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Coalition forces in Iraq (2004-04-30)

Areas of responsibility in Iraq as of 30 April 2004

During the early occupation, a number of widely cited humanitarian, tactical, and political errors by coalition planners, particularly the United States and United Kingdom led to a growing armed resistance, usually called the "Iraqi insurgency" (referred to by the mainstream media and coalition governments). The anti-occupation/anti-coalition forces are believed to be predominantly, but not exclusively, Iraqi Sunni Muslim Arabs, plus some foreign Arab and Muslim fighters, some of the latter tied to al-Qaeda. Several minor coalition members have pulled out of Iraq; this has been widely considered a political success for the anti-occupation forces.

Despite this, there was a reduction in violence throughout Iraq in the start of 2004 due to reorganization within the insurgent forces. During this time the tactics used by coalition forces were studied and the insurgency began to plan a new strategy. The calm did not last long however and once the insurgency had regained its footing attacks resumed and increased. Throughout the remainder of 2004 and continuing into the present day, the insurgency has employed bombings as their primary means of combating the coalition forces. This has led to hundreds of Iraqi civilians and police killed in addition to the coalition forces they were fighting. Many were killed in a series of massive bombings at mosques and shrines throughout Iraq. The bombings indicated that as the relevance of Saddam Hussein and his followers was diminishing, radical Islamists, both foreign and Iraqi was increasing to take their place. An organized Sunni insurgency, with deep roots and both nationalist and Islamist motivations, was becoming clear. The Mahdi Army also began launching attacks on coalition targets and to seize control from the Iraqi security forces. The southern and central portions of Iraq began to erupt in urban guerilla combat as coalition forces attempted to keep control and prepared for a counteroffensive.

In response to insurgent attacks, coalition forces focused on hunting down the remaining leaders of the former regime, culminating in the shooting deaths of Saddam's two sons in July. In all, over 200 top leaders of the former regime were killed or captured, as well as supports and military personnel during the summer of 2004.

2004 military operationsEdit

Battle/Operation name From date To date Location Purpose and result
Battle of Fallujah (2004) 4 April 2004 1 May 2004 Fallujah (See Operation Vigilant Resolve)
Battle of Husaybah 17 April 2004 17 April 2004 Husaybah Five Marines were killed along with 150 insurgents in the fierce battle that lasted 14 hours. Another 9 Marines were wounded and 20 insurgents captured.
Battle of Mosul 10 November 2004 16 November 2004 Mosul Was a battle fought during the Iraq War in 2004 for the capital of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq that occurred concurrently to fighting in Fallujah.
Battle of Najaf (2004) 5 August 2004 27 August 2004 Najaf Was a battle that was fought between U.S. and Iraqi forces, and the Islamist Mahdi Army of Muqtada al-Sadr
Battle of Ramadi (2004) 6 April 2004 10 April 2004 Ramadi An estimated 250 rebels were killed in fighting that shattered the insurgent offensive
CIMIC-House 5 August 2004 28 August 2004 Al Amarah Was a siege fought between UK forces, and the Islamist Mahdi Army of Muqtada al-Sadr. An estimated 200+ insurgents were killed.
