|Legion of Merit|
|Awarded by United States Department of Defense|
|Type||Military medal (Decoration)|
|Awarded for||exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements|
|Next (higher)||Defense Superior Service Medal|
|Next (lower)||Distinguished Flying Cross|
Legion of Merit ribbon
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued both to United States military personnel and to military and political figures of foreign governments.
The Legion of Merit (Commander degree) is one of only two United States military decorations to be issued as a neck order (the other being the Medal of Honor) and the only United States decoration which may be issued in award degrees (much like an order of chivalry or certain Orders of Merit).
The Legion of Merit is sixth in the order of precedence of U.S. Military awards and is worn after the Defense Superior Service Medal and before the Distinguished Flying Cross. In contemporary use in the U.S. Armed Forces, the Legion of Merit is typically awarded to Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force general officers and colonels, and Navy and Coast Guard flag officers and captains occupying command or very senior staff positions in their respective services. It may also be awarded to officers of lesser rank and to very senior enlisted personnel, but these instances are less frequent and circumstances vary by branch of service. As such, the medal can be considered as "points" in some enlisted promotion systems, such as the Air Force, where it is counted as seven points (out of a possible 25 points for decorations). However, since the rare enlisted recipients are typically at the pinnacle of the enlisted pay grades (i.e., E-9), the utility of such points is marginal.
Criteria[edit | edit source]
- The degrees of Chief Commander, Commander, Officer, and Legionnaire are awarded only to members of armed forces of foreign nations under the criteria outlined in Army Regulation 672-7 and is based on the relative rank or position of the recipient as follows:
- Chief Commander: Head of state or government. However this degree was awarded by President Roosevelt to some Allied World War II theater commanders usually for joint amphibious landings or invasions. (The President had this power under Executive Order 9260 of October 29, 1942 paragraph 3b.)
- Commander: Equivalent of a U.S. military chief of staff or higher position, but not to a head of state.
- Officer: General or flag officer below the equivalent of a U.S. military chief of staff; colonel or equivalent rank for service in assignments equivalent to those normally held by a general or flag officer in U.S. military service; or military attachés.
- Legionnaire: All recipients not included above.
- When the Legion of Merit is awarded to members of the Armed Forces of the United States it is awarded without reference to degree. The criteria are "for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements"; additional awards of the Legion of Merit are denoted by oak leaf clusters (in the Army and Air Force), and by 5⁄16 inch stars (in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard). The sea services (i.e., the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) may also authorize the Combat "V" for wear on the Legion of Merit, while the Army and Air Force do not authorize the "V" device.
- The performance must have been such as to merit recognition of key individuals for service rendered in a clearly exceptional manner.
- Performance of duties normal to the grade, branch, specialty or assignment, and experience of an individual is not an adequate basis for this award.
- For service not related to actual war the term "key individual" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war and requires evidence of significant achievement.
- In peacetime, service should be in the nature of a special requirement or of an extremely difficult duty performed in an unprecedented and clearly exceptional manner.
- However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of important positions.
The degrees and the design of the decoration were clearly influenced by the French Legion of Honor (Légion d'honneur).
History[edit | edit source]
Although recommendations for creation of a Meritorious Service Medal were initiated as early as September 1937, no formal action was taken toward approval.
In a letter to the Quartermaster General (QMG) dated December 24, 1941, the Adjutant General formally requested action be initiated to create a Meritorious Service Medal and provide designs in the event the decoration was established. Proposed designs prepared by Bailey, Banks, and Biddle and the Office of the Quartermaster General were provided to Assistant Chief of Staff (G1) (Colonel Heard) by the QMG on January 5, 1942.
The Assistant Chief of Staff (G1) (BG Hilldring), in a response to the QMG on April 3, 1942, indicated the Secretary of War approved the design recommended by the QMG. The design of the Legion of Merit (change of name) would be ready for issue immediately after legislation authorizing it was enacted into law. (A separate Meritorius Service Medal was established in 1969.)
