282,657 Pages

The Right Honourable
Lester B. Pearson
PC (UK) PC (Can) OM CC OBE M.A. (Oxon) LL.D.
Lester B. Pearson, 1944
14th Prime Minister of Canada

In office
22 April 1963 (1963-04-22) – 20 April 1968 (1968-04-20)
Monarch Elizabeth II
Preceded by John Diefenbaker
Succeeded by Pierre Trudeau
Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada

In office
16 January 1958 (1958-01-16) – 6 April 1968 (1968-04-06)
Preceded by Louis St. Laurent
Succeeded by Pierre Trudeau
Leader of the Opposition

In office
16 January 1958 (1958-01-16) – 22 April 1963 (1963-04-22)
Monarch Elizabeth II
Preceded by Louis St. Laurent
Succeeded by John Diefenbaker
8th Secretary of State for External Affairs

In office
10 September 1948 (1948-09-10) – 20 June 1957 (1957-06-20)
Prime Minister William Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent
Preceded by Louis St. Laurent
Succeeded by John Diefenbaker
Second Canadian Ambassador to the United States

In office
Prime Minister William Mackenzie King
Preceded by Leighton McCarthy
Succeeded by H. H. Wrong
8th President of the United Nations General Assembly

In office
Preceded by Luis Padilla Nervo
Succeeded by Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Algoma East

In office
25 October 1948 (1948-10-25) – 23 April 1968 (1968-04-23)
Preceded by Thomas Farquhar
Succeeded by None (district abolished)
Personal details
Born Lester Bowles Pearson
(1897-04-23)23 April 1897
Newtonbrook, Toronto, Ontario
Died 27 December 1972(1972-12-27) (aged 75)
Ottawa, Ontario
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Maryon Pearson
Children Geoffrey Pearson, Patricia Pearson
Alma mater University of Toronto (B.A.)
University of Oxford (B.A.)
University of Oxford (M.A.)
Profession Diplomat, Politician, Historian
Religion Methodist, then the United Church of Canada
Awards Nobel Prize for Peace (1957)

Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian professor, historian, civil servant, statesman, diplomat, and politician, who won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis. He was the 14th Prime Minister of Canada from 22 April 1963 to 20 April 1968, as the head of two back-to-back Liberal minority governments following elections in 1963 and 1965.

During Pearson's time as Prime Minister, his Liberal minority governments introduced universal health care, student loans, the Canada Pension Plan, the Order of Canada, and the new Flag of Canada. Pearson also convened the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, and he struggled to keep Canada out of the Vietnam War. In 1967, his government passed Bill C-168, which abolished capital punishment in Canada de facto - by restricting it to a few capital offenses for which it was never used, and which themselves were abolished in 1976. With these accomplishments, together with his groundbreaking work at the United Nations and in international diplomacy, Pearson is generally considered among the most influential Canadians of the 20th century.

Early years[edit | edit source]

Pearson was born in the town of Newtonbrook, Ontario, (now a part of Toronto), the son of Annie Sarah (née Bowles) and Edwin Arthur Pearson, a Methodist (later United Church of Canada) minister. He was the brother of Vaughan Whitier Pearson and Marmaduke Pearson.[1] Pearson graduated from Hamilton Collegiate Institute in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1913 at the age of 16. Later that same year, he entered Victoria College at the University of Toronto,[1] where he lived in residence in Gate House and shared a room with his brother Duke. He was later elected to the Pi Gamma Mu social sciences honour society's chapter at the University of Toronto for his outstanding scholastic performance in history and sociology. After Victoria College, Pearson won a scholarship to study at St John's College, Oxford.

