since 1999, in addition to the KFOR fatalities.[22] The fatalities by country are: 3 American, 1 Indian, 1 Jordanian, 1 Nigerian, 1 Ghanaian and 1 Ukrainian police officer.

EventsEdit

After the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence the commander of NATO forces in Kosovo said on 20 February 2008 that he did not plan to step up security in the tense north despite Kosovo Serbs forcing the temporary closure of two boundary crossings between Kosovo and uncontested Serbia.[23]

In July 2011, following the Kosovo Police's attempts to seize two border outposts and consequent clashes that followed, KFOR troops intervened.[24]

In 2013, KFOR was involved in a rescue operation of the last restaurant bears in Kosovo. The bears are now kept at the Bear Sanctuary Prishtina.[25]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "NATO's role in Kosovo". Nato.int. 10 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20100611233430/http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_48818.htm. Retrieved 13 June 2010. "Today, just under 10,000 troops from the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR), provided by 31 countries (24 NATO and 7 non-NATO), are still deployed in Kosovo to help maintain a safe and secure environment and freedom of movement for all citizens, irrespective of their ethnic origin." 
  2. "NATO Topics: NATO in Kosovo". Nato.int. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20110605181200/http://www.nato.int/issues/kosovo/index.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  3. Linda Karadaku (08/12/2010). "KFOR commander Buhler vows to protect "global treasures"". Southeast European Times. http://setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2010/12/08/feature-01. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Kosovo Force (KFOR)". NATO. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20130517141843/http://www.nato.int/kfor/structur/nations/placemap/kfor_placemat.pdf. Retrieved Mar 22, 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "20130422_130419-kfor-placemat". Nato.int. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_2013_04/20130422_130419-kfor-placemat.pdf. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  6. "NATO Topics: Kosovo Force (KFOR)". Nato.int. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. http://web.archive.org/20070209205213/www.nato.int/issues/kfor/index.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "NATO Topics: Kosovo Force (KFOR) - How did it evolve?". Nato.int. 20-Feb-2008. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20110605181328/http://www.nato.int/issues/kfor/evolution.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  8. Muhamet Brajshori (29/12/2010). "US troops to guard Kosovo's border". Southeast European Times. Archived from the original on 2012-11-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20121103011449/http://setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2010/12/29/feature-02. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  9. "KFOR Press Release". Nato.int. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. http://web.archive.org/20070209205213/www.nato.int/issues/kfor/index.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  10. "Kosovo International Force Protection (KFOR)". Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20120419112522/http://www.fuerzaaerea.mil.ar/misiones/kosovo.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  11. "GALERÍAS DE FOTOS DE KFOR". Archived from pictorial the original on 2009-03-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20090310164446/http://www.jef3op.ejercito.mil.ar/website/Departamentos/oomp/kfor/galeria.htm. 
  12. "RIA Novosti - World - Georgia announces withdrawal of peacekeepers from Kosovo". en.rian.ru. 2008-04-14. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20121008065344/http://en.rian.ru/world/20080414/105041588.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  13. Mu Xuequan, ed (2008-03-05). "Azerbaijan to withdraw peacekeepers from Kosovo". News.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20121015092701/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/05/content_7718316.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  14. "KFOR Commanders". SHAPE. http://www.aco.nato.int/kfor/about-us/history/kfor-commanders. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  15. "Nato's role in Kosovo". NATO. 30 November 2015. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_48818.htm#. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  16. "Kosovo UN troops 'fuel sex trade'". BBC News. May 6, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3686173.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  17. "Amnesty International". 2008. Archived from the original on 2004-06-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20040618222134/http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/stories-9-eng. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  18. Traynor, Ian (7 May 2004). "Nato force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20130310015714/http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/may/07/balkans. Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  19. "British soldier killed in a car accident in Kosovo". Spacewar.com. Archived from the original on 2004-12-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20041224214135/http://www.spacewar.com/2004/041019134332.plak2o1d.html. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  20. Todesfälle im Auslandseinsatz. Stand: Mai 2013 (Berlin, 06.06.2013.) www.bundeswehr.de
  21. http://index.hu/kulfold/2013/05/22/meghalt_egy_magyar_katona_koszovoban/
  22. "UN officer dies after Kosovo riot". BBC News. 18 March 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-06-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20130610080057/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7300015.stm. 
  23. "No added NATO security in Kosovo". CNN. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20121008103925/http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/02/20/kosovo.independence/index.html. 
  24. b92 "KFOR blocks Kosovo police unit in tense neighborhood". NOVEMBER 22, 2012. http://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2012&mm=11&dd=22&nav_id=83287 b92. 
  25. "Restaurant bears in Kosovo rescued" (in German). http://www.franke-ip.com/files/Pressemitteilung_20130821.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 

External linksEdit

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