An Act of Congress (Public Law 671—77th Congress, Chapter 508, 2d Session) on July 20, 1942, established the Legion of Merit and provided that the medal "shall have suitable appurtenances and devices and not more than four degrees, and which the President, under such rules and regulations as he shall prescribe, may award to
- (a) personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States and of the Government of the Commonwealth Philippines and
- (b) personnel of the armed forces of friendly foreign nations who, since the proclamation of an emergency by the President on 1939-09-08, shall have distinguished themselves by exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services."
The medal was announced in War Department Bulletin No. 40, dated August 5, 1942. Executive Order 9260, dated October 29, 1942, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, established the rules for the Legion of Merit and required the President's approval for the award. However, in 1943, at the request of General George C. Marshall, approval authority for U.S. personnel was delegated to the War Department.
Executive Order 10600, dated March 15, 1955, by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, revised approval authority. Current provisions are contained in Title 10, United States Code 1121.
The reverse of the medal has the motto taken from the Great Seal of the United States, "ANNUIT COEPTIS" ("He [God] Has Favored Our Undertakings") and the date "MDCCLXXXII" (1782) which is the date of America's first decoration, the Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart. The ribbon design also follows the pattern of the Purple Heart ribbon.
Insignia[edit | edit source]
- The Chief Commander Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal is, on a wreath of green laurel joined at the bottom by a gold bow-knot (rosette), a domed five-pointed white star bordered crimson, points reversed with v-shaped extremities tipped with a gold ball. In the center, a blue disk encircled by gold clouds, with 13 white stars arranged in the pattern that appears on the Great Seal of the United States. Between each point, within the wreath are crossed arrows pointing outwards. The overall width is 2 15⁄16 inches (75 mm). The words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" are engraved in the center of the reverse. A miniature of the decoration in gold on a horizontal gold bar is worn on the service ribbon.
- The Commander Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal is, on a wreath of green laurel joined at the bottom by a gold bow-knot (rosette), a five-pointed white star bordered crimson, points reversed with v-shaped extremities tipped with a gold ball. In the center, a blue disk encircled by gold clouds, with 13 white stars arranged in the pattern that appears on the Great Seal of the United States. Between each star point, within the wreath, are crossed arrows pointing outwards. The overall width is 2 1⁄4 inches (57 mm). A gold laurel wreath in the v-shaped angle at the top connects an oval suspension ring to the neck ribbon that is 1 15⁄16 inches (49 mm) in width. The reverse of the five-pointed star is enameled in white, and the border is crimson. In the center, a disk for engraving the name of the recipient surrounded by the words "ANNUIT COEPTIS MDCCLXXXII." An outer scroll contains the words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA." A miniature of the decoration in silver on a horizontal silver bar is worn on the service ribbon.
- The neck ribbon for the degree of Commander is 1 15⁄16 inches (49 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄16 inch (1.6 mm) white 67101; center 1 13⁄16 inches (46 mm) crimson and 1⁄16 inch (1.6 mm) white.
- The Officer Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal is similar to the degree of Commander except the overall width is 1 7⁄8 inches (48 mm) and the pendant has a suspension ring instead of the wreath for attaching the ribbon. A gold replica of the medal, 3⁄4 inch (19 mm) wide, is centered on the suspension ribbon.
- The Legionnaire Degree of the Legion of Merit Medal and the Legion of Merit Medal issued to U.S. personnel is the same as the degree of Officer, except the suspension ribbon does not have the medal replica.
- The ribbon for all of the decorations is 1 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄16 inch (1.6 mm) white; center 1 1⁄4 inches (32 mm) crimson; and 1⁄16 inch (1.6 mm) white. The reverse of all of the medals has the motto taken from the Great Seal of the United States "ANNUIT COEPTIS" (He (God) Has Favored Our Undertakings) and the date "MDCCLXXXII" (1782), which is the date of America's first decoration, the Badge of Military Merit, now known as the Purple Heart. The ribbon design also follows the pattern of the Purple Heart ribbon.