Outstanding sportsman[edit | edit source]

At University of Toronto, he became a noted athlete, excelling in rugby union, and also playing basketball. He later also played for the Oxford University Ice Hockey Club while on a scholarship at the University of Oxford, a team that won the first Spengler Cup in 1923. Pearson also excelled in baseball and lacrosse as a youth, played golf and tennis as an adult, and as a result had the most intense and wide-ranging sporting interests of any Canadian Prime Minister. His baseball talents were strong enough for a summer of semipro play with the Guelph Maple Leafs of the Ontario Intercounty Baseball League.[2]

First World War[edit | edit source]

Pearson serving with the Canadian Army Medical Corps in World War I

When World War I broke out in 1914, Pearson volunteered for service as a medical orderly with the University of Toronto Hospital Unit. In 1915, he entered overseas service with the Canadian Army Medical Corps as a stretcher bearer with the rank of private, and was later commissioned as a lieutenant. During this period of service he spent two years in Egypt and in Greece. He also spent time in the Serbian Army as a corporal and a medical orderly.[3] In 1917, Pearson transferred to the Royal Flying Corps, since the Royal Canadian Air Force did not exist at that time, where he served as a flying officer until being sent home with injuries from two accidents. While studying as a flight studied at an air training school in Hendon, England, Pearson survived an aeroplane crash during his first flight. In 1918, Pearson was hit by a bus in London during a citywide blackout and he was sent home to recuperate, but then he was discharged from the service. It was as a pilot that he received the nickname of "Mike", given to him by a flight instructor who felt that "Lester" was too mild a name for an airman. Thereafter, Pearson would use the name "Lester" on official documents and in public life, but was always addressed as "Mike" by friends and family.[4]

Interwar years[edit | edit source]

After the war, he returned to school, receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Toronto in 1919. It was during this time that he joined the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. He was able to complete his degree after one more term, under a ruling in force at the time, since he had served in the military during the war. He then spent a year working in Hamilton and Chicago, in the meat-packing industry, which he did not enjoy. Upon receiving a scholarship from the Massey Foundation, he studied for two years at St John's College at the University of Oxford, where he received a B.A. degree with Second-Class honours in modern history in 1923, and the M.A. in 1925. After Oxford, he returned to Canada and taught history at the University of Toronto, where he also coached the Varsity Blues Canadian football team, and the Varsity Blues men's ice hockey team. In 1925, he married Maryon Moody (1901–89), who was one of his students at the University of Toronto. Together, they had one daughter, Patricia, and one son, Geoffrey.[2]

Diplomat[edit | edit source]

Pearson with John Ross McLean, Vincent Massey and Georges Vanier, Canada House, London.

Ice hockey in Europe; Oxford University vs. Switzerland, 1922. Future Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson is at right front. His nickname from the Swiss was "Herr Zig-Zag".

Lester B. Pearson quote on Peacekeeping Monument

In 1927, after scoring the top marks on the Canadian foreign service entry exam, he then embarked on a career in the Department of External Affairs.[2] Pearson was assigned to London in the late 1930s, and he served there during World War II from 1939 through 1942 as the second-in-command at Canada House, where he coordinated military supply and refugee problems, serving under High Commissioner Vincent Massey.[2] Pearson returned to Ottawa for a few months, where he was and assistant under secretary from 1941 through 1942.[5] In June 1942 he was posted to the Canadian Embassy in Washington, D.C., as a ministerial counselor.[5] He served as second-in-command for nearly two years. Promoted minister plenipotentiary, 1944, he became the second Canadian Ambassador to the United States on January 1, 1945. He remained in this position through September 1946.[2][5] Pearson had an important part in founding both the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.[6] During World War II, Pearson once served as a courier with the codename of "Mike." He went on to become the first director of signals intelligence.

Pearson nearly became the first Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1945, but this move was vetoed by the Soviet Union.[2]

The Canadian Prime Minister, William Mackenzie King, tried to recruit Pearson into his government as the war wound down. Pearson felt honoured by King's approach, but he resisted at the time, due to his personal dislike of King's poor personal style and political methods.[7] Pearson did not make the move into politics until a few years later, after King had announced his retirement as the Prime Minister of Canada.

Early political career[edit | edit source]

Pearson presiding at a plenary session of the founding conference of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization in 1945.

In 1948, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent appointed Pearson Secretary of State for External Affairs (foreign minister) in the Liberal government. Shortly afterward, he won a seat in the Canadian House of Commons, for the federal riding of Algoma East in northern Ontario.

