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This article lists the South African military chiefs. From 1958 until the first post-apartheid general election in 1994, the present-day South African National Defence Force was known as the South African Defence Force. From 1912 to 1958, the military was known as the Union Defence Force.

In terms of section 202(1) of the Constitution of South Africa, the military command of the Defence Force consists of[1] the Chief of the Defence Force plus the Chiefs of the combat arms (Army, Air Force and Navy) as well as

  • the Surgeon-General of the South African Military Health Service;
  • the Chief of Joint Operations of the Defence Force;
  • the Chief of Defence Intelligence;
  • the Chief of Human Resources; and
  • the Chief of Logistics.

Head of the Defence Force[edit | edit source]

The Defence Force consists of the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Medical Service (which was renamed Military Health Service in 1998). The Chief of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the senior military commander and the chiefs of the four services, in addition to the chiefs of Joint Operations, Defence Intelligence, and Corporate Staff, report to him.[2] As of September 2018 the Chief of the SANDF is General Solly Shoke OMBG SBS MMS OMS.

Chief of the UDF[edit | edit source]

The Union Defence Force (UDF) consisted initially of land forces. An aviation corps was formed in 1915 and replaced by the South African Air Force in 1920. A naval branch was added in 1922, and the South African Division of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve was incorporated into it in 1942.

In 1951, the defence forces were reorganised into three distinct combat services: the South African Army, the South African Air Force, and the South African Navy. The organisation was renamed "South African Defence Force" in 1958.

The UDF had no overall commander for the first nine and a half years. From January 1922, the Chief of the General Staff, previously responsible only for the Defence Headquarters staff, was the executive commander of the UDF. The title was changed to 'Commandant General UDF' in September 1956.

Chief of the UDF Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Ref
1Brink, AndriesMajor general Andries Brink CBE DTD DSO
(1877–1947)
1 October 19221 May 193310 years, 212 days South Africa Army
2
Sir Pierre van Ryneveld KBE CB DSO MC
Ryneveld, PierreGeneral Sir Pierre van Ryneveld KBE CB DSO MC
(1891–1972)
2 May 19331 May 194915 years, 364 days South African Air Force[3]
3
Leonard Beyers
Beyers, LeonardLieutenant general Leonard Beyers
(1894–1959)
2 May 194915 March 1950317 days South Africa Army
4
Christiaan du Toit DSO
Toit, ChristiaanLieutenant general Christiaan du Toit DSO
(1901–1982)
16 March 195022 September 19566 years, 190 days South Africa Army
5
Hendrik Klopper DSO
Klopper, HendrikGeneral Hendrik Klopper DSO
(1903–1977)
23 September 195624 September 19582 years, 1 day South Africa Army
6
Stephen Melville SSA OBE
Melville, StephenGeneral Stephen Melville SSA OBE
(1904–1977)
25 September 195831 October 195836 days South African Air Force

Chief of the SADF[edit | edit source]

The UDF was renamed 'South African Defence Force' in November 1958.[4] The Commandant General's title was then changed to 'Commandant General SADF'. It was changed to 'Chief of the SADF' in July 1973, after Admiral Hugo Biermann assumed the post the year before. After South Africa's first democratic election, the South African Defence Force (SADF) became the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).

