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The White House, the president's official residence and center of the administration

Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected President more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the assumes the office. The President must be at least 35 years of age, has to live in the United States for 14 years, and has to be a "natural born" citizen of the United States.

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.[2] The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been 44 people sworn into office, and 45 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland serve4 two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[3] Zachary Taylor,[4] Warren G. Harding,[5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[6] James A. Garfield,[6][7] William McKinley,[8] and John F. Kennedy) and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[9]

George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office with 32 days in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest with over twelve years, but died shortly into his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. A constitutional amendment, affecting presidents after Harry Truman, was passed to limit the number of times an individual can be elected president. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president, was the first to be elected by men of all classes in 1828 after most laws barring non-land-owners from voting were repealed. Warren Harding was the first elected after women gained voting rights in 1920. History records four presidents – John Q. Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison and George W. Bush – who lost the popular vote but assumed office. John F. Kennedy has been the only president of Roman Catholic faith, and the current president, Barack Obama, is the first president of recent African descent.[10]

Presidents of the U.S. listed in a timeline graph of elections with results of the popular vote color coded for political parties.

A gray arrow points to the name of a person who became president without having been elected as president. The double arrow indicates becoming president without having been elected as vice president as well (Ford).


      No party       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican

Presidency[lower-alpha 1] President Party[lower-alpha 2] Election Vice President
1 April 30, 1789

March 4, 1797
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg George Washington Unaffiliated 1788–89 John Adams[lower-alpha 3]
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
John Adams, Gilbert Stuart, c1800 1815.jpg John Adams Federalist 1796 Thomas Jefferson[lower-alpha 4]
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson Democratic-
1800 Aaron Burr
1804 George Clinton[lower-alpha 5]
4 March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
James Madison.jpg James Madison Democratic-
1812 Elbridge Gerry[lower-alpha 5]
5 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
James Monroe White House portrait 1819.jpg James Monroe Democratic-
1816 Daniel D. Tompkins
6 March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
JQA Photo.tif John Quincy Adams Democratic-
Republican[lower-alpha 6]
1824 John C. Calhoun[lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 8]
National Republican
7 March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Andrew jackson head.jpg Andrew Jackson Democratic 1828
1832 Martin Van Buren
8 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Martin Van Buren edit.jpg Martin Van Buren Democratic 1836 Richard Mentor Johnson
9 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg William Henry Harrison[lower-alpha 5] Whig 1840 John Tyler
10 April 4, 1841[lower-alpha 9]

March 4, 1845
John Tyler, Jr.jpg John Tyler Whig[lower-alpha 10] rowspan=2 Template:CNone
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
JKP.jpg James K. Polk Democratic 1844 George M. Dallas
12 March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.jpg Zachary Taylor[lower-alpha 5] Whig 1848 Millard Fillmore
13 July 9, 1850[lower-alpha 11]

March 4, 1853
Fillmore.jpg Millard Fillmore Whig Template:CNone
14 March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Mathew Brady - Franklin Pierce - alternate crop (cropped).jpg Franklin Pierce Democratic 1852 William R. King[lower-alpha 5]
15 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan Democratic 1856 John C. Breckinridge
16 March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
Abraham Lincoln O-77 matte collodion print.jpg Abraham Lincoln[lower-alpha 12] Republican 1860 Hannibal Hamlin
National Union[lower-alpha 13] 1864 Andrew Johnson
17 April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg Andrew Johnson National Union[lower-alpha 14] rowspan=2 Template:CNone
18 March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Ulysses S Grant by Brady c1870-restored.jpg Ulysses S. Grant Republican 1868 Schuyler Colfax
1872 Henry Wilson[lower-alpha 5]
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes Republican 1876 William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg James A. Garfield[lower-alpha 15] Republican 1880 Chester A. Arthur
21 September 19, 1881[lower-alpha 16]

March 4, 1885
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur Republican Template:CNone
22 March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg Grover Cleveland Democratic 1884 Thomas A. Hendricks[lower-alpha 5]
23 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg Benjamin Harrison Republican 1888 Levi P. Morton
24 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg Grover Cleveland Democratic 1892 Adlai Stevenson I
25 March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
Mckinley.jpg William McKinley[lower-alpha 17] Republican 1896 Garret Hobart[lower-alpha 5]
1900 Theodore Roosevelt
26 September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.jpg Theodore Roosevelt Republican Template:CNone
1904 Charles W. Fairbanks
27 March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
William Howard Taft - Harris and Ewing.jpg William Howard Taft Republican 1908 James S. Sherman[lower-alpha 5]
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Thomas Woodrow Wilson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg Woodrow Wilson Democratic 1912 Thomas R. Marshall
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg Warren G. Harding[lower-alpha 5] Republican 1920 Calvin Coolidge
30 August 2, 1923[lower-alpha 18]