Notable recipients[edit | edit source]
Chief Commander[edit | edit source]
|Lieutenant-General||Kenneth A.N. Anderson, CB, MC||British Army||June 18, 1943|
|Generalissimo||Chiang Kai-shek||Chinese Armed Forces||July 1943|
|Lieutenant-General||Tai An-lan||Chinese Armed Forces||1943||In command of 200th Division, Chinese Expeditionary Force (Burma). KIA on May 26, 1942 in Burma.|
|Field Marshal||Bernard Law Montgomery, KCB, DSO||British Army||August 6, 1943||General at the time|
|Temporary Air Chief Marshal||Sir Arthur Tedder, GCB||Royal Air Force||August 27, 1943|
|Marshal of the Soviet Union||Aleksandr Mikhajlovich Vasilevskij||Soviet Army||June 22, 1944|
|Chief Marshal Of Aviation||Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Novikov||Soviet Air Force||June 22, 1944|
|Rear-Admiral||Sir Victor Crutchley VC, KCB, DSC||Royal Australian Naval Squadron||September 1944||For exceptionally meritorious conduct 1942–44 in command of Task Force 44 in the Pacific.|
|Air Marshal||Arthur Harris, OBE, AFC||Royal Air Force||October 17, 1944||Known as "Bomber" Harris; because of moral qualms, he was the only major British commander not to receive a peerage after World War II. He instituted "area bombing" of German cities.|
|King||George VI||Commonwealth armed forces||1945|
|Air Chief Marshal||William Sholto Douglas, GCB, MC, DFC||Royal Air Force||28 August 1945||made Commander of the Legion 28 July 1944|
|Admiral of the Fleet||Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham Bt, GCB, DSO**||Royal Navy||First Sea Lord|
|Admiral||Sir John Henry Dacres Cunningham KCB||Royal Navy||For gallant and distinguished service during the invasion operations in Northern Italy and the South of France.|
|Admiral||Sir Bertram Ramsay KCB, KBE, MVO||Royal Navy||January 15, 1945||For gallant and distinguished service whilst in command of the invasion operations on Normandy.|
|Acting Air Marshal||Sir Arthur Coningham KCB, DSO, MC, DFC, AFC||Royal Air Force|
|Commander-In-Chief||Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah||Iraqi Armed Forces||June 1, 1945|
|Vice Admiral||Sir Philip Vian KBE, CMG||Royal Navy||July 17, 1945|
|Marshal of the Soviet Union||Georgy Zhukov||Soviet Army||1945|
|Marshal of the Soviet Union||Ivan Stepanovich Konev||Soviet Army||1945|
|Marshal of the Soviet Union||Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov||Soviet Army|
|Army General||Stanislav Giljarovich Poplavskij||Soviet Army|
|Marshal of the Soviet Union||Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov||Soviet Army|
|Marshal of the Soviet Union||Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskij||Soviet Army|
|General||Andrey Ivanovich Yeryomenko||Soviet Army|
|Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld||Netherlands Armed Forces||Was a General in the Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands East Indies Army and the Royal Netherlands Air Force and was a Lieutenant admiral in the Royal Netherlands Navy. Appointed a Honorary Air commodore in the Royal Air Force in 1941 and later appointed to the honorary rank of Air marshal by Queen Elizabeth II on 15 September 1964. Was also a Honorary Air commodore in the Royal New Zealand Air Force since 1948.|
|King||Michael I of Romania||Romanian Armed Forces||1945||"Rendered exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service to the cause of the Allied Nations in the struggle against Hitlerite Germany. In July and August, 1944, his Nation, under the dominance of a dictatorial regime over which the King had no control, have allied herself with the Germany aggressors, he, King Mihai I, succeeded in giving purpose, direction and inspiration to the theretofore uncoordinated internal forces of opposition to the ruling dictator.
