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Aircraft carriers are warships that act as airbases for carrier-based aircraft. In the United States Navy, these consist of ships commissioned with hull classification symbols CV (aircraft carrier), CVA (attack aircraft carrier), CVB (large aircraft carrier), CVL (light aircraft carrier), CVN (aircraft carrier (nuclear propulsion)) and CVAN (attack aircraft carrier (nuclear propulsion)). Beginning with the Forrestal-class, (CV-59 to present) all carriers commissioned into service are classified as supercarriers. The United States Navy has also used escort aircraft carriers and airship aircraft carriers. This list does not include various amphibious warfare ships which can operate as carriers.

The first aircraft carrier commissioned into the United States Navy was USS Langley (CV-1) on 20 March 1922. The Langley was a converted Proteus-class collier (originally commissioned as USS Jupiter (AC-3),[1] Langley was soon followed by the Lexington-class, USS Ranger (the first purpose-built carriers in the American fleet), the Yorktown-class, and USS Wasp.[2] These classes made up the entirety of the United States carrier fleet active prior to and during the Second World War.[3]

With World War II looming, two more classes of carriers were commissioned under President Franklin Roosevelt, the Essex-class, which in divided into regular bow and extended bow sub-classes and the Independence-class, which are classified as light aircraft carriers.[4] Between these two classes, 35 ships were created.[5] During this time, the Navy also purchased two training vessels, USS Wolverine and USS Sable.[6][7]

The Cold War led to multiple developments in the United States' carrier fleet, starting with the addition of the Midway-class and the Saipan-class.[8] One more class in the start of the Cold War, the United States-class, was canceled due to the Truman administration's policy of shrinking the United States Navy and in particular, the Navy's air assets. The policy was eventually revised after a public outcry and Congressional hearings sparked by the Revolt of the Admirals.[9]

Later in the Cold War era, the first of the classes dubbed "supercarriers" was born, starting with USS Forrestal (CV-59),[10] followed by the Kitty Hawk-class and single ships Enterprise (CVN-65), the first nuclear powered carrier and John F. Kennedy (CV-67), the last conventionally powered carrier. These were then followed by the Nimitz-class and the post-cold war Gerald R. Ford-class nuclear supercarriers, the only classes that are currently in active-duty service.[11] The ten-ship Nimitz-class is complete, while USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), the lead ship of her planned ten-ship class, is the only ship active so far, with construction started on two more ships, John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) and Enterprise (CVN-80).[12][13]