Chief of the SADF Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Ref
1
Stephen Melville SSA OBE
Melville, StephenGeneral Stephen Melville SSA OBE
(1904–1977)
1 November 195831 December 19602 years, 60 days South African Air Force
2
Pieter Grobbelaar SSA DSO
Grobbelaar, PieterGeneral Pieter Grobbelaar SSA DSO
(1908–1988)
1 January 196131 December 19654 years, 364 days South Africa Army
3
Rudolph Hiemstra SSA SM
Hiemstra, RudolphGeneral Rudolph Hiemstra SSA SM
(1912–2007)
1 January 196631 March 19726 years, 90 days South African Air Force
4
Hugo Biermann SSA SD OBE GCIH
Biermann, HugoAdmiral Hugo Biermann SSA SD OBE GCIH
(1916–2012)
1 April 197231 August 19764 years, 152 days South African Navy
5
Magnus Malan SSA OMSG SD SM
Malan, MagnusGeneral Magnus Malan SSA OMSG SD SM
(1930–2011)
1 September 19766 October 19804 years, 35 days South Africa Army
6Viljoen, ConstandGeneral Constand Viljoen SSA SD  SM MMM ORB
(born 1933)
7 October 198030 October 19855 years, 23 days South Africa Army[5]
7
Johannes Geldenhuys SSAS SD  SM GCIH ORB
Geldenhuys, JohannesGeneral Johannes Geldenhuys SSAS SD  SM GCIH ORB
(1935–2018)
1 November 198531 October 19904 years, 364 days South Africa Army
8
Andreas Liebenberg SSAS SD  SM MMM
Liebenberg, AndreasGeneral Andreas Liebenberg SSAS SD  SM MMM
(1938–1998)
1 November 199031 October 19932 years, 364 days South Africa Army
9
Georg Meiring SSAS SD SM MMM ORB
Meiring, GeorgGeneral Georg Meiring SSAS SD SM MMM ORB
(born 1939)
1 November 199330 April 1994180 days South Africa Army

Chief of the SANDF[edit | edit source]

The SADF amalgamated with the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA), Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), and the homeland defence forces to form the South African National Defence Force in 1994. The SANDF was based on the existing SADF structure of Army, Air Force, Navy, and Medical Service (which was renamed Military Health Service in 1998).

Chief of the SANDF Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Ref
1
Georg Meiring SSAS SD SM MMM ORB
Meiring, GeorgGeneral Georg Meiring SSAS SD SM MMM ORB
(born 1939)
27 April 199431 May 19984 years, 34 days South Africa Army
2
Siphiwe Nyanda SSA SBS CLS DMG MMS MMM
Nyanda, SiphiweGeneral Siphiwe Nyanda SSA SBS CLS DMG MMS MMM
(born 1950)
1 June 199831 May 20056 years, 364 days South Africa Army
3
Godfrey Ngwenya SBG DMG MMS LOM
Ngwenya, GodfreyGeneral Godfrey Ngwenya SBG DMG MMS LOM
(born 1950)
1 June 20051 May 20115 years, 334 days South Africa Army
4
Solly Shoke OMBG SBS MMS OMS
Shoke, SollyGeneral Solly Shoke OMBG SBS MMS OMS
(born 1956)
2 May 2011Incumbent9 years, 208 days South Africa Army[6]


Chief of the Army[edit | edit source]

The Chief of the South African Army is the professional head of the Army. There was no separate army commander until 1948. The post was called 'Director-General of Land Forces'[7] 1948–51 and 'Army Chief of Staff' 1951–66, and has been 'Chief of the Army' since 1966.