In culmination of his efforts, on 23 August 1944, although his capitol was still dominated by Germany troops, he personally, on his own initiative, and in complete disregard for his own safety, gave the signal for a coup d'etat by ordering his palace guards to arrest the dictator and his chief ministers. "
|Brigadier general||Charles de Gaulle||French Armed Forces||August 24, 1945|
|Emperor||Haile Selassie||Ethiopian Armed Forces||1945|
|Vice Admiral||Sir Geoffrey Blake KCB, DSO||Royal Navy||November 6, 1945|
|Chief of Defence of Norway||Crown Prince Olav||Norwegian Armed Forces||November 23, 1945||"exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services from August 1944 to July 1945."|
|Marshal||Michał Rola-Żymierski||Polish Armed Forces||1945|
|King||Abdulaziz bin Abdur Rahman Al Saud||Saudi Arabian Armed Forces||February 18, 1947|
|President||Miguel Alemán Valdés||Mexican Armed Forces||May 1, 1947|
|Shah||Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi||Iranian Armed Forces||October 7, 1947|
|General||Dragoljub Mihailović||Yugoslav Royal Army||March 29, 1948||"General Mihailovich and his forces, although lacking adequate supplies, and fighting under extreme hardships, contributed materially to the allied cause, and were instrumental in obtaining a final Allied Victory." Recommended by Dwight D. Eisenhower. The award was kept secret until 1966.|
|Field Marshal||Sir William Slim, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC, ADC||British Army||1948|
|Prime Minister||The Rt Hon Sir Robert Menzies, KT, AK, CH, QC||Australian Armed Forces|
|Field Marshal||Kodandera Madappa Cariappa||Indian Army||1950|
|King||Paul I||Greek Armed Forces||October 28, 1953|
|President||Celâl Bayar||Turkish Armed Forces||January 27, 1954|
|Field Marshal||Luang Plaek Pibulsonggram||Thai Royal Army||May 2, 1955|
|General||Satyawant Mallana Srinagesh||Indian Army||1955|||
|King||Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX)||Thai Armed Forces||June 28, 1960|
|General||Kim Yong-Bae||Republic Of Korea Army||February 14, 1968||For service April 1965 to March 1966. The initial award of Commander degree was revoked and replaced with Chief Commander.|
|Minister of National Defense||Kim Sung-Eun||Republic Of Korea||December 9, 1968||For service March 1963 to June 1966.|
|Admiral||Jal Cursetji||Indian Navy||1978|||
|President||Kenan Evren||Turkish Armed Forces||June 27, 1988|
|General||Hilmi Özkök||Turkish Armed Forces||2002|
|Major General||Senussi Latewish||Chief of staff of the Royal Libyan Army||June 5, 1961||For Exceptionally Meritorious Conduct in the performance of outstanding services.|
|Admiral||Shahid Karimullah||Pakistan Navy||July 21, 2004||For his steadfast support of American-Pakistan cooperation in regional maritime, security affairs, demonstrated superb resolve and unwavering dedication to the Global War on terrorism|
|Admiral||Afzal Tahir||Pakistan Navy||January 23, 2006||Legion of Merit in recognition of his efforts in conducting maritime security operations and strengthening of cooperation between the two navies in the 5th Fleet area of responsibility.|
|Admiral||Mohammad Anwar Mohammad Nor||Malaysian Armed Forces|
|General||Ashfaq Parvez Kayani||Pakistani Army||January 1, 2009|
|General||Babaker Shawkat B. Zebari||Iraqi Army||January 7, 2010|
|Admiral||Noman Bashir||Pakistan Navy||March 18, 2010||For distinguished service and strengthening American-Pakistani relations. Also, for his role in establishing and strengthening the Pakistan Navy and U.S. Navy relations in Arabian sea.|
Commander[edit | edit source]
|Brigadier General||Alexandre Zacharias de Assumpção||Brazilian Army||1942||General of Brigade Alexandre Zacharias de Assumpcao, Brazilian Army, was cited for service as Commanding General of the 8th Military Region, Brazil. The 8th Military Region was headquartered in Belem, which was a major support base for US aircraft transiting to North Africa and the Mediterranean. The Army made 31 awards of the Legion of Merit, commander grade, to Brazilian officers during World War II.|
|Brigadier General||Amaro Soares Bittencourt||Brazilian Army||1942||First recipient of this medal in any degree.|
|Rear Admiral||Harold Farncomb, CB, DSO, MVO, RAN||Royal Australian Navy||1942||Commanded various International military units.|