Operation Aloha March 2004 March 2004 Kirkuk American anti-insurgent sweep. Elements of the 25th Infantry Division surrounded an area in late March 2004 and sent patrols to conduct searches for weapons. The troopers knocked on doors to ask permission to search. This was a change from earlier more-aggressive techniques. The name of the operation is a traditional Hawaiian greeting. The 25th Infantry Division has long been based in that state.[1]
Operation Army Santa November 2004 November 2004 Operation Arrowhead Strike 10 5 May 2004 6 May 2007 Baghdad, the southwestern Rashid District To rid the Rashid District of terrorists and criminals and to protect the population[2]
Operation Backbreaker 21 December 2004 22 December 2004 Buhriz A project to fortify a new police station as well as the Governor’s mansion just down the road
Operation Backpack October 2004 October 2004 Baqubah Taking 200 backpacks filled with school supplies to school children
Operation Baton Rouge 1 December 2004 4 December 2004 Samarra The operation resulted in about 125 rebels killed and 88 were being detained[3]
Operation Black Typhoon 9 September 2004 14 September 2004 Tal Afar All the enemy insurgents had either been killed or fled the city[3]
Operation Blue Tiger 2004 2004 [3]
Operation Bulldog 6 October 2004 2004 Ar-Ramadi Was designed to re-establish peace and stability by denying sanctuary to insurgents, capturing enemy personnel, and seize any weapons caches[3]
Operation Cajun Mousetrap II 5 August 2004 August 2004 Samarra Some small arms were found and at least three rebels were killed while nine people were detained and transferred for further questioning.[3]
Operation Cajun Mousetrap III 13 August 2004 15 August 2004 Samarra Troops utilized targeted raids against enemy personnel who were destabilizing the city and an estimated 45 insurgents were killed.[3]
Operation Centaur Fast Gas 15 January 2004 19 January 2004 Ba’qubah Provide security for the gas station, help manage the lines in order to facilitate maximum efficiency of the gas station, and prevent unauthorized gas pilferage
Operation Centaur Rodeo March 2004 March 2004 Baqubah Designed to slow the smuggling of illegal weapons in Baqubah's Diyala Governorate capital. As of 30 March 2004 coalition forces had seized 3 people and several weapons.[4][1]
Operation Centaur Strike II 11 October 2004 11 October 2004 Baqubah Was designed to seize insurgent equipment caches in hopes of disrupting terrorist activity before the Ramadan.[3]
Operation Centaur Strike III 13 October 2004 13 October 2004 Baqubah Was designed to seize insurgent equipment caches in hopes of disrupting terrorist activity before the Ramadan.[3]
Operation Clean Sweep 23 August 2004 24 August 2004 Baghdad, southern portion Raided 350 houses and detained 49 suspects[3]
Operation Clothes for Kids 13 January 2004 14 January 2004 Taji An effort to bring clothing to needy Iraqi children
Operation Cobra Sweep 28 July 2004 28 July 2004 Baghdad, in the Hay Muthana district Was designed to cordon, search, and seize bomb makers, materials and potential storage places[3]
Operation Crayon 21 October 2004 21 October 2004 Kirkuk Was a charitable program that provided schools the pencils, crayons, papers and other materials necessary to teach children
Operation Dallas 29 October 2004 29 October 2004 Mosul Was designed to increase security by performing cordon and knocks throughout the community[3]
Operation Danger Fortitude 11 April 2004 17 April 2004 Najaf, about 20 km northwest of was designed establish and occupy FOB Duke[1]
Operation Dawn (Al Fajr) 8 November 2004 8 November 2004 Fallujah The elimination of Fallujah as a terrorist safe haven[5]
Operation Devil Clinch 21 February 2004 21 February 2004 Baghdad Was designed as a series of raids to capture suspected insurgents[1]
Operation Devil Thrust March 2004 March 2004 The operation consists of three phases. The first phase is surveillance and reconnaissance, the 2nd was combat operations and the 3rd was stabiliztion[1]
Operation Disarm 19 May 2004 19 May 2004 Baghdad The program used funds earmarked for tips leading to the capture of insurgents or illegal weapons and offers up to $500 per weapon, depending on type. Included in the final tally were more than 80 AK-47 rifles, mortars, mines and grenades.[1]
Operation Diyala Border Police Audit 26 May 2004 June 2004 Muntheria To verify the accuracy and legitimacy of the Diyala Border Polices’ financial and payroll records just northeast of Kanaqan
Operation Diyala Sunrise 2004 2004
Operation Dragon Victory 19 June 2004 19 June 2004 Najaf Support and counterinsurgency: Was designed to provide relief in place of the 2nd Armored Cavalry and to provide logistical support for Task Force Danger and continue to sustain combat operations.[1]