Chief of the Army Took office Left office Time in office Ref
1
Christiaan du Toit DSO
du Toit, ChristianBrigadier Christiaan du Toit DSO
(1901–1982)
10 November 194815 March 19501 year, 125 days[7][8]:92
2
Hendrik Klopper DSO
Klopper, HendrikBrigadier Hendrik Klopper DSO
(1903–1977)
16 March 195030 April 19533 years, 45 days[8]:94
3
Pieter Grobbelaar SSA DSO
Grobbelaar, PieterMajor general Pieter Grobbelaar SSA DSO
(1908–1988)
1 May 195324 September 19585 years, 146 days[8]:93
4
Nick Bierman SSA SM CBE
Bierman, NickMajor general Nick Bierman SSA SM CBE
(1910–1977)
25 September 195831 October 19591 year, 36 days[8]:89
5
Sybrand Engelbrecht SM
Engelbrecht, SybrandMajor general Sybrand Engelbrecht SM
(1913–1994)
1 November 19593 March 19633 years, 122 days[8]:92
6
Petrus Jacobs SSA SM
Jacobs, PetrusMajor general Petrus Jacobs SSA SM
(1910–1967)
4 March 196331 December 19652 years, 302 days[8]:93
7
Charles 'Pop' Fraser SSA SM
Fraser, CharlesLieutenant general Charles 'Pop' Fraser SSA SM
(1915–1994)
1 January 196630 November 19671 year, 333 days[8]:92
8
Willem Louw SSA SM
Louw, WillemLieutenant general Willem Louw SSA SM
(1920–1980)
1 December 196730 June 19735 years, 211 days[8]:94
9
Magnus Malan SSA OMSG SD SM
Malan, MagnusLieutenant general Magnus Malan SSA OMSG SD SM
(1930–2011)
1 July 197331 August 19763 years, 61 days[8]:95
10Viljoen, ConstandLieutenant general Constand Viljoen SSA SD  SM MMM ORB
(born 1933)
1 September 19766 October 19804 years, 30 days
11
Johannes Geldenhuys SSA SD  SM MMM GCIH ORB
Geldenhuys, JohannesLieutenant general Johannes Geldenhuys SSA SD  SM MMM GCIH ORB
(1935–2018)
7 October 198030 October 19855 years, 23 days[8]:92
12
Andreas Liebenberg SSAS SD  SM MMM
Liebenberg, AndreasLieutenant general Andreas Liebenberg SSAS SD  SM MMM
(1938–1998)
1 November 198528 February 19904 years, 119 days
13
Georg Meiring SSA SD SM MMM ORB
Meiring, GeorgLieutenant general Georg Meiring SSA SD SM MMM ORB
(born 1939)
1 March 199031 October 19933 years, 244 days
14
Hattingh Pretorius SD SM MMM
Pretorius, HattinghLieutenant general Hattingh Pretorius SD SM MMM
(1942–2008)
1 November 199331 December 19941 year, 60 days
15
Reginald Otto SD & Bar SM MMM
Otto, ReginaldLieutenant general Reginald Otto SD & Bar SM MMM
(born 1943)
1 January 199530 June 19983 years, 180 days
16Ramano, GilbertLieutenant general Gilbert Ramano SSAS SD MMS MMM MMB
(born 1939)
1 July 199831 May 20045 years, 335 days
17
Solly Shoke OMBG SBS MMS OMS
Shoke, SollyLieutenant general Solly Shoke OMBG SBS MMS OMS
(born 1956)
1 June 20041 May 20116 years, 334 days
18
Vusumuzi Masondo MMM
Masondo, VusumuziLieutenant general Vusumuzi Masondo MMM
(born 1957)
1 October 201131 January 20164 years, 122 days[9]
19
Lindile Yam
Yam, LindileLieutenant general Lindile Yam
(born 1960)
1 February 2016Incumbent4 years, 299 days[10]

Lieutenant general Werndly van der Riet spent some time acting as Head of the Army.[8]:98


Chief of the Air Force[edit | edit source]

The Chief of the South African Air Force is the professional head of the Air Force. The post was called 'Director of Air Services' 1920–33, 'Director of Air & Technical Services' 1937–39, 'Director-General of Air Services' 1939–41, 'Director-General of the Air Force' 1941–51, and 'Air Chief of Staff' 1951–66, and has been 'Chief of the Air Force' since 1966.