ListEdit

#[14] Name[14] Image Class Commissioned[2] Decommissioned[2] Service life Status[2] Refs.
CV-1 Langley USS Langley (CV-1) underway in June 1927 (520809) Langley
(lead ship)
20 March 1922 27 February 1942 19 years, 11 months and 7 days Scuttled and Sunk 65 nm south of Cilacap, Java [15][16][17]
CV-2 Lexington USS Lexington (CV-2) leaving San Diego on 14 October 1941 (80-G-416362) Lexington
(lead ship)
14 December 1927 8 May 1942 14 years, 4 months and 24 days Sunk in the Battle of the Coral Sea [17][18]
CV-3 Saratoga USS Saratoga (CV-3) underway, circa in 1942 (80-G-K-459) Lexington 16 November 1927 26 July 1946 18 years, 8 months and 12 days Sunk in Operation Crossroads as a nuclear test target near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean [17][19]
CV-4 Ranger USS Ranger (CV-4) underway at sea during the later 1930s Ranger
(lead ship)
4 June 1934 18 October 1946 12 years, 4 months and 14 days Scrapped in 1947 in Chester, Pennsylvania [20]
CV-5 Yorktown USS Yorktown (CV-5) Jul1937 Yorktown
(lead ship)
30 September 1937 7 June 1942 4 years, 8 months and 8 days Sunk in the Battle of Midway [21]
CV-6 Enterprise USS Enterprise (CV-6) in Puget Sound, September 1945 Yorktown 12 May 1938 17 February 1947 8 years, 9 months and 5 days Scrapped in 1960 [22]
CV-7 Wasp USS Wasp (CV-7) entering Hampton Roads on 26 May 1942 Wasp
(lead ship)
25 April 1940 15 September 1942 2 years, 4 months and 21 days Sunk during the Guadalcanal campaign [23]
CV-8 Hornet Aft view of USS Hornet (CV-8), circa in late 1941 (NH 81313) Yorktown 20 October 1941 26 October 1942 1 year and 6 days Sunk in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands [24][25]
CV-9 Essex USS Essex (CV-9) in Hampton Roads on 1 February 1943 (NNAM.1996.488.242.078) Essex
(lead ship)
31 December 1942 20 June 1969 26 years, 5 months and 20 days Scrapped in 1975 [26]
CV-10 Yorktown USS Yorktown (CVS-10) at sea off Hawaii, circa in 1962 (NH 97458-KN) Essex 15 April 1943 27 June 1970 27 years, 2 months and 12 days Preserved at the Patriot's Point Naval & Maritime Museum—Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, USA [27]
CV-11 Intrepid USS Intrepid (CV-11) operating in the Philippine Sea in November 1944 (NH 97468) Essex 16 August 1943 15 March 1974 30 years, 6 months and 27 days Preserved at the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum—New York, New York, USA [28]
CV-12 Hornet USS Hornet (CVS-12) underway at sea on 9 August 1968 (USN 1116887) Essex 20 November 1943 26 May 1970 26 years, 6 months and 6 days Preserved at USS Hornet Museum—Alameda, California, USA [29]
CV-13  Franklin USS Franklin (CV-13) underway at sea on 1 August 1944 (80-G-367248) Essex 31 January 1944 17 February 1947 2 years, 11 months and 17 days Scrapped in 1966 [30]
CV-14 Ticonderoga USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14) refueling from USS Ashtabula (AO-51) off Vietnam c1966 Essex (extended bow) 8 May 1944 1 September 1973 29 years, 3 months and 24 days Scrapped in 1975 [31]
CV-15 Randolph USS Randolph (CVS-15) underway on 25 October 1959 (USN 1059601) Essex (extended bow) 9 October 1944 13 February 1969 24 years, 4 months and 4 days Scrapped in 1975 [32]