Operation Duke Fortitude April 2004 April 2004 Fallujah The operation was designed to capture or kill elements of the Mahdi army and Muqtada Al-Sadr[1]
Operation Duke Fury 3 November 2004 3 November 2004 Fallujah To search for weapons caches and suspected insurgents[5]
Operation Duliyah Sunrise 28 October 2004 28 October 2004 Ad Duluiyah A raid on an upscale neighborhood to search for insurgent materials
Operation Eagle Liberty 3 18 February 2004 19 February 2004 Bilad Targeted individuals who were suspected of attacking forward operating bases in the area. 16 targets and 3 enemy personnel were detained[1]
Operation Falcon Freedom 5 December 2004 5 December 2004 Al Rashid District A joint U.S.-Iraqi cordon-and-search operation were several weapons caches were discovered[3]
Operation Final Cut 28 January 2004 February 2004 Bayji Was designed to capture or eliminate people suspected of insurgent activity[1]
Operation Gimlet Crusader 24 June 2004 24 June 2004 Kirkuk Was aimed at disrupting insurgents and their attacks on multinational forces[1]
Operation Gimlet Silent Sniper July 2004 July 2004 Kirkuk Engaged in multiple searches and raids looking to capture or kill cell leaders[1]
Operation Gimlet Victory 2004 2004
Operation Giuliani June 2004 June 2004 Mosul Was designed to seize weapons and munitions to prevent them from being used against coalition forces[1]
Operation Grizzly Forced Entry 21 August 2004 21 August 2004 Najaf Was designed as a search and seizure operation of high value targets suspected of attacking coalition forces[3]
Operation Haifa Street July 2004 July 2004 Baghdad Was specifically designed as a large raid focused on criminals and criminal activity in Baghdad[3]
Operation Hickory View March 2004 March 2004 Helped eliminate many of the established indirect fire patterns, which insurgents had used[6]
Operation Hurricane September 2004 September 2004 Ramadi Resulted in the detention of four suspected insurgents, the removal of 6 bombs and the confiscation of bomb making materials, including cell phone parts[3]
Operation Hurricane II 18 September 2004 18 September 2004 Ramadi To disrupt the Daham terrorist network and to discover and remove illegal weapons and ammunition caches in the city.[3]
Operation I CAN 2004 2004 throughout Iraq Soldiers distributed over 100 boxes of donated school supplies and toys to Iraqi children.
Operation Iraqi Children 8 December 2004 8 December 2004 Baqubah Soldiers delivered school supplies
Operation Iron Fist II 23 September 2004 2004 Ramadi A top priority in the operation was to detain or eliminate Moktada al-Sadr's lieutenants[3]
Operation Iron Fury 17 August 2004 2004 Baghdad An "all-out effort" to stop violence in the Baghdad area by militia headed up by Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr[3]
Operation Iron Fury II 2004 2004 Sadr City Continued missions to drive the Mahdi Army out of the city[3]
Operation Iron Promise 18 March 2004 November 2004 Baghdad Part of an ongoing campaign to bring stabilization and security to the country and people of Iraq. Was a long-running series of patrols conducted by elements of the 1st Armored and 1st Cavalry Divisions. The operation continued until at least November 2004 when it was still being mentioned in newspaper reports. The name is derived from the "Old Ironsides" nickname of the 1st Armored Division.[1]
Operation Iron Resolve 12 January 2004 2004 Baghdad Was intended to disrupt the terrorist networks with constant searches and raids by coalition forces[1]
Operation Iron Saber April 2004 June 2004 Najaf, Al Kut and Karbala Was a coalition strike aimed at defeating the Mahdi army under the control of Muqtada al-Sadr[1]
Operation Lancer Fury April 2004 April 2004 Baghdad, Sadr City Was one of many operations initiated in hopes of disarming and disbanding militia forces[1]
Operation Lancer Lightning 2004 2004 [1]
Operation Lion Cub 21 December 2004 21 December 2004 Tikrit To deliver a load of toys to the children of the villages of Al Alam, Al Owja and Wynott
Operation Longhorn 24 September 2004 24 September 2004 Ramadi A coordinated effort to detain insurgent Forces and remove illegal weapons and ammunition caches[3]
Operation Mandarin Squeeze 14 October 2004 14 October 2004 Tikrit Its purpose was threefold; deny insurgents sanctuary, promote the Tikrit job corps program, and assess essential services.[3]
Operation Market Sweep 13 January 2004 13 January 2004 Fallujah The successful raid into the downtown Fallujah arms market[1]
Operation Marne 24 September 2004 24 September 2004 Ramadi A coordinated effort to detain insurgent Forces and remove illegal weapons and ammunition caches
Operation Mayfield III 19 July 2004 19 July 2004 [3]
Operation Mustang Flex October 2004 October 2004 Tikrit Deny insurgents sanctuary, promote the Tikrit Job Corps program, and assess essential services.