Chief of the Air Force Took office Left office Time in office Ref
1
Sir Pierre van Ryneveld KBE CB DSO MC
van Ryneveld, PierreColonel Sir Pierre van Ryneveld KBE CB DSO MC
(1891–1972)
1 February 192030 September 193717 years, 241 days[11]
2
Francis Hoare CB CBE
Hoare, FrancisColonel Francis Hoare CB CBE
(1879–1959)
1 October 193731 October 193730 days
3
Hector Daniel CBE MC AFC
Daniel, HectorLieutenant colonel Hector Daniel CBE MC AFC
(1898–1953)
1 November 193712 September 19392 years, 41 days
4
John Holthouse OBE
Holthouse, JohnColonel John Holthouse OBE
(1891–1964)
13 September 193930 September 19401 year, 17 days
5
Christoffel Venter CB DFC & bar
Venter, ChristoffelMajor general Christoffel Venter CB DFC & bar
(1892–1977)
1 October 194016 October 19455 years, 15 days
6
Harold Willmott CBE
Willmott, HaroldBrigadier Harold Willmott CBE
(1899–1993)
17 October 194510 September 1946328 days
7
James 'Jimmy' Durrant CB DFC
Durrant, JimmyBrigadier James 'Jimmy' Durrant CB DFC
(1913–1990)
1 October 194630 June 19514 years, 272 days
(6)
Harold Willmott CBE
Willmott, HaroldBrigadier Harold Willmott CBE
(1899–1993)
1 July 195124 August 19543 years, 54 days
8
Stephen Melville SSA OBE
Melville, StephenBrigadier Stephen Melville SSA OBE
(1904–1977)
25 August 195422 September 19562 years, 28 days
9
Barend Viljoen SSA OBE
Viljoen, BarendMajor general Barend Viljoen SSA OBE
(1908–1995)
23 September 195630 April 19658 years, 219 days
10
Henry 'Kalfie' Martin SM CBE DFC
Martin, KalfieLieutenant general Henry 'Kalfie' Martin SM CBE DFC
(1910–2000)
1 May 196530 November 19672 years, 213 days
11
Jacobus Verster SSA SM
Verster, JacobusLieutenant general Jacobus Verster SSA SM
(1919–1981)
1 December 196728 February 19757 years, 89 days
12
Robert 'Bob' Rogers SSA SM MMM DSO DFC & bar
Rogers, BobLieutenant general Robert 'Bob' Rogers SSA SM MMM DSO DFC & bar
(1921–2000)
1 March 197530 November 19794 years, 274 days
13
Michal Muller SSAS SD
Muller, MichalLieutenant general Michal Muller SSAS SD
(born 1930)
1 December 197929 February 19844 years, 90 days
14
Denis Earp SSA SD SM 
Earp, DenisLieutenant general Denis Earp SSA SD SM 
(born 1930)
1 March 198430 June 19884 years, 121 days
15
Jan van Loggerenberg SSAS SD  SM MMM ORB
van Loggerenberg, JanLieutenant general Jan van Loggerenberg SSAS SD  SM MMM ORB
(born 1935)
1 July 198831 October 19913 years, 122 days
16
James Kriel SSAS SD SM MMM
Kriel, JamesLieutenant general James Kriel SSAS SD SM MMM
(1942–2016)
1 November 199130 April 19964 years, 181 days
17
Willem Hechter SSA SD SM MMM
Hechter, WillemLieutenant general Willem Hechter SSA SD SM MMM
(born 1942)
1 May 199629 February 20003 years, 304 days[11]
18
Roelf Beukes SD SM MMM
Beukes, RoelfLieutenant general Roelf Beukes SD SM MMM1 March 200028 February 20054 years, 364 days
19
Carlo Gagiano SM MMM
Gagiano, CarloLieutenant general Carlo Gagiano SM MMM
(born 1951)
1 March 200530 September 20127 years, 213 days
20
Fabian Msimang SM MMM
Msimang, FabianLieutenant general Fabian Msimang SM MMM
(born 1960)
1 October 2012Incumbent8 years, 56 days[12]

Chief of the Navy[edit | edit source]

The Chief of the South African Navy is the professional head of the Navy. The post was called 'Officer Commanding South African Naval Service' 1922–32, 'Director, Seaward Defence Force' 1940–42, 'Director, South African Naval Forces' 1942–51, 'Naval & Marine Chief of Staff' 1951–55, and 'Naval Chief of Staff' 1955–66, and has been 'Chief of the Navy' since 1966.