|Wing Commander||Guy Penrose Gibson, VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar||Royal Air Force||December 3, 1943||WWII leader of the Dams raid (Operation Chastise) in 1943.|
|Brigadier General||Paul Devinck||French Army||1943|
|Lieutenant General||Louis Koeltz||French Army||1943||Commander of XIXth Army Corps|
|Brigadier General||François Le Clercq||French Army||1943|
|Lieutenant General||Władysław Anders||2nd Polish Corps||August 1, 1944|
|Major General||Paul Bergeron||French Army||1944|
|General||Etienne Beynet||French Army||1944||Head of the French Military Mission to Washington|
|General||Georges Catroux||French Army||1944||Governor General of French Algeria|
|General (later maréchal de France)||Jean de Lattre de Tassigny||French Army||1944||Commander of the French Forces in Italy|
|Lieutenant General||Henry Martin||French Army||1944||Commander of the French Forces in Corsica|
|Brigadier General||Louis Rivet||French Army||1944||Former Head of French Military Intelligence|
|Air Marshal||Sir Francis John Linnell KBE, CB||Royal Air Force||January 30, 1945||Deputy Commander-in-Chief (RAF MED ME) Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, 29 February 1944 – 29 June 1944. Awarded posthumously by Franklin D. Roosevelt.|
|Admiral||Sir Gerald Charles Dickens KCVO, CB, CMG||Royal Navy||1945||WWII Commander|
|Air Commodore||Andrew James Wray Geddes DSO, OBE||Royal Air Force||1945||Responsible for the planning of Operations Manna and Chowhound|
|Lieutenant General||Sir Bernard Cyril Freyberg, VC, KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO||2nd New Zealand Division, New Zealand Military Forces||August 2, 1945|
|Major General||William Henry Evered Poole, CB, CBE, DSO||6th South African Armored Division||Unit is part of the 5th US Army during the Italian Campaign in World War II|
|Major General||Georges Vanier||1946||Canadian representative to the United Nations and Ambassador to France, later Governor General of Canada.|
|Rear Admiral||Leonard W. Murray||Canadian Northwest Atlantic||1946||Architect of the Battle of the Atlantic.|
|Air Chief Marshal||Sir Keith Rodney Park||Royal Air Force||June 27, 1947||WWII commander during the Battle of Britain and later Allied Air Commander South East Asia|
|General||Rajendrasinhji Jadeja||Indian Army||1946|
|General||Alfredo M. Santos||Armed Forces of the Philippines|
|Lieutenant-General||Stefan Grot-Rowecki||Polish Armed Forces (Armia Krajowa)||August 9, 1984||Awarded by Ronald Reagan posthumously forty years and one week after his death at the hands of the Gestapo.|
|General||Fidel Ramos||Armed Forces of the Philippines||1990|
|Brigadier General||Sharif Uddin Ahmed||Bangladesh Army||March 30, 1990||The first Bangladeshi General to receive this award for his outstanding service as the Defense Attaché in the Bangladesh Embassy, United States from December 1985 to July 1989|
|Lieutenant General (later General)||Michel Roquejeoffre||French Army||July 14, 1991|
|General||Sir Peter de la Billière KCB, KBE, DSO, MC & bar||British Forces to the Middle East during Gulf War I||July 14, 1991|
|General||Ehud Barak||Israeli Defense Forces||1992||Later became Israeli Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001|
|Teniente General||Martín Balza||Argentine Army||1994||Chief of Argentine Armed Forces 1991 to 1999|
|General||Alfred John Gardyne Drummond de Chastelain, OC, CMM, CH, CD||Canadian Forces||1995||In 1999, he was made a Companion of Honour by Queen Elizabeth II. He is the former Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada) for the Canadian Forces and he is the Chairman of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning since November 1995 for the Northern Ireland Peace Process.|
|General||I.M. Elias Nino Herrera||Colombian Marine Corps||For exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service as Commandant of the Colombian Marine Corps. General Nino's cooperation and understanding have been a significant contribution to the mutual friendship between Colombia and the United States.|
|General||Michael John Dawson Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham GCB, CMG, CBE, ADC, DL||Implementation Force in Bosnia||May 13, 1997||Former Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) in the United Kingdom|