Operation Mustang Socko 14 October 2004 14 October 2004 along the Tigris River Detained several suspects and found several weapons caches
Operation Mutual Security 2 July 2004 2 July 2004 Mosul Was designed as a sweeping house-to-house search for weapons and terrorists to be conducted by only Iraqi forces[3]
Operation New Dawn (Al Fajr) 3 November 2004 3 November 2004 Fallujah To search for weapons caches and suspected insurgents[3]
Operation Oasis July 2004 July 2004 Baghdad The overall project to improve electricity, sewers, water and other essential services around the city.
Operation Outlaw Destroyer July 2004 July 2004 Tikrit Was designed to prevent insurgents from gaining weapons and munitions from known ammunition storage points[1]
Operation Phantom Fury 7 November 2004 23 December 2004 Fallujah Joint American/Iraqi assault on Fallujah. See also Operation Dawn (Al-Fajr) and 2nd Battle of Fallujah[3]
Operation Phantom Linebacker 4 July 2004 4 July 2004 along the Syrian border Security Operations along the Syrian border.[3]
Operation Plymouth Rock 23 November 2004 23 November 2004 Baghdad, South of Sweep south of Baghdad.[3]
Operation Powder River 31 December 2004 2 January 2005 Ad Duluiyah Detained 49 individuals, descovered several weapons caches and searched 13 homes and the surrounding areas in a series of raids. Started in 2004 but ended in 2005.[7]
Operation Predator 24 September 2004 24 September 2004 Ramadi A coordinated effort to detain Anti-Iraqi Forces and remove illegal weapons and ammunition caches
Operation Quarterhorse Rides August 2004 August 2004 Ad Duluiyah To increase security and deter enemy attacks[3]
Operation Ramadan Roundup October 2004 October 2004 Tikrit Resulted in the capture of 30 insurgents, more than 60 weapons, and Improvised Explosive Device making materials.
Operation Rapier Thrust May 2004 May 2004 [1]
Operation Resolute Sword 8 April 2004 8 April 2004 Was a military operation taken by the United States' armed forces to capture Muqtada al-Sadr. (April 10 President's Radio Address Mention)[1]
Operation Ripper Sweep 12 April 2004 April 2004 Fallujah The operation aimed at securing roads into and out of the city. Was a United States Marine Corps operation that took place as Operation Vigilant Resolve raged in Fallujah. The operation aimed at securing roads into and out of Fallujah and was led by the 7th Marine Regiment. The Marines swept west to east from Al Asad and seized a large number of bombs.[1]
Operation Rock Bottom 19 November 2004 21 November 2004 The searches netted numerous small arms, 10 detainees and three rockets[3]
Operation Rocketman 26 February 2004 26 February 2004 the town of Siniyah Three Iraqis suspected of attacks on coalition forces were arrested[1]
Operation Rock Slide 15 January 2004 15 January 2004 the Al-Anbar province Captured a high-ranking former Iraqi officer Brig. Gen. Kalil Ibraham Fayal al-Dulaymi[1]
Operation Rocketman II 2004 2004
Operation Rocketman III 8 June 2004 8 June 2004 Designed to search and secure enemy personnel as well as those suspected of harboring insurgents and weapons.[1]
Operation Saber Turner II February 2004 February 2004 [1]
Operation Saloon 14 January 2004 14 January 2004 the Al-Anbar province Captured a high-ranking former Iraqi Officer, General Mamoud Khudair Younes[1]
Operation Shillelagh 17 March 2004 17 March 2004 Abu Ghurayb Seven wanted individuals were found and detained during a sweep of more than 700 houses. See Also Operation Iron Promise.[1]
Operation Showdown 18 August 2004 18 August 2004 Ar Ramadi To search for weapons caches and terrorists[3]
Operation Slim Shady June 2004 June 2004 Kirkuk Was designed to cripple the resources of Muqtada al-Sadr's militia. The 2nd Brigade of the 25th Infantry Division of the United States Military launched the operation, which was designed to cripple the resources of the then powerful rebel forces of Muqtada al-Sadr. The operation began in the first week of June 2004. Six individuals were captured, five of which were cell leaders in the Mahdi army. One of the insurgents captured was As'ad Abu Aws. As'ad Abu Aws was the second in command of the militia's Kirkuck operations. The name of the operation was taken from popular rapper Eminem's (real name Marshall Mathers) fictional alter-ego Slim Shady. Press Release[1]