Nobel Peace Prize[edit | edit source]

In 1957, for his role in resolving the Suez Crisis through the United Nations, Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The selection committee claimed that Pearson had "saved the world", but critics accused him of betraying the motherland and Canada's ties with the UK. The United Nations Emergency Force was Pearson's creation, and he is considered the father of the modern concept of peacekeeping. Leaders of the United States, France, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom (for best example) all had vested interests in the natural resources around the Suez Canal. Pearson was able to organize these leaders by way of a five-day fly-around, and was by effect responsible for the development of the structure for the United Nations Security Council. His Nobel medal is on permanent display in the front lobby of the Lester B. Pearson Building, the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade in Ottawa.

Party leadership[edit | edit source]

St. Laurent was defeated by the Progressive Conservatives under John Diefenbaker in the election of 1957. After just a few months as Leader of the Opposition, St. Laurent retired, and he endorsed Pearson as his successor. Pearson was elected leader of the Liberal Party at its leadership convention of 1958, defeating his chief rival, cabinet minister Paul Martin, Sr.

At his first parliamentary session as Opposition Leader, Pearson asked Diefenbaker to give power back to the Liberals without an election, because of a recent economic downturn. This strategy backfired when Diefenbaker showed a classified Liberal document saying that the economy would face a downturn in that year. This contrasted heavily with the Liberals' campaign promises of 1957.

Consequently, Pearson's party was badly routed in the federal election of 1958, losing over half their seats, while Diefenbaker's Conservatives won the largest majority ever seen in Canada to that point (208 of 265 seats). The election also cost the Liberals their stronghold in Quebec. This province had voted largely Liberal in federal elections since the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but Quebec had no favourite son leader, as it had had since 1948.

Pearson convened a significant "Thinkers' Conference" at Kingston, Ontario in 1960, which developed many of the ideas later implemented when he became the Prime Minister.[8]

In the federal election of 1962, Pearson's party reset the Tories as minority government.

Not long after the election, Pearson capitalized on the Conservatives' indecision on accepting American nuclear warheads on Canadian BOMARC missiles. Defence Minister Douglas Harkness resigned from Cabinet on February 4, 1963, because of Diefenbaker's opposition to accepting the warheads. On the next day, the government lost two nonconfidence motions on the issue, forcing a national election. In that election, the Liberals took 129 seats to the Tories' 95. Despite winning 41 percent of the vote, the Liberals came up five seats short of a majority largely because of winning just three seats on the Prairies. With the support of the New Democratic Party, Pearson won enough support to form a minority government, and he was sworn in as the Prime Minister on April 22, 1963.

Prime Minister[edit | edit source]

Statue on Parliament Hill grounds

File:Trudeau, Turner, Chretien, and Pearson.jpg

Pearson, and three of his cabinet ministers who later became Prime Ministers. From left to right, Pierre Trudeau, John Turner, Jean Chrétien, and Pearson.

Pearson campaigned during the election promising "60 Days of Decision" and support for the BOMARC surface-to-air missile program. Pearson never had a majority in the Canadian House of Commons, but he brought in many of Canada's major updated social programs, including universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, and he instituted a new national flag, the Maple Leaf flag. He also instituted the 40-hour work week, two weeks vacation time, and a new minimum wage.

On 15 January 1964, Pearson became the first Canadian Prime Minister to make an official state visit to France.[9]

Pearson signed the Canada-United States Automotive Agreement (or Auto Pact) in January 1965, and unemployment fell to its lowest rate in over a decade.[10] While in office, Pearson declined U.S. requests to send Canadian combat troops into the Vietnam War. Pearson spoke at Temple University in Philadelphia on April 2, 1965, while visiting the United States and voiced his support for a pause in the American bombing of North Vietnam, so that a diplomatic solution to the crisis may unfold. To President Lyndon B. Johnson, this criticism of American foreign policy on American soil was an intolerable sin. Before Pearson had finished his speech, he was summoned to Camp David, Maryland, to meet with Johnson the next day. Johnson, who was notorious for his personal touch in politics, reportedly grabbed Pearson by the lapels and shouted, "Don't you come into my living room and piss on my rug."[11][12] Pearson later recounted that the meeting was acrimonious, but insisted the two parted cordially. After this incident, L.B.J. and Pearson did have further contacts, including two more meetings together, both times in Canada[13] as the United States relied on Canada's raw materials and resources to fuel and sustain its efforts in the Vietnam War.[14] Canadians who were alive at the time often remember the Pearson years as a time when Canadian-American relations greatly improved.[citation needed]

Pearson also started a number of Royal Commissions, including the Royal Commission on the Status of Women and the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. These suggested changes that helped create legal equality for women, and brought official bilingualism into being. After Pearson's term in office, French was made an official language, and the Canadian government provided services in both English and French. Pearson himself had hoped that he would be the last unilingual Prime Minister of Canada and fluency in both English and French became an unofficial requirement for candidates for Prime Minister after Pearson left office.

