This a chronological list of the last surviving veterans of military insurgencies, conflicts, and wars around the world. The listed wars span from the 17th century to the beginning of World War II.
- 1 Classical and Biblical eras
- 2 Middle Ages
- 3 Early modern period
- 4 English Civil War
- 5 First Anglo-Dutch War
- 6 Great Northern War
- 7 War of the Polish Succession, War of the Austrian Succession
- 8 Russo-Turkish War
- 9 Jacobite rising
- 10 Seven Years' War
- 11 French and Indian War
- 12 Gaspée Affair
- 13 American Revolutionary War
- 14 French Revolution
- 15 Napoleonic Wars
- 16 War of 1812
- 17 Finnish War
- 18 Greek War of Independence
- 19 Texas War of Independence
- 20 Black Hawk War
- 21 Rebellions of 1837
- 22 Mexican-American War
- 23 Crimean War
- 24 Italian Unification
- 25 Expedition of the Thousand
- 26 Third Italian War of Independence
- 27 New Zealand Wars
- 28 American Civil War
- 29 French invasion of Mexico
- 30 January Uprising
- 31 Second Schleswig War
- 32 Fenian Raids
- 33 Indian Wars
- 34 Franco-Prussian War
- 35 Paris Commune
- 36 Russo-Ottoman War 1877-1878
- 37 Zulu War
- 38 Northwest Rebellion
- 39 Spanish-American War
- 40 Boer War
- 41 Potemkin Mutiny
- 42 Mexican Revolution
- 43 World War I
- 44 October Revolution
- 45 Finnish Civil War
- 46 Russian Civil War
- 47 Polar Bear Expedition
- 48 Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919)
- 49 German Revolution of 1918–19
- 50 Polish-Ukrainian War
- 51 Estonian War of Independence
- 52 Latvian War of Independence
- 53 Irish War of Independence
- 54 Polish–Soviet War
- 55 Silesian Uprisings
- 56 Turkish War of Independence
- 57 Greco-Turkish War
- 58 March on Rome
- 59 Northern Expedition
- 60 Nanchang Uprising
- 61 Chittagong armoury raid
- 62 Brazilian Revolution of 1930
- 63 Xi'an Incident
- 64 Battle of Lake Khasan
- 65 See also
- 66 References
Classical and Biblical eras[edit | edit source]
- Ramesses II (1303-1213BC) - Egyptian Pharaoh who, as a young man, fought many battles with the Hittites and Shardana pirates and died aged 90.
- Aristodemus of Sparta (c.530-479BC)- The "Coward of Thermopylae" who was the only Spartan to survive the battle.
- Marcus Valerius Corvus (died 270BC) - Led the Roman army in the First Samnite War and reputedly lived to the age of 100.
- King Masinissa (c. 240 or 238 BC - c. 148 BC) - Led the Numidians during the Second Punic War and died at the age of 90.
Middle Ages[edit | edit source]
- Egill Skallagrímsson (910-990AD) - Viking Berserker and last veteran of the Battle of Brunanburh.
- Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester (1040-1118) - Last of the Norman noblemen proven to have fought alongside William the Conquerer at the Battle of Hastings.
- Thomas "Old Tom" Parr (died 1635) - English centenarian who claimed to have been born in 1483 and served under Henry VIII.
Early modern period[edit | edit source]
These cases, particularly with respect to the ages claimed by the veterans, cannot be verified as it was common in pre-industrialised societies for elders to exaggerate their age.
- Anton Grolekofsky (1671/1672–1785) — Polish soldier who lived in Sweden. Claimed to have fought in the Nine Years' War, Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743) and Polish-Swedish War.
- Andreas Nielsen (1660–1782) — Norwegian soldier. Claimed to be the last Scanian War veteran, and says he had a long military career and had seen many battles.
- Jacob Christiansen Drakenberg (1626–1772) — Norwegian sailor. Claimed to have fought for Frederick III of Denmark in the Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658) and again from 1675–1681 in the Scanian War.
- William Hiseland (1620–1732) — Wiltshire native. Fought for royalists in this war, Williamite War in Ireland and War of the Spanish Succession. Last survivor of Battle of Edgehill. Retired with rank of sergeant. For 80-year service to the king, he became one of the earliest admitted to Royal Hospital Chelsea.
- Petro Kalnyshevsky (1691–1803) — Last Zaporozhian Host. Also fought in 1735–1739 and 1768–1774 Russo-Turkish Wars (by which time he was an Ataman). The lifespan is highly unlikely, the birthdate is probably wrong.
- Jean Thurel (1699–1807) — Died in France. Served in War of the Austrian Succession and War of the Polish Succession, Seven Years' War and American Revolutionary War. Known as "oldest soldier of Europe."
- Petro Kalnyshevsky (1691–1803) — Last Zaporozhian Host. Last known living veteran of Great Northern War. Fought in 1735–1739 and 1768–1774 Russo-Turkish Wars (by which time he was an Ataman).