CV-16 Lexington USS Lexington (CVS-16) underway in the 1960s Essex 17 February 1943 8 November 1991 48 years, 8 months and 22 days Preserved at USS Lexington Museum On the Bay— Corpus Christi, Texas, USA [33][34]
CV-17 Bunker Hill USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) at sea in 1945 (NH 42373) Essex 25 May 1943 9 July 1947 4 years, 1 month and 14 days Scrapped in 1973 [35][36][37]
CV-18 Wasp USS Wasp (CVS-18) underway at sea, circa in early 1967 (NH 97509) Essex 24 November 1943 1 July 1972 28 years, 7 months and 7 days Scrapped in 1973 [38]
CV-19 Hancock USS Hancock (CVA-19) off Pearl Harbor 1968 Essex (extended bow) 15 April 1944 30 January 1976 31 years, 9 months and 15 days Scrapped in 1976 [39]
CV-20 Bennington USS Bennington (CVS-20) underway at sea on 5 March 1965 (NH 97581) Essex 6 August 1944 15 January 1970 25 years, 5 months and 9 days Scrapped in 1994 [40]
CV-21 Boxer USS Boxer (CVA-21) underway off Korea in July 1953 Essex (extended bow) 16 April 1945 1 December 1969 24 years, 7 months and 15 days Scrapped in 1971 [41][42]
CVL-22 Independence USS Independence (CVL-22) in San Francisco Bay on 15 July 1943 (80-G-74436) Independence
(lead ship)
14 January 1943 28 August 1946 3 years, 7 months and 14 days Scuttled in 1951 [43]
CVL-23 Princeton USS Princeton (CVL-23) underway in Puget Sound on 3 January 1944 (NH 95651) Independence 25 February 1943 24 October 1944 1 year, 7 months and 29 days Sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf [2]
CVL-24 Belleau Wood USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) underway on 22 December 1943 (NH 97269) Independence 31 March 1943 13 January 1947 3 years, 9 months and 13 days Scrapped in 1960 [2]
CVL-25 Cowpens USS Cowpens (CVL-25) at sea on 31 August 1944 Independence 28 May 1943 13 January 1947 3 years, 7 months and 16 days Scrapped in 1960 [2]
CVL-26 Monterey USS Monterey (CVL-26) in Gulf of Mexico Independence 17 June 1943 16 January 1956 12 years, 6 months and 30 days Scrapped in 1971 [2]
CVL-27 Langley USS Langley (CVL-27) underway off Cape Henry on 6 October 1943 (80-G-87113) Independence 31 August 1943 11 February 1947 3 years, 5 months and 11 days Scrapped in 1964 [2]
CVL-28 Cabot USS Cabot (CVL-28) Independence 24 July 1943 21 January 1955 11 years, 5 months and 28 days Scrapped in 2002 [2]
CVL-29 Bataan USS Bataan (CVL-29) underway at sea in January 1952 Independence 17 November 1943 9 April 1954 10 years, 4 months and 23 days Scrapped in 1961 [44]
CVL-30 San Jacinto USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) underway at sea on 23 January 1944 (80-G-212799) Independence 15 December 1943 1 March 1947 3 years, 2 months and 14 days Scrapped 1972
CV-31 Bon Homme Richard USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) underway c1956 Essex 26 November 1944 2 July 1971 26 years, 7 months and 6 days Scrapped in 1992 [45]
CV-32 Leyte USS Leyte (CV-32) with F9Fs Essex (extended bow) 11 April 1946 15 May 1959 13 years, 1 month and 4 days Scrapped in 1970
CV-33 Kearsarge USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) crew spells out 'Mercury 9' on the flight deck on 15 May 1963 (GPN-2000-001403) Essex (extended bow) 2 May 1946 15 January 1970 23 years, 8 months and 13 days Scrapped in 1974 [46]
CV-34 Oriskany USS Oriskany (CVA-34) near Midway Atoll 1967 Essex (extended bow) 25 September 1950 20 September 1979 28 years, 11 months and 26 days Scuttled as an artificial reef in the Gulf of Mexico in 2006