Pearson's government endured significant controversy in Canada's military services throughout the mid-1960s, following the tabling of the White Paper on Defence in March 1964. This document laid out a plan to merge the Royal Canadian Navy, the Royal Canadian Air Force, and the Canadian Army to form a single service called the Canadian Forces. Military unification took effect on 1 February 1968, when The Canadian Forces Reorganization Act received Royal Assent.

Pearson has been credited with instituting the world's first race-free immigration system.[15] Credit for who created the policy, however, is disputed, and likely should be shared with John Diefenbaker.[16] Diefenbaker's government in 1962 introduced a new race-free policy; however, under the 1962 policy, Americans were still given an advantage.[17] It was in 1967 that Pearson introduced a discrimination-free points-based system which encouraged immigration to Canada, a forerunner of the system still in place today.

Pearson also oversaw Canada's centennial celebrations in 1967 before retiring. The Canadian news agency, The Canadian Press, named him "Newsmaker of the Year" that year, citing his leadership during the centennial celebrations, which brought the Centennial Flame to Parliament Hill.

Also in 1967, the President of France, Charles de Gaulle, made a visit to Quebec. During that visit, de Gaulle was a staunch advocate of Quebec separatism, even going so far as to say that his procession in Montreal reminded him of his return to Paris after it was freed from the Nazis during the Second World War. President de Gaulle also gave his "Vive le Québec libre" speech during the visit. Given Canada's efforts in aid of France during both world wars, Pearson was enraged. He rebuked de Gaulle in a speech the following day, remarking that "Canadians do not need to be liberated" and making it clear that de Gaulle was no longer welcome in Canada. The French President returned to his home country and would never visit Canada again.

Supreme Court appointments[edit | edit source]

Pearson chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General:

Retirement[edit | edit source]

Pearson's gravestone in Wakefield, Quebec

After his announcement on 14 December 1967, that he was retiring from politics, a leadership convention was held. Pearson's successor was Pierre Trudeau, whom Pearson had recruited and made Minister of Justice in his . Trudeau later became Prime Minister, and two other cabinet ministers Pearson had recruited, John Turner and Jean Chrétien, served as prime ministers in the years following Trudeau's retirement. Paul Martin Jr., the son of Pearson's minister of external affairs, Paul Martin Sr., also went on to become prime minister.

Pearson served as Chairman of the Commission on International Development (the Pearson Commission) which was sponsored by the World Bank from 1968-69. Immediately following his retirement, he lectured in History and Political Science at Carleton University while writing his memoirs. From 1970 to 1972 he served as the first Chairman of the Board of Governors of the International Development Research Centre. He then served as Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa from 1969 until his death in 1972. Pearson is buried at Maclaren Cemetery in Wakefield, Quebec (just north of Gatineau), next to his close External Affairs colleagues H. H. Wrong and Norman Robertson.

Honours and awards[edit | edit source]

  • Appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire[18]
  • Appointed to the Order of Merit by Queen Elizabeth II in 1971[19]
  • Elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1957.[20]
  • The Canadian Press named Pearson "Newsmaker of the Year" nine times, a record he held until his successor, Pierre Trudeau, surpassed it in 2000. He was also only one of two prime ministers to have received the honour both before and when prime minister (the other being Brian Mulroney).
  • Pearson was inducted into the Canadian Peace Hall of Fame in 2000.[21]
  • The Pearson Medal of Peace, first awarded in 1979, is an award given out annually by the United Nations Association in Canada to recognize an individual Canadian's "contribution to international service".
  • A plaque at the north end of the North American Life building in North York, placed by the Willowdale Federal Liberal Party Association commemorates the location where the manse in which Pearson was born previously stood.[22] Another plaque, placed by the Ontario Heritage Trust, is on the grounds of Newtonbrook United Church, the successor congregation to the one that owned the manse.[22][23]
  • In a survey by Canadian historians of the first 20 Prime Ministers through Jean Chrétien, Pearson ranked #6.[24]

Order of Canada Citation[edit | edit source]

Pearson was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada on 28 June 1968. His citation reads:[25]

Former Prime Minister of Canada. For his services to Canada at home and abroad.