- George Browne (1698–1792) — Irish nobleman. Supported Old Pretender. Later became mercenary in Russian army.
- Johann Heinrich Behrens (1735–1844) — Died in Germany.
- Paul François de Quelen de la Vauguyon (1746–1828) —Died in France.
- Henry Luttrell, 2nd Earl of Carhampton (1743–1821) — Died in Britain.
- Jonathan Benjamin (1738–1841) — Also fought in American Revolutionary War. Settled in Granville, Ohio in 1802.
- Robert Abercromby of Airthrey (1740–1827) — Died in Great Britain.
- Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain Chartier de Lotbinière (1748–1822) — Died in Montreal, Quebec, British Empire.
- Ephrim Bowen (1753-1841) - Colonial American pirate
- Daniel Bakeman (1759–1869) — Alleged veteran. Awarded pension via Congress, though no support of service has been located.
- John Gray (1764–1868) — Last verifiable veteran although period of service was too short for him for pension qualification.
- Samuel Downing (1764–1867)
- Lemuel Cook (1759–1866) — Last official veteran; honorable discharge signed by George Washington.
- Nicolas Savin (1768–1894) — Enlisted in 2nd Regiment of Hussars in 1798. 1768 figure proclaims he was approximately 126 at time of death. Later served under Napoleon and was awarded the Legion d'Honneur.
- Jean Adrin (1797–1902) — Last French veteran. In 1912 there were three Polish men who claimed to have fought at Borodino, but it is unlikely they were real veterans due to lack of documentation and age ranges relatively high from 120 to 133.
- Geert Adriaans Boomgaard (1788–1899) — Last Dutch veteran and Europe's oldest man at the time of his death. He fought for France in the 33ème Régiment Léger.
- Louis Victor Baillot (1793–1898) — French veteran. Last Battle of Waterloo veteran. Saw action at siege of Hamburg.
- Pedro Martinez (1789–1898) — Last Battle of Trafalgar veteran. Served in Spanish navy on San Juan Nepomuceno.
- Leonard Meesters (1796–1896) — Last Belgian veteran. Fought for Napoleon.
- Josephine Mazurkewicz (1794–1896) — Last female veteran. Assistant surgeon in Napoleon's army. Later partook in Crimean War.
- Sir Provo Wallis (1791–1892) — Canada.
- Morris Shea (1795–1892) — 73rd Foot — Last Scottish veteran.
- Vasilij Nikolaevich Kochetkov (1785-1892) Russian Imperial Army. Enlisted 7 March 1811. Served in Grenadier Lifeguard Regiment at Borodino. Served 66 1/2 years until 12 October 1877 when wounded out of service in the Russian-Ottoman War.
- Joseph Sutherland (1789–1890) — Last English veteran. Royal Navy. Last British survivor of Trafalgar.
- Hiram Cronk (1800–1905) — United States Army.
- Sir Provo Wallis (1791–1892) — Canadian Army. Royal Navy. Napoleonic veteran.
- Carl Gustav Polviander (1784-1876) - Finland
- Alfonso Steele (1817–1911) — Last veteran of Battle of San Jacinto.
- James L. Allen (1815–1901) — Texan courier at Alamo.
- Henry L. Riggs (1812–1911)
- François X. Matthieu (1818–1914) — Parti Patriote.
- Douglas Labalmondière (1815–1893) — Upper Canada Rebels.
- Yves Prigent (1833–1938) — French sailor.
- Charles Nathan (1834–1934) — Last French soldier. Saw action in Italy, Syria, Mexico and Franco-Prussian War.
- Edwin Hughes (1830–1927) — Last survivor of Charge of the Light Brigade.
- Edwin Bezar (1838–1936) — possible last British soldier. Also last British soldier in New Zealand Wars.
- Francois Ribet (1835–1936) — Died in France.
- Edwin Bezar (1838–1936), last British soldier. Settled in New Zealand.