Chief of the Navy Took office Left office Time in office Ref
1
Norman Rankin
Rankin, NormanCommander Norman Rankin1 April 19223 June 19286 years, 63 days
2
Robert F.U.P. Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, RobertCommander Robert F.U.P. Fitzgerald4 June 19284 November 19324 years, 153 days
Position of the Chief of the Navy did not exist from 1932–39[lower-alpha 1]
3
Guy Hallifax CMG
Hallifax, GuyRear admiral Guy Hallifax CMG
(1884–1941)
16 September 193928 March 1941 †1 year, 193 days
4
James Dalgleish CBE
Dalgleish, JamesCommodore James Dalgleish CBE
(1891–1964)
28 March 194130 November 19465 years, 247 days
5
Frederick Dean OBE
Dean, FrederickCommodore Frederick Dean OBE
(1900–1983)
1 December 194630 June 19514 years, 211 days
6de Waal, PieterBrigadier Pieter de Waal CB CBE
(1899–1977)
1 July 195130 November 19521 year, 152 days
7
Hugo Biermann SSA SD OBE GCIH
Biermann, HugoVice admiral Hugo Biermann SSA SD OBE GCIH
(1916–2012)
1 December 195231 March 197219 years, 121 days
8
James 'Flam' Johnson SSA SM DSC
Johnson, JamesVice admiral James 'Flam' Johnson SSA SM DSC
(1918–1990)
1 April 197230 September 19775 years, 182 days
9
Johan Charl Walters SD SM MMM
Walters, Johan CharlVice admiral Johan Charl Walters SD SM MMM
(1919–1993)
1 October 197730 January 19802 years, 121 days
10
Ronald A. Edwards SSAS SM MMM
Edwards, Ronald A.Vice admiral Ronald A. Edwards SSAS SM MMM
(1923–2014)
1 February 198030 September 19822 years, 241 days
11
Andries P 'Dries' Putter SSAS SD MMM
Putter, AndriesVice admiral Andries P 'Dries' Putter SSAS SD MMM
(1935–2014)
1 October 198230 June 19852 years, 272 days
12Syndercombe, GlenVice admiral Glen Syndercombe SSA SD  SM MMM
(1931–2005)
1 July 198531 March 19893 years, 273 days
(11)
Andries P 'Dries' Putter SSAS SD MMM
Putter, AndriesVice admiral Andries P 'Dries' Putter SSAS SD MMM
(1935–2014)
1 April 198930 June 19901 year, 90 days
13
Lambert J 'Woody' Woodburne DVR SD SM
Woodburne, LambertVice admiral Lambert J 'Woody' Woodburne DVR SD SM
(1939–2013)
1 July 199031 August 19922 years, 61 days
14Simpson-Anderson, RobertVice admiral Robert Simpson-Anderson SSAS SD SM MMM
(born 1942)
1 September 199231 October 20008 years, 60 days
15Retief, JohanVice admiral Johan Retief SD & Bar PG SM MMM
(born 1946)
1 November 200028 February 20054 years, 119 days
16
Refiloe Johannes Mudimu CLS DMG SM MMS MMM MMB
Mudimu, Refiloe JohannesVice admiral Refiloe Johannes Mudimu CLS DMG SM MMS MMM MMB
(born 1954)
1 March 200531 March 20149 years, 30 days[13]
17
Samuel Hlongwane MMS MMB
Hlongwane, SamuelVice admiral Samuel Hlongwane MMS MMB
(born 1962)
1 April 2014Incumbent6 years, 239 days


Surgeon General[edit | edit source]

The Surgeon General is the Chief of the South African Military Health Service (SAMHS), which was known as the South African Medical Service (SAMS) before 1994.