Educational and academic institutions[edit | edit source]

Civic and civil infrastructure[edit | edit source]

Sports[edit | edit source]

Honorary degrees[edit | edit source]

Lester B. Pearson, Canadian Ambassador to the United States, at University of Toronto convocation, 1945

Lester B. Pearson received Honorary Degrees from 48 Universities, including:

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Pearson, Lester Bowles". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, 1971-1980 (Volume XX). University of Toronto/Université Laval. 2000. http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?BioId=42123. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 English (1989–1992), Volume I
  3. Politika (2008-11-16). "Najstarija plomba na svetu". http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Magazin/Najstarija-plomba-na-svetu.lt.html. Retrieved 2012-07-01. 
  4. "Biography". The Nobel Peace Prize 1957 - Lester Bowles Pearson. Nobel Foundation. 1957. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1957/pearson-bio.html. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 EncyclopediaCanadiana (1972)
  6. EncyclopediaCanadiana (1972). "He attended many international conferences and was active in the U.N. from its inception." and "He signed the North Atlantic Treaty for Canada in 1949 and represented his country at subsequent NATO Council meetings, acting as the chairman in 1951-52."
  7. Hutchison (1964)
  8. English, John (2006). Citizen of the World: The Life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Vol. I, 1919–1968. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada. ISBN 978-0-676-97521-5. OCLC 670444001. 
  9. "On This Day - Jan. 15, 1964 - First state visit to France by a Canadian PM". CBC Digital Archives. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/international-politics/general-23/first-state-visit-to-france-by-a-canadian-pm.html. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  10. "The Auto Pact: En Route to Free Trade". CBC Digital Archives. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/economy-business/trade-agreements/the-auto-pact-en-route-to-free-trade/the-end-of-an-era.html. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  11. "The Week". National Review. 23 December 2002. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-2286782/The-Week.html. Retrieved 4 February 2009. 
  12. FitzGerald, Frances (2004-08-08). "The View From Out There". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43737-2004Aug5.html. Retrieved 2011-08-29.  A book review of Lindaman, Dana; Ward, Kyle Roy (2004). History lessons : how textbooks from around the world portray U.S. history. New York City: The New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-894-8. OCLC 54096924. 
  13. "Presidential visits with heads of state and chiefs of government". Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum. http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/holdings/Findingaids/WHCF/COLIST.asp. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  14. Daume, Daphne; Watson, Louise, eds (1967). Britannica Book of the Year 1967. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. p. 191. OCLC 42780089. "Strong exports to the United States resulting from the mounting demands of the war in Vietnam, combined with a booming domestic market, made 1966 a year of impressive economic growth for Canada."  Also OCLC 19056858.
  15. Editorial Board (2009-11-03). "Racist immigration policy must change". http://www.mcgilldaily.com/2009/11/racist_immigration_policy_must_change/. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  16. Korski, Tom (2010-11-03). "Liberals abolished race-based immigration: Political myth". http://www.jewishtribune.ca/TribuneV2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3657&Itemid=38. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  17. McIntyre, Tobi (January/February 2001). "Visible majorities: History of Canadian immigration policy". Royal Canadian Geographical Society. ISSN 0706-2168. http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/jf01/culture_acts.asp. 
  18. Dale, William (Spring 2000). "On Lester "Mike" Pearson of Canada". http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/AD_Issues/amdipl_15/dale_pearson1.html. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  19. Palmer, Alan Warwick (1986). Who's Who in World Politics: From 1860 to the Present Day. London, New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13161-2. OCLC 33970883. 