Union[edit | edit source]
Confederate[edit | edit source]
|Name||Claimed birth date||Believed birth date||Death date||Status|
|Pleasant Crump||23 December 1847||31 December 1951||Verified|
|Felix M. Witkoski||5 January 1850||October 1854||3 February 1952||Debunked|
|Thomas Edwin Ross||19 July 1850||27 March 1952||Unknown|
|Richard William Cumpston||23 May 1841||5 September 1952||No evidence|
|William Loudermilk||23 October 1848||April 1851||18 September 1952||No evidence|
|William Jordan Bush||10 July 1845||July 1846||11 November 1952||Probable|
|Arnold Murray||10 June 1846||1854/1855||26 November 1952||Debunked|
|William Townsend||12 April 1846||22 February 1953||Possible|
|William Albert Kinney||10 February 1843||10 February 1861||23 June 1953||Debunked|
|Thomas Riddle||16 April 1846||1862||2 April 1954||No evidence|
|William Lundy||18 January 1848||May 1860||1 September 1957||Debunked|
|John B. Salling||15 May 1846||15 May 1856||16 March 1959||Debunked|
|Walter Williams||14 November 1842||14 November 1854||19 December 1959||Debunked|
Most cases are questionable, though it should be remembered that many Confederate records were destroyed or lost to history. Unlike the U.S. military archives, the Confederate records had no official archive system after the war. However, for most of the cases investigated, the ages of the claimants alone were enough to prove their claim was false. Williams was generally acknowledged as the "last Confederate veteran" in 1950s newspapers. However, in September 1959 an exposé by The New York Times revealed that he was in fact born in 1854 in Itawamba County, Mississippi, and not 1842 as claimed. Still, since Salling and all the other claimants were dead, Williams was celebrated as the last Confederate veteran after his death on 20 December 1959.
Salling's own status is disputed. In 1991, William Marvel examined the claims of Salling and several other "last Civil War veterans" for a piece in the Civil War history magazine Blue & Gray. Marvel found census data that indicated Salling was born in 1858, not 1846. Although in 1900 Salling supplied a birthdate of March 1858, he appears to have been born around 1856, still too late to have served in the Confederate Army. The 1860 census lists him as 4 years old, and the 1870 census as 14. William Lundy is listed as 1 year old on the 1860 census, and from 1870 until 1930 he gave census marshals ages that reflected birthdates as early as 1853 and as late as 1860. He did not push his birthdate back to the 1840s until he applied for a Confederate pension from the state of Florida. In the same piece, Marvel confirmed Woolson's claim to be the last surviving Union veteran and asserted that Woolson was the last genuine Civil War veteran on either side. However, Marvel did not present research establishing who, among the several other Confederate claims from the 1950s, some of which appear to be genuine, was the real last Confederate veteran.
- Jules Pujos (1846–1942) — France.
- Feliks Bartczuk (1846–1946) — Last veteran.
- Ove Henning Jacobsen (1841–1941) — Last Danish veteran.
- Frederick Fraske (1872–1973)
- John Daw (1870–1965)
- Dewey Beard (1857–1955) — Native American from Lakota tribe. Last survivor of Battle of the Little Big Horn. Also fought at Wounded Knee.
Franco-Prussian War[edit | edit source]
- Seraphin Pruvost (1849–1955) — Last French veteran.
- Karl Glöckner (1845–1953) — Last German veteran.
- Adrien Lejeune (1847–1942) — Last Communard.
- Emile Chausse (1850–1941) — Left army and joined the communards in 1870.
- Antonin Desfarges (1851–1941) — Last Communard député.
Russo-Ottoman War 1877-1878[edit | edit source]
- Konstantin Vikent'evich Hrutskij (1855-1967) — Preobrazhenskij Lifeguard Regiment 
- Charles Wallace Warden (died 1953) — Transferred to First Foot in 1874.
- Frank Bourne (1854–1945) — Last survivor of Rorke's Drift.
- Ivan Beshoff (1885–1987) — Sailor on Russian battleship Potemkin. Fled to Ireland and opened a fish and chips shop.
- Guillermo Flores Reyes (born 1898) — Claimant.
- Juan Carlos Caballero Vega (1900–2010) — Pancho Villa's driver.
- Feliciano Mejia (1899–2008) — Last living member of Emiliano Zapata's Ejército Libertador del Sur.
- Antonio Gómez Delgado (1900–2007) — Last living member of Pancho Villa's División del Norte
- Teodoro Garcia (1889–1999) — Last Federal soldier.
- Henry Allingham (1896–2009) — Britain. Last airman.
- Harry Patch (1898–2009) — Britain. Last soldier to fight in the trenches.
- Claude Choules (1901–2011) — Britain. Last combat veteran. Served in the Royal Navy.
- Florence Green (1901–2012) — Britain. Last living veteran. Served as waitress in Women's Royal Air Force.
- Boris Gudz (1902–2006) — Red Army. Also fought in October Revolution.
- Nikolai Fyodorov (1901–2003) — White Army.
Polar Bear Expedition[edit | edit source]
- Harold Gunnes (1899-2003) - US Navy. Saw action against the Bolsheviks on USS Olympia (C-6) in 1918.
- Jan Rzepa (1899–2005) — Last Polish fighter.
- Ants Ilus (1901–2006) — Died in Estonia.
- Karl Jaanus (1899–2000) — Last surviving Cross of Liberty recipient awarded during war.
- Arnolds Hofmanis (1900–2006) — Died in Latvia, Tukums.
- Arvīds Lauris (1901–2003) — Last surviving Order of Lāčplēsis recipient awarded during war.
- Veysel Turan (1901–2007) — Turkey
- Vasco Bruttomesso (1903–2009)
- Sergey Leonidovich Sokolov (