CV-35 Reprisal CV-35 Reprisal Essex (extended bow) n/a n/a n/a Cancelled during construction.
Scrapped in 1949
[47]
CV-36 Antietam USS Antietam (CVS-36) operating training aircraft on 19 April 1961 (KN-4834) Essex (extended bow) 28 January 1945 8 May 1963 18 years, 3 months and 10 days Scrapped in 1974 [48]
CV-37 Princeton USS Princeton (LPH-5) underway at sea, circa 1965 (NNAM.1996.488.060.030) Essex (extended bow) 18 November 1945 30 January 1970 24 years, 2 months and 12 days Scrapped in 1971
CV-38 Shangri-la USS Shangri-La (CV-38) underway in the pacific, 1946 Essex (extended bow) 15 September 1944 30 July 1971 26 years, 10 months and 15 days Scrapped in 1988 [49]
CV-39 Lake Champlain USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39) underway in February 1965 (USN 1114106) Essex (extended bow) 3 July 1945 2 May 1966 20 years, 9 months and 29 days Scrapped in 1972
CV-40 Tarawa USS Tarawa (CVA-40) underway at sea on 18 December 1952 Essex (extended bow) 8 December 1945 13 May 1960 14 years, 5 months and 5 days Scrapped in 1968
CVB-41 Midway USS Midway (CVA-41) in the Pacific Ocean on 30 November 1974 (NH 97633) Midway
(lead ship)
10 September 1945 11 April 1992 46 years, 7 months and 1 day Preserved at the USS Midway Museum—San Diego, California, USA [50]
CVB-42 Franklin D. Roosevelt USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) Sep 1967 Midway 27 October 1945 1 October 1977 31 years, 11 months and 4 days Scrapped in 1978 [51]
CVB-43 Coral Sea USS Coral Sea (CV-43) underway at sea in 1986 Midway 1 October 1947 26 April 1990 42 years, 6 months and 25 days Scrapped in 1993 [52]
CV-44 No name assigned (no image available) Midway n/a n/a n/a Cancelled before construction began. [53]
CV-45 Valley Forge USS Valley Forge (LPH-8) underway in the Pacific Ocean, circa 1962-63 (NH 96946) Essex
(extended bow)
3 November 1946 15 January 1970 23 years, 2 months and 12 days Scrapped in 1971
CV-46 Iwo Jima CV-46 Iwo Jima Essex (extended bow) n/a n/a n/a Cancelled during construction.
Scrapped in 1946
[54]
CV-47 Philippine Sea USS Philippine Sea (CVA-47) underway at sea on 9 July 1955 (80-G-K-18429) Essex (extended bow) 11 May 1946 28 December 1958 12 years, 7 months and 17 days Scrapped in 1971
CVL-48 Saipan USS Saipan (CVL-48) underway c1955 Saipan
(lead ship)
14 July 1946 14 January 1970 23 years and 6 months Scrapped in 1976
CVL-49 Wright USS Wright (CVL-49) underway in the early 1950s Saipan 9 February 1947 15 March 1956 9 years, 1 month and 6 days Scrapped in 1980 [2]
CVB-50
to
CVB-55
No names were assigned (no images available) Midway These hulls were all cancelled before construction began.[53]
CV-56
&
CV-57
No names were assigned (no images available) Essex These hulls were both cancelled before construction began.[53]
CVA-58 United States Artist's impression of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS United States (CVA-58) in October 1948 United States
(lead ship)
n/a n/a n/a Cancelled only 5 days after keel began to be laid. [55]
CV-59 Forrestal USS Forrestal (CVA-59) underway at sea on 31 May 1962 (KN-4507) Forrestal
(lead ship)
1 October 1955 30 September 1993 37 years, 11 months and 29 days Scrapped in 2014 [56][57]