March 4, 1929
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777 (cropped).jpg Calvin Coolidge Republican Template:CNone
1924 Charles G. Dawes
31 March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
President Hoover portrait.jpg Herbert Hoover Republican 1928 Charles Curtis
32 March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
FDR 1944 Color Portrait.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt[lower-alpha 5] Democratic 1932 John Nance Garner
1940 Henry A. Wallace
1944 Harry S. Truman
33 April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
TRUMAN 58-766-06 CROPPED.jpg Harry S. Truman Democratic Template:CNone
1948 Alben W. Barkley
34 January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican 1952 Richard Nixon
35 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy[lower-alpha 19] Democratic 1960 Lyndon B. Johnson
36 November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson Democratic Template:CNone
1964 Hubert Humphrey
37 January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
Richard Nixon presidential portrait (1).jpg Richard Nixon[lower-alpha 8] Republican 1968 Spiro Agnew[lower-alpha 8]
Gerald Ford[lower-alpha 20]
38 August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
Gerald Ford presidential portrait.jpg Gerald Ford Republican Template:CNone
Nelson Rockefeller[lower-alpha 20]
39 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter Democratic 1976 Walter Mondale
40 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan Republican 1980 George H. W. Bush
41 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
George H. W. Bush presidential portrait (cropped).jpg George H. W. Bush Republican 1988 Dan Quayle
42 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton Democratic 1992 Al Gore
43 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush Republican 2000 Dick Cheney
44 January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama Democratic 2008 Joe Biden
45 January 20, 2017

January 20, 2021
Donald Trump official portrait.jpg Donald Trump Republican 2016 Mike Pence
46 January 20, 2021

Joe Biden official portrait 2013 cropped.jpg Joe Biden Democratic 2020 Kamala Harris Sources: [11][12][13]

Living former presidents[]

As of 2021, there are Five living former presidents:

President Term of office Date of birth
Jimmy Carter 1977–1981 October 1, 1924(1924-10-01) (age 97)
Bill Clinton 1993–2001 August 19, 1946(1946-08-19) (age 75)
George W. Bush 2001–2009 July 6, 1946(1946-07-06) (age 75)
Barack Obama 2009-2017 August 4, 1961(1961-08-04) (age 60)
Donald Trump 2016-2021 June 14, 1946(1946-06-14) (age 75)

The most recent death of a former president was that of George H.W. Bush (1989–93) on November 30, 2018, aged 94.

See also[]


{{Reflist| group="n"|30em| refs = <ref group="n" name="num"> For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes Acting President under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period. [n 1]

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  1. "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. "Excerpts from "Forgotten Presidents" – The Patriots Handbook, by George Grant". Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  3. Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 152. 
  4. Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  5. Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. p. 591. ISBN 0070543380. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  7. Donald (1996), p. 597.
  8. "Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination". Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  9. "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  10. "Obama wins historic US election". BBC. November 5, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  11. "Presidents". Washington, D.C.: White House. 
  12. "Chronological List of Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents of the United States". , Washington, D.C.: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. 
  13. Kelly, Martin (February 17, 2020). "Chart of the Presidents and Vice Presidents". New York, New York: Dotdash. 

External links[]

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  1. Unseated (lost re-election).
  2. Resigned.
  3. Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  4. Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  5. Broke (took a break), as opposed to retired, and sought re-election later for a non-consecutive term.
  6. Assassinated.
  7. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  8. Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  9. This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.
  10. Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.
  1. Presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. Reflects the president's political party at the start of their presidency. Changes during their time in office are noted. Also reflects the vice president's political party unless otherwise noted beside the individual's name.
  3. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction that became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States that were contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  4. The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Died in office of natural causes.
  6. Early during Adams' term the Democratic-Republican Party dissolved; his allies in Congress and at the state-level were referred to as "Adams' Men" during the Adams presidency. When Andrew Jackson became president in 1829, this group became the "Anti-Jackson" opposition, and organized themselves as the National Republican Party.
  7. John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Resigned from office
  9. John Tyler was sworn in as president on April 6, 1841.
  10. John Tyler was elected vice president on the Whig Party ticket in 1840. His policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  11. Millard Fillmore was sworn in as president on July 10, 1850.
  12. Died April 15, 1865; see Assassination of Abraham Lincoln for further details.
  13. When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  14. While president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  15. Died September 19, 1881; see Assassination of James A. Garfield for further details.
  16. Chester A. Arthur was initially sworn in as president on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
  17. Died September 14, 1901; see Assassination of William McKinley for further details.
  18. Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as president on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 21.
  19. Died November 22, 1963; see Assassination of John F. Kennedy for further details.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Appointed as vice president under terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Section 2.