|General de Ejército
(General of the Army)
|Paco Moncayo||Ecuadorian Armed Forces||January 1998||For of his exceptionally superior performance as Chief of the Armed Forces Joint Command and his contribution to Ecuadorian history, politics and democracy.|
|Vice Admiral||Donald Chalmers, AO, RAN||Royal Australian Navy||1998||Chief of Navy|
|General||Sir Phillip Bennett, AC, KBE, DSO, KStJ
John Baker, AC, DSM
Peter Cosgrove, AC, MC
|Australian Defence Force||Chiefs of the Defence Force|
|General||Edgard de Larminat
Alain de Boissieu
|Vice Admiral||David Shackleton, AO, RAN
||Royal Australian Navy||2001||Chief of Navy|
|General||Md Hashim bin Hussein||Royal Malaysia Army||2001||Chief of Army|
|Vice Admiral||Chris Ritchie, AO, RAN||Royal Australian Navy||Chief of Navy|
|Major General||Yedidiya Ya'ari||Israeli Navy||December 2003||Commander in Chief, Israel Navy|
|Lieutenant General||Charles Bouchard||Deputy Commander NORAD||2004||Commander of NATO forces enforcing "No Fly Zone" Libya 2011|
|Argentina||Admiral||Jorge Godoy||Argentine Navy||October 1, 2004||Chief of Staff, Argentine Navy|
|General||Yoshimitsu Tsumagari||Japan Air Self-Defense Force||October 19, 2004||Chief of Staff, Air Self Defense Force|
|Lieutenant General||Peter Leahy, AC
Ken Gillespie, AC, DSC, CSM
|Chief of Army|
|Lieutenant General||Hasan Mashhud Chowdhury||Bangladesh Army||2005||Former Chief of Army Staff (Bangladesh)|
|Commander-in-Chief||Mehmet Yaşar Büyükanıt||Turkish Armed Forces||December 12, 2005|
|Admiral||Giampaolo Di Paola||Italian Navy||Incumbent Minister of Defence in the Monti Cabinet|
|Lieutenant General||Claudio Graziano||Italian Army||February 11, 2013||Chief of the General Staff of the Italian Army|
|General||Tadashi Yoshida||Japan Air Self-Defense Force||October 24, 2006||Chief of Staff, Air Self Defense Force|
|Admiral of the Fleet||Vladimir Vasilyevich Masorin||Russian Navy||August 24, 2007||The first Russian recipient for meritorious conduct of the Russian Federation Navy to increase cooperation and interoperability with the U.S. Navy and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from September 2005 – August 2007.|
|General||Ryoichi Oriki||Ground Self-Defense Force||October 1, 2007||Chief of Staff|
|General||Franciszek Gągor||Polish Armed Forces||May 22, 2008||For exceptionally meritorious service as the Chief of Staff of the Polish Armed Forces from February 2006 to May 2008.|
|Lieutenant General Hebrew: Rav Aluf||Gabi Ashkenazi||Israeli Defence Forces||July 24, 2008||Chief of Staff - Israeli Defence Forces|
|Vice Admiral||Refiloe Johannes Mudimu||South African Navy||2008||For role in strengthening ties with US Navy|
|General||Toshio Tamogami||Air Self-Defense Force||August 19, 2008|||
|Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces||Sverker Göranson||Swedish Armed Forces||2010||For dedication and professionalism as supreme commander led the continuing transformation of the Swedish Armed Forces and the Swedish international operations.|
|General||Kenichiro Hokazono||Japan Air Self-Defense Force||January 22, 2010||Chief of Staff, Air Self Defense Force|
|Major General||Milinda Peiris RWP, RSP, USP||Sri Lanka Army||For service as military attaché to the Sri Lankan Embassy in the United States|
|General||Godfrey Ngwenya||South African Army||20 May 2010||for his leadership during a time of transition in the South African military and his countrys support of vital NATO peacekeeping operations in Sudan, Burundi and Congo|
|Vice Admiral||Russ Crane, AO, CSM, RAN||Royal Australian Navy||Chief of Navy|
|General||Yoshifumi Hibako||Ground Self-Defense Force||June 8, 2011||Chief of Staff|
|General||Edmund Entacher||Austrian Armed Forces||November 22, 2011||Chief of Staff|
|Major General||Ido Nehoshtan
||Israeli Air Force||15 April 2012||Chief of IAF|
|General||Ants Laaneots||Estonian Defence Forces||July 4, 2012||Former Commander-in-Chief|
|Lieutenant General||David Morrison, AO||Australian Army||2012||Chief of Army|
|General||David Hurley, AC, DSC||Australian Army||2012||Chief of the Defence Force|
|Colonel||Todd Balfe||Royal Canadian Air Force||June 5, 2012||For his exceptional devotion to duty, and his significant contributions both to the maintenance of North American air security as well as to the close relationship between United States and Canadian Forces in NORAD.|