Operation Soccor Ball March 2004 March 2004 Baghdad, Karadah district Gave away 150 soccer balls to local children
Operation Soprano Sunset 6 December 2004 6 December 2004 Baghdad, eastern portion Captured several suspected senior level transnational terrorists, including key leaders, operatives, and financiers[3]
Operation Spartan Scorpion 2004 2004
Operation Spring Cleanup May 2004 May 2004 Baqouba Designed to take control of a stretch of road known as the Blue Babe Highway and included the U.S. 3rd Brigade Combat Teams. The area was also known as "RPG Alley" for the large number of roadside bombings and insurgent attacks that occurred there.[8][1]
Operation Striker Hurricane 1 May 2004 1 May 2004 Baghdad To round up insurgents and other anti-coalition parties[1]
Operation Striker Tornado June 2004 June 2004 Baghdad Was designed to allow the 1st Armored Division to execute near-simultaneous raids on specified targets wanted for anti-coalition activities[1]
Operation Student to Student 10 May 2004 10 May 2004 Al-Baruddi Gave the soldiers and the local populace an opportunity to establish the relationships that are so critical to the building of a sovereign Iraq
Operation Suicide Kings 17 March 2004 17 March 2004 Baghdad A combined cordon and search operation involving U.S. and Iraqi Civil Defense Corps Soldiers[1]
Operation Sweep III 2004 2004
Operation Tangerine Pinch October 2004 October 2004 Tikrit Deny insurgents sanctuary, promote the Tikrit Job Corps program, and assess essential services.
Operation Tangerine Squeeze 15 October 2004 15 October 2004 Tikrit Called for a complete search of more than 300 homes
Operation Thunderstruck May 2004 May 2004
Operation Tiger Care 3 August 2004 3 August 2004 Balad General Hospital To assist the local hospital by procuring and delivering much needed medical supplies
Operation Tiger Cub 14 October 2004 14 October 2004 Baghdad To improve the school supply and education system throughout the greater Balad area
Operation Tiger Fury 30 October 2004 2004 east of Balad Was designed to stop insurgent activities and capture individuals suspected of being insurgents[1]
Operation Tobruk 28 November 2004 28 November 2004 a village along the Euphrates river 8 km Northeast of Camp Dogwood A search of the village for insurgents and Saddam loyalists[3]
Operation Tomahawk (Iraq) February 2004 February 2004 [1]
Operation Tombstone Piledriver 15 July 2004 15 July 2004 Baghdad The operation netted six individuals who were detained for questioning.[3]
Operation Trailblazer 9 February 2004 Ongoing Baqubah An effort to make Iraqi roads safer for fellow soldiers. The beginning of this operation was conducted by the 14th Engineer Battalion (C)(W) and the 244th Engineers out of Colorado. This Operation was taken over by the 141st Engineer Combat Battalion (C)(W), a North Dakota National Guard unit. Their mission was to patrol a section of Iraq's main highways and alternate routes locating and clearing bombs. The secondary goal of this mission was route sanitation which included knocking down trees in the medians of the roads and clearing brush from the sides of the road where the enemy could easily hide a bomb. In January 2005, the 141st Engineers were replaced by the 467th Engineer Battalion (C)(W), a USAR unit from Tennessee. The 14th Engineer Battalion returned to Iraq and relieved the 467th Engineers of the Trailblazer mission in December 2005. Alpha Company, 164th Engineers from North Dakota took over operations from the 467th Engineers in the LSA Anaconda/Balad area around the same time. In October 2006, the 14th Engineers were replaced by the 1st Engineer Battalion.[1]