[58] [59]

CV-60 Saratoga USS Saratoga (CV-60) underway in the Adriatic Sea on 29 July 1992 (6480624) Forrestal 14 April 1956 20 August 1994 38 years, 4 months and 6 days Scrapped in 2015 [60]
CV-61 Ranger USS Ranger (CV-61) departing San Diego, in February 1987 (NH 97689-KN) Forrestal 10 August 1957 10 July 1993 35 years and 11 months Scrapped in 2017 [61]
CV-62 Independence USS Independence (CV-62) at sea during the later 1980s or early 1990s (NH 97715) Forrestal 10 January 1959 30 September 1998 39 years, 8 months and 20 days Sold for scrapping [62]
CV-63 Kitty Hawk USS Kitty Hawk CV-63 Kitty Hawk
(lead ship)
29 April 1961 12 May 2009 48 years and 13 days Struck, to be scrapped [63]
CV-64 Constellation USS Constellation (CV-64) off Perth, Australia, on 29 April 2003 Kitty Hawk 27 October 1961 7 August 2003 41 years, 9 months and 11 days Scrapped in 2015 [64]
CVN-65 Enterprise USS Enterprise (CVN-65) Enterprise
(lead ship)
25 November 1961 3 February 2017 55 years, 2 months and 9 days Scrapped 2017 [65]
CV-66 America USS America (CV-66) underway in the Indian Ocean on 24 April 1983 Kitty Hawk 23 January 1965 9 August 1996 31 years, 6 months and 17 days Sunk as target in 2005 [66]
CV-67 John F. Kennedy USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) departs Naval Station Mayport on 11 November 2003 John F. Kennedy
(lead ship)
7 September 1968 23 March 2007 38 years, 6 months and 16 days On hold for donation [67]
CVN-68 Nimitz USS Nimitz (CVN-68) Nimitz
(lead ship)
3 May 1975
44 years, 5 months and 12 days Stationed at Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington [68]
CVN-69 Dwight D. Eisenhower US Navy 000722-N-7412M-005 USS Eisenhower ^ USS George Washington Nimitz 18 October 1977
41 years, 11 months and 27 days Stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia [69]
CVN-70 Carl Vinson USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) underway in the Pacific Ocean on 31 May 2015 Nimitz 13 March 1982
37 years, 7 months and 2 days Stationed at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California [70][71]
CVN-71 Theodore Roosevelt USS Theodore Roosevelt operations 150322-N-ZF573-140 Nimitz 25 October 1986
32 years, 11 months and 20 days Stationed at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California [72]
CVN-72 Abraham Lincoln USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) underway in the South China Sea on 8 May 2006 (060508-N-4166B-030) Nimitz 11 November 1989
29 years, 11 months and 4 days Stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia [73]
CVN-73 George Washington Starboard bow view of USS George Washington (CVN-73) in formation with Japanese and American ships during ANNUALEX 2008 081119-N-8842M-182 Nimitz 4 July 1992
27 years, 3 months and 11 days Stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia [74]
CVN-74 John C. Stennis USS John C. Stennis, 2007May11 Nimitz 9 December 1995
23 years, 10 months and 6 days Stationed at Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington [75]
CVN-75 Harry S. Truman 030117-N-9851B-027 USS Harry Truman alongside Military Sealift Command ship USNS Spica (T-AFS 9) Nimitz 25 July 1998
21 years, 2 months and 20 days Stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia [76]
CVN-76 Ronald Reagan USSRONALDREAGANgoodshot Nimitz 12 July 2003
16 years, 3 months and 3 days Stationed at Yokosuka Naval Base, Yokosuka, Japan [77]
CVN-77 George H.W. Bush US Navy 110129-N-3885H-158 USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) is underway in the Atlantic Ocean Nimitz 10 January 2009
10 years, 9 months and 5 days Stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia [78]
CVN-78 Gerald R. Ford USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) underway on 8 April 2017 Gerald R. Ford
(lead ship)
22 July 2017
2 years, 2 months and 23 days Stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia [79]
CVN-79 John F. Kennedy Illustration of USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) (110623-N-ZZ999-203) Gerald R. Ford ~2020
Keel laid; Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia [12][80]
CVN-80 Enterprise USS Enterprise (CVN-80) artist depiction Gerald R. Ford ~2025
Steel cutting and fabrication; Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia [12][13][81]
CVN-81 Unnamed Bow view of USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) underway on 8 April 2017 Gerald R. Ford ~2030
Ordered [12]
Keys
  •    ships currently out of service
  •    ships cancelled prior to completion
  •    ships currently in active service
  •    ships currently under construction
  •    ships currently on order