|Colonel General||Tibor Benkő||Hungarian Ground Forces||September 4, 2012||Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces|
|Brigadier General||Abdulhalem k Mahafzah||Jordanian Air Force||2005|
|Vice Admiral||Paul Maddison||Royal Canadian Navy||26 April 2013||Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy|
|Vice Admiral||Ray Griggs, AO, CSC, RAN||Royal Australian Navy||May 2013||Chief of Navy|
Officer[edit | edit source]
- At the beginning of the North African campaign, General Lyman L. Lemnitzer accompanied General Mark Wayne Clark by submarine to North Africa. Upon arrival, about 60 officers were awarded the Legion of Merit and were among the first awarded the medal. By some misunderstanding as to the rules governing the awards, these 60 American officers were awarded the degree of Officer. According to Lemnitzer, President Roosevelt was quite annoyed but did not rescind the awards. These were the only U.S. officers (or service personnel of any rank) awarded the Legion of Merit with a degree.
- In 1945, Colonel Movlid Visaitov, commander of the 255th Separate Chechen-Ingush Cavalry Regiment and the 28th Guards Regiment. Visaitov was the first Soviet officer to shake hands with General Bolling at the Elbe River.
- Group Captain Harry Day, senior Officer at numerous POW camps during World War II, and significantly helped American POWs endure the captivity, as well as organizing escape operations. He received the award on July 5, 1946.
- In 1946, Commodore Alfred Victor Knight of the Royal Australian Navy was awarded the commendation for honorary services. The citation described him as a 'forceful leader' who, by his 'splendid co-operation in the conduct of a vital training programme, aggressive determination and untiring energies ... contributed materially to combined large-scale operations'.
- In 1947, Colonel Valentine Patrick Terrel Vivian head of counter-espionage, Section V, and Vice-Chief of the S.I.S. or MI6. The citation reads, as deputy director of a special British agency in the European Theater of Operations from January 1943 to June 1945, rendered exceptionally devoted and meritorious service to the Allied armies, by American forces in a special province of military operations, and continuing it through the long period of preparation for the Normandy invasion and during the march into Germany, Colonel Vivian made an outstanding contribution to Allied military and to the enemy's defeat.
- In 1948, then Brigadier General John Frederick Boyce Combe was made an Officer of the Legion for his contribution "to the over-all success Allied forces in Italy" during World War II.
- In 1948, Air Chief Marshal Donald Perera VSV, USP Sri Lanka Air Force
- In 1952, then Commander Emilio S. Liwanag of the Philippine Navy was made an Officer of the Legion of Merit for services in the Philippine liaison office with the United Nations Command during the Korean War.
- In 1960 Major General Mian Hayaud Din was made an Officer of the Legion for his role as Chief of the Pakistan Military Mission to the United States from 1955 to 1960.
- In 1996, Lieutenant General Roméo Dallaire of the Canadian Army was made an Officer of the Legion for his role as Commander of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the civil war and subsequent genocide.
- in 18 December 1980 Major General Shlomo Inbar, Israel Army was made an Officer of the Legion of Merit for his exceptionally meritorious conduct in the outstanding performance of duties as Defense and Armed Forces Attache, Embassy of Israel to the United States of America, from July 1977 to August 1980.
- In 1990, Colonel Stanisław Wożniak from Poland was made an Officer of the Legion of Merit for his exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services.
- In 2006, Lieutenant General Nick Houghton, British army, "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Iraq."
- Lieutenant General Tariq Khan became the fourth Pakistani officer to receive the award for meritorious services as a liaison officer at CENTCOM during Operations Enduring Freedom (December 9, 2007).
- In 2008, Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy Head of the Royal Air Force, for his part in Operation Telic / Operation Iraqi Freedom.