Operation Triple Play 31 December 2004 2 January 2005 Salman Pak To improve security for the upcoming elections in Iraq. Started in 2004 but ended in 2005
Operation True Grit 23 August 2004 24 August 2004 Ramadi During the operation, Multi-National Forces and SSF searched several houses and 17 insurgents were detained, four of which were found setting up an ambush on top of one of the houses[3]
Operation Vanguard Thunder 5 August 2004 5 August 2004 Baghdad Targeted 150–200 terrorist suspects. No injuries or damages were reported
Operation Vigilant Resolve 4 April 2004 1 May 2004 Fallujah First American attempt to capture Fallujah.[1]
Operation Warhorse Whirlwind January 2004 January 2004 Abu Kharma Captured 31 individuals, including eight people who were specifically targeted for suspected involvement in anti-Coalition activity[1]
Operation Warrior 3 March 2004 3 March 2004 Was a cordon and search operation conducted by coalition forces designed to capture Farhan and Sofi Sinjar, Abu Akmed, and Abu Farka.[9][1]
Operation Warrior Resolve August 2004 August 2004 the At Tamin and As Sulaymaniyah provinces Was a massive synchronized effort which attempted to deter insurgent forces[3]
Operation Windy City 2004 2004 Baghdad Gave blankets to distribute to the local population
Operation Wolfpack crunch 2004 2004
Operation Wolfhound Fury 5 October 2004 October 2004 Hegneh A Task Force 1–27 air assault mission
Operation Wolfhound Fury II 22 January 2004 22 January 2004 Heychel and its surrounding villages Hunted down suspected terrorists and provide humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to the Iraqi people
Operation Wolfhound Jab 15 November 2004 15 November 2004 Tall Suseus and Rubaydhah No one was detained and no weapon caches were found although reports were that the area contained insurgent sanctuaries
Operation Wolfhound Power 11 November 2004 12 November 2004 Hawja To root insurgents out of the city
Operation Wolfhound Trap II 21 January 2004 23 January 2004 Heychel Operation Wolfpack Crunch 4 May 2004 4 May 2004 Diwaniya The mission’s target was a series of buildings, located near an old downtown theater, which were reportedly being used by members of the “Muqtada’s Militia” to plan and stage attacks against Coalition forces[1]
Operation Wolverine 19 August 2004 19 August 2004 Ad Duluiyah Was designed to prevent organized insurgent force activities as well as deny AIF sanctuary[3]
Operation Wolverine Feast 24 January 2004 24 January 2004 the Al-Doura district Coalition and Iraqi Army soldiers detained 10 suspects and seized four caches
Operation Wonderland December 2004 24 December 2004 Ramadi Netted 29 detainees and multiple weapons caches[3]
Operation Yellow Stone 23 April 2004 23 April 2004 Al-Rashida, the former presidential island retreat To secure the area and remove the enemy from the island[1]

See alsoEdit


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 Edward Emering. The History of Operation Iraqi Freedom. p. 183. ISBN 9781300360391. Retrieved 22 August 2018. 
  2. Sgt. Nicole Kojetin (May 14, 2007). "Too Hot for Mission: Stryker Troops Keep Clearing". DVIDS Hub. Retrieved 22 August 2018. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 Edward Emering. The History of Operation Iraqi Freedom. p. 184. ISBN 9781300360391. Retrieved 22 August 2018. 
  4. [1][dead link]
  5. 5.0 5.1 1LT Jennifer Howerton (May 08, 2007). "Split-Based Operations: A Key to Success in Fallujah". DVIDS Hub. Retrieved August 22, 2018. 
  6. LTC Ken Boehme (May 10, 2007). "Our Outlaw Kin (C 1-113 FA) Brothersin-Arms". Fort Riley, Kansas website. Retrieved August 22, 2018. 
  7. "Soldiers Detain 49 Suspects in 'Powder River' Raids". American Forces Press Service. December 31, 2004. Retrieved 2014-12-26. 
  8. John Pike. "Operation Spring Clean-up". Retrieved 2011-12-21. 
  9. John Pike (3 March 2004). "Operation Warrior". Retrieved 2011-12-21. 

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