Surgeon General Took office Left office Time in office Ref
South African Medical Service
1
Eugene Raymond SSA SM
Raymond, EugeneMajor general Eugene Raymond SSA SM
(born 1923)
1 February 196031 March 19699 years, 58 days
2
Colin Cockcroft SSA SM
Cockcroft, ColinLieutenant general Colin Cockcroft SSA SM
(1917–1987)
1 April 196931 October 19778 years, 213 days
3
Nicolaas Nieuwoudt SSA SD SM
Nieuwoudt, NicolaasLieutenant general Nicolaas Nieuwoudt SSA SD SM
(1929–1989)
1 November 197729 February 198810 years, 120 days
4
Daniel Knobel SD  SM MMM KStJ   
Knobel, DanielLieutenant general Daniel Knobel SD  SM MMM KStJ   
(born 1936)
1 March 198827 April 19946 years, 57 days
South African Military Health Service
1
Daniel Knobel SD  SM MMM KStJ   
Knobel, DanielLieutenant general Daniel Knobel SD  SM MMM KStJ   
(born 1936)
27 April 199430 November 19973 years, 217 days
2
Davidson Masuku SSAS MMM KStJ
Masuku, DavidsonLieutenant general Davidson Masuku SSAS MMM KStJ
(1940–2000)
1 December 199730 September 20002 years, 334 days[14]
3
Jurinus Janse van Rensburg SD SM MMM KStJ
Rensburg, Jurinus JanseLieutenant general Jurinus Janse van Rensburg SD SM MMM KStJ
(born 1952)
1 October 200031 July 20054 years, 303 days
4
Vejaynand Ramlakan DMG MMS MMB KStJ
Ramlakan, VejaynandLieutenant general Vejaynand Ramlakan DMG MMS MMB KStJ
(born 1957)
1 August 200531 March 20137 years, 242 days
5
Aubrey Sedibe DMG MMS MMB OStJ   
Sedibe, AubreyLieutenant general Aubrey Sedibe DMG MMS MMB OStJ   
(born 1957)
1 April 2013Incumbent7 years, 239 days

Chief of Joint Operations[edit | edit source]

Chief of Joint Operations Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Ref
1
Deon Ferreira PVD SD SM MMM
Ferreira, DeonLieutenant general Deon Ferreira PVD SD SM MMM
(1946–2002)
1 August 199731 December 20003 years, 152 days South Africa Army
2
Godfrey Ngwenya SBG DMG MMS LOM
Ngwenya, GodfreyLieutenant general Godfrey Ngwenya SBG DMG MMS LOM
(born 1950)
1 January 200131 May 20054 years, 150 days South Africa Army
3
Sipho Binda MMS
Binda, SiphoLieutenant general Sipho Binda MMS
(1952–2006)
1 June 200510 November 2006 †1 year, 162 days South Africa Army[15]
4
Themba Matanzima CCM SM MMM
Matanzima, ThembaLieutenant general Themba Matanzima CCM SM MMM
(born 1953)
1 September 200730 September 20114 years, 29 days South Africa Army
5
Derrick Mgwebi
Mgwebi, DerrickLieutenant general Derrick Mgwebi
(born 1956)
1 October 201131 January 20164 years, 122 days South Africa Army[9]
6
Duma Mdutyana MMB
Mdutyana, DumaLieutenant general Duma Mdutyana MMB
(1960–2016)
1 February 20166 July 2016 †156 days South Africa Army[16]
7
Barney Hlatshwayo
Hlatshwayo, BarneyLieutenant general Barney Hlatshwayo
(born 1958)
1 January 2017Incumbent3 years, 330 days South Africa Army

Chief of Corporate Staff[edit | edit source]

The Chief of Corporate Staff is responsible for the provision of all staff services for the SANDF.[17]