- Lieutenant General Sir James Dutton, Royal Marines, "in recognition of meritorious, gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Afghanistan".
- Major General Colin Boag, British Army, "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Iraq" (March 2008).
- Lieutenant General James Bucknall, British Army, "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Iraq" (July 2009).
- Major General Mohamed Elkeshky, Egyptian Army Defense, Military, Naval and Air Attaché to the United States. (2013)
Legionnaire[edit | edit source]
When the Legion of Merit is awarded to members of the Armed Forces of the United States it is awarded without reference to degree. The medal and ribbon of this forth degree (Legionnaire) is used for such purpose though.
References[edit | edit source]
- "Legion of Merit". Awards. Institute of Heraldry. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/legion_of_merit.aspx. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Air Force Personnel Center Legion of Merit
- 578.13 Legion of Merit
- Executive Order 9260 of October 29, 1942 http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=58838
- Keegan, John The Second World War Penguin Books: 1989, page 433 ISBN 978-0-14-303573-2
- Keegan, John The Second World War Penguin Books: 1989, page 421 ISBN 978-0-14-303573-2
- "No. 43434". 11 September 1964. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/43434/page/
- Congressional Record 103rd Congress (1993-1994). Page S12295
- Service Chiefs of India. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=k35_SlDMyUsC&pg=PA49&dq=legion+of+merit+india&hl=en&ei=msjITs6sOeOviQLCwp3ODw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=legion%20of%20merit%20india&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Admirals of the World. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=S1VimlFIjQoC&pg=PA85&dq=jal+cursetji&hl=en&ei=Hp_ITrH4HMiwiQKb-ezbDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jal%20cursetji&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "No. 36271". December 3, 1943. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/36271/page/
- "No. 36915". January 30, 1945. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/36915/page/
- "No. 54763". May 13, 1997. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/54763/page/
- Defence Honours Tribunal
- Bivera, Chief Photographer's Mate Johnny. "Adm. Vern Clark, Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), far right, presents Vice Adm. Yedidia Ya'ari, Commander in Chief, Israel Navy,". Navy News Service. http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=11068. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- "AF welcomes Japanese chief of staff". bolling.af.mil. August 20, 2008. http://www.bolling.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123111707&page=1.
- "Generalstabschef Entacher erhält hohe US-Auszeichnung". Austrian Armed Forces. http://www.bundesheer.at/cms/artikel.php?ID=5853. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- Katz, Yaakov. "IAF chief awarded Legion of Merit by USAF commander". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/Defense/Article.aspx?id=266073. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- "U.S. Legion of Merit presented to RCAF officer". Royal Canadian Air Force. http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/v2/nr-sp/index-eng.asp?id=12967. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- ""Legion of Merit" kitüntetést vehetett át dr. Benkő Tibor vezérezredes". honvedelem.hu. http://www.honvedelem.hu/cikk/33606. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "No. 37639". 2 July 1946. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37639/page/
- The National Archives. "Documents Online". http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?queryType=1&resultcount=1&Edoc_Id=7698915. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- "No. 37909". March 18, 1947. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37909/page/
- "No. 38405". 14 September 1948. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/38405/supplement/
- "Patrol gunboat is latest addition to Navy's inventory". January 2011. p. 4. http://www.navy.mil.ph/downloads/1303842941-PN%20newsletter_January%202011.pdf.
- World Who's who in Commerce and Industry, Volume 14. Chicago: Marquis-Who's Who.. 1965. p. 340.
- Carrey, N. "Interview with Senator Roméo Dallaire". National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3338181/. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "No. 58183". 15 December 2006. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/58183/page/
- "No. 59554". September 24, 2010. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/59554/page/
- "No. 58633". March 7, 2008. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/58633/page/
- "No. 59133". July 21, 2009. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/59133/page/
- History of the Medical Department of the United States Navy in World War II, A Compilation of the Killed, Wounded and Decorated Personnel, Navmed P-5021, Volume 2, p 112 “Legion of Merit”, U.S. Marine Corps, Department of the Navy, Headquarters United States Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. 20380-0001, FRFRP 12-12-II, “Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited”, PCN 140 121202 00, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office (1953)
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Legion of Merit (United States).|
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|