  20. "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter P". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://www.amacad.org/publications/BookofMembers/ChapterP.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  21. "Canadian Peace Hall of Fame". Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace. http://www.peace.ca/CanadianPeaceHallOfFame.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Brown, Alan L. "The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Pearson, 1897-1972". Toronto's Historical Plaques. http://www.torontohistory.org/Pages_PQR/Right_Honourable_Lester_Pearson.html. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  23. "Right Honourable Lester Bowles Pearson 1897-1972, The". Plaque Information. Ontario Heritage Trust. http://www.heritagetrust.on.ca/Resources---Learning/Online-Plaque-Guide/Plaque-Information.aspx?searchtext=432. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  24. Hilmer, Granatstein (1999)
  25. "Lester B. Pearson, P.C., C.C., O.M., O.B.E., M.A., LL.D". Honours - Order of Canada. Governor General of Canada. 2009-04-30. http://archive.gg.ca/honours/search-recherche/honours-desc.asp?lang=e&TypeID=orc&id=2235. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  26. "History". Lester B. Pearson College. http://www.pearsoncollege.ca/history. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  27. "The Lester B. Pearson School Board". Lester B. Pearson School Board. Archived from the original on 2008-09-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20080930143328/http://www.lbpsb.qc.ca/isp/About%20Us. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  28. "Lester B. Pearson Civic Centre". City of Elliot Lake. http://www.cityofelliotlake.com/en/recleisure/civiccentre.asp. Retrieved 2010-10-15. 
  29. "Lester B. Pearson Place: A Project of NUC-TUCT Non-Profit Homes Corporation". Newtonbrook United Church. http://www.newtonbrookunitedchurch.ca/nuc-ministry/pearson-place/. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  30. "Lester B. Pearson Park". Corporation of the City of St. Catharines. 2010. http://www.stcatharines.ca/en/playin/LesterBPearsonPark.asp. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  31. "Lester B. Pearson, Class of 1919". Hall of Fame - Induction Class of 1987. University of Toronto Intercollegiate Athletics. http://www.varsityblues.ca/hof.aspx?hof=10. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  32. "Inductees". Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. 2009-06-20. http://www.baseballhalloffame.ca/inductees.html. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  33. – present.pdf [dead link]
  34. "Honorary Degree Recipients". Library.rochester.edu. 22 February 2007. http://www.library.rochester.edu/index.cfm?PAGE=1702. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  35. [1][dead link]
  36. "Bates College | Honorary Degrees, 1950-59". Bates.edu. http://www.bates.edu/x61666.xml. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  37. "Princeton - Honorary degrees Awarded". Princeton.edu. http://www.princeton.edu/pr/facts/honorary/#50. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  38. "University of British Columbia Library - University Archives". Library.ubc.ca. http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/honchron.html. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  39. "Honorary Graduates of Memorial University of Newfoundland 1960". Mun.ca. http://www.mun.ca/senate/Honorary_Degrees/honorary_degrees.html. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  40. "Johns Hopkins University | Commencement 2005". Jhu.edu. 19 May 2004. http://www.jhu.edu/news_info/news/commence05/honorary/alpha.html. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  41. [2][dead link]
  42. [3][dead link]
  43. http://web.archive.org/web/20060407235216/http://www.uwo.ca/univsec/senate/honorary_degrees_by_surname.pdf
  44. "Office of the President - Honorary degree recipients from 1961 to present". Oldwebsite.laurentian.ca. http://www.oldwebsite.laurentian.ca/president/index_e.php?file=honorary_e. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  45. "UofR General Calendar: The University of Regina". Uregina.ca. http://www.uregina.ca/gencal/gencal1999/uofr_history.html. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  46. "Honorary degree recipients :: University of Saskatchewan Archives". Usask.ca. http://www.usask.ca/archives/history/hondegrees.php?screen=advanced. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  47. "Convocation > McGill Facts and Institutional History > McGill History > Outreach". Archives.mcgill.ca. 24 March 2004. http://www.archives.mcgill.ca/public/hist_mcgill/conv/convocation.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  48. http://web.archive.org/web/20061023052147/http://www.queensu.ca/secretariat/HDrecipients.pdf
  49. "Dalhousie University". Convocation. http://convocation.dal.ca/history/08_honorary.html. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  50. [4][dead link]
  51. [5][dead link]

Further reading[edit | edit source]

  • Lester Pearson’s Peacekeeping: The Truth May Hurt by Yves Engler Publication Date: Feb 2012 Pages: 160

External links[edit | edit source]

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