Chief of Corporate Staff Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Ref
1
Martyn Trainor SD SM MMM
Trainor, MartynVice admiral Martyn Trainor SD SM MMM
(born 1944)
1 October 200031 January 20043 years, 122 days South African Navy
2
Themba Matanzima CCM SM MMM
Matanzima, ThembaLieutenant general Themba Matanzima CCM SM MMM
(born 1953)
1 February 200431 July 20051 year, 180 days South Africa Army
3
Jurinus Janse van Rensburg SD SM MMM KStJ
Rensburg, Jurinus JanseLieutenant general Jurinus Janse van Rensburg SD SM MMM KStJ
(born 1952)
1 August 200530 April 20104 years, 272 daysSouth African Military Health Service
Louis Dlulane
Dlulane, LouisMajor general Louis Dlulane (Acting)
(born 1952)
1 May 201030 March 20132 years, 333 days South Africa Army[18]
4
Vejaynand Ramlakan DMG MMS MMB KStJ
Ramlakan, VejaynandLieutenant general Vejaynand Ramlakan DMG MMS MMB KStJ
(born 1957)
1 April 201331 May 20152 years, 60 daysSouth African Military Health Service[18]
5
Vusumuzi Masondo MMM
Masondo, VusumuziLieutenant general Vusumuzi Masondo MMM
(born 1957)
1 February 2016Incumbent4 years, 299 days South Africa Army[18]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. During this period, the Navy disposed of its ships and reduced personnel to a few administrative staff due to the Great Depression.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Chapter 1 : Introductory Provisions 4A. Military Command of Defence Force". Defence Act (Act No. 42 of 2002). Parliament of South Africa. 2002. 
  2. Defence Act (Act No. 42 of 2002). Parliament of South Africa. 2002. 
  3. Ellis, Johan (2000). "Oswald Pirow's Five-Year Plan for the Reorganisation of the Union Defence Force, 1933–1938". http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/175/221. 
  4. http://www.dod.mil.za/documents/acts/defence%20act44of1957.pdf
  5. Hamann, Hilton (2001). "Introduction". Days of the Generals. Cape Town: Zebra Press (Struck Publishers). ISBN 1-86872-340-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=mYgWcHq8lE8C. 
  6. "Chief of the SANDF, General S. Shoke". Department of Defence. http://www.dod.mil.za/csandf/chief.htm. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lillie, Ashley C. (2012). "The Origin and Development of the South African Army". Digital object identifier:10.5787/12-2-618. ISSN 2224-0020. 
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 Nöthling, C.J.; Meyers, E.M. (1982). "LEIERS DEUR DIE JARE (1912-1982)" (in Afrikaans). pp. 89–98. Digital object identifier:10.5787/12-2-631. ISSN 2224-0020. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "SANDF support to Springbok". http://www.dod.mil.za/news/news%202011/September2011/springbok.htm. 
  10. "Yam takes over from Masondo as Army Chief". DefenceWeb. 19 January 2016. http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=42023:yam-takes-over-from-masondo-as-army-chief&catid=111:sa-defence&Itemid=242. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Fact file: Chiefs of the SA Air Force". DefenceWeb.co.za. 21 January 2010. http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=724:fact-file-chiefs-of-the-sa-air-force&catid=35:Aerospace&Itemid=107. Retrieved July 24, 2014. 
  12. "Lt General Msimang Takes Over Command Of SAAF". http://www.af.mil.za/news/2012/046_2012.html. 
  13. Helfrich, Kim (23 January 2014). "Hlongwane named new Navy Chief". Defenceweb. http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=33322:hlongwane-named-new-navy-chief&catid=55:SANDF&Itemid=108. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  14. Leon Engelbrecht (26 November 2008). "Fact file: Surgeons General". defenceweb.co.za. http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=776&catid=47:Logistics&Itemid=110. 
  15. "Binda had a long and distinguished military career". Sowetan. November 24, 2006. http://www.sowetanlive.co.za/sowetan/archive/2006/11/24/binda-had-a-long-and-distinguished-military-career. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  16. "Head of SANDF joint operations, Duma Mdutyana dies". ENCA. July 6, 2016. https://www.enca.com/south-africa/head-of-sandf-joint-operations-duma-mdutyana-dies. Retrieved July 6, 2016. 
  17. "Defence Amendment Bill 2002". https://www.parliament.gov.za/storage/app/media/Docs/bill/387426_1.pdf. Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "New Chief of Corporate Staff Services for SANDF". DefenceWeb. 22 March 2013. http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=29920:new-chief-of-corporate-staff-services-for-sandf&catid=111:sa-defence&Itemid=242. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 

{{Wikipedia|List of South African military chiefs

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