Training shipsEdit

During World War II, the United States Navy purchased two Great Lakes side-wheel paddle steamers and converted them into freshwater aircraft carrier training ships. Both vessels were designated with the hull classification symbol IX (Unclassified Miscellaneous) and lacked hangar decks, elevators or armaments. The role of these ships was for the training of pilots for carrier take-offs and landings.[82] Together the Sable and Wolverine trained 17,820 pilots in 116,000 carrier landings. Of these, 51,000 landings were on Sable.[83]

# Name Image Class Commissioned Decommissioned Service life Status Refs.
IX-64 Wolverine USS Wolverine (IX-64) Lake Michigan 1943 n/a
(converted side-wheel steamer)
12 August 1942 7 November 1945 3 years, 2 months and 26 days Scrapped in 1947 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States [2][14]
IX-81 Sable USS Sable (IX-81) n/a
(converted side-wheel steamer)
8 May 1943 7 November 1945 2 years, 5 months and 30 days Scrapped in 1948 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [2][14]

Aircraft-carrier museumsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "USS Langley (CV-1 & AV-3)". http://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/us-navy-ships/aircraft-carriers/uss-langley--cv-1---av-3-.html. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Petty, Dan. "The US Navy Aircraft Carriers". http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ships/carriers/cv-list.asp. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  3. "World War I Centenary: Aircraft Carriers". https://online.wsj.com/ww1/aircraft-carriers. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  4. "Aircraft Carriers in World War II - Engineering and Technology History Wiki". http://ethw.org/Aircraft_Carriers_in_World_War_II. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  5. Pike, John. "CV-9 ESSEX Class". http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/cv-9.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  6. "Western New York Heritage Press". Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081005094315/http://wnyheritagepress.org/photos_week_2005/greater_buffalo/greater_buffalo.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  7. Pike, John. "IX-64 Wolverine". http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/ix-64.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  8. "CV-41 MIDWAY class - Navy Ships". http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/cv-41.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  9. Pike, John. "CVA 58 United States". http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/cva-58.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  10. "CV-59 FORRESTAL class - Navy Ships". http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/cv-59.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  11. Petty, Dan. "The US Navy -- Fact File: Aircraft Carriers - CVN". http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=4200&tid=200&ct=4. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 O'Rourke, Ronald (12 June 2015). "Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RS20643.pdf. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "USS Enterprise: Past Present And Future". The Official US Navy Blog. US Navy. http://navylive.dodlive.mil/?p=14424. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "USN Aircraft Carriers Throughout History". http://www.militaryfactory.com/ships/us-navy-aircraft-carriers.asp. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  15. Kaplan, Phillip (2013). Naval Air: Celebrating a Century of Naval Flying. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-78159-241-0. 
  16. Roscoe, Theodore (1953). United States Destroyer Operations In World War II. Annapolis: United States Naval Academy. ISBN 0-87021-726-7. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "Board for selling doomed warships". 1922-05-03. ISSN 0362-4331. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B01EFD71739EF3ABC4B53DFB3668389639EDE. 
  18. "NH 61245". http://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nhhc-series/nh-series/NH-61000/NH-61245.html. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  19. Australia, The. "From Hermes To Saratoga - Diving two aircraft carriers within two months - The Scuba Doctor". https://www.scubadoctor.com.au/article-hermes-to-saratoga.htm. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  20. "USS Ranger (CV-4) - History, Specs and Pictures - Navy Ships". http://www.militaryfactory.com/ships/detail.asp?ship_id=USS-Ranger-CV4. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  21. "USS Yorktown (CV 5)". United States Navy. 11 June 2009. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/nav_legacy.asp?id=14. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  22. "Specifications and Armament". http://www.cv6.org/ship/big_e.htm. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  23. "Aircraft Carrier Photo Index: USS WASP (CV-7)". http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/07.htm. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  24. "CV-8 Brief History - WORLD WAR II - Aircraft Carrier USS Hornet Museum". http://www.uss-hornet.org/history/wwii/briefhistory.shtml. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  25. "USS Hornet CV-8". http://www.its.caltech.edu/~drmiles/cv-8.html. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  26. "Essex". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS9.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  27. "Yorktown". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS10.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  28. "Intrepid". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS11.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  29. "Hornet". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS12.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  30. "Franklin". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CV13.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  31. "Ticonderoga". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS14.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  32. "Randolph". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS15.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  33. "USS Lexington (CV 16)". http://navysite.de/cv/cv16.htm. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  34. "USS Lexington (CV-16) Deployments & History". http://www.hullnumber.com/CV-16. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  35. "Bunker Hill I (CV-17)". http://www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/b/bunker-hill-i.html. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
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  37. "Aircraft Carrier Photo Index: USS BUNKER HILL (CV-17)". http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/17.htm. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  38. "Wasp". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS18.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  39. "Hancock". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CV19.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  40. "Bennington". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS20.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  41. "USS BOXER (CV-21) Deployments & History". http://www.hullnumber.com/CV-21. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  42. "USS Boxer (CV 21)". http://www.navysite.de/cv/cv21.htm. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  43. "Welcome Aboard The USS Independence CVL-22 Official Site". http://www.cvl-22.com/history.html. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  44. "USS Bataan (CVL-29)". United States Navy. 12 June 2009. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/nav_legacy.asp?id=46. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  45. "Bon Homme Richard". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVA31.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  46. "Kearsarge". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS33.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  47. "CV=35". navsource,org. https://www.navsource.org/archives/02/35.htm. Retrieved 21 December 2017. 
  48. "Antietam". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS36.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  49. "Shangri-la". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CVS38.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  50. "Midway". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CV41.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  51. "Franklin D. Roosevelt". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CV42.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  52. "Coral Sea". http://www.nvr.navy.mil/NVRSHIPS/DETAILS/CV43.HTM. Retrieved 2015-06-21. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". https://www.navsource.org/archives/02idx.htm. 
  54. "CV-46". navsource.org. https://www.navsource.org/archives/02/46.htm. Retrieved 21 December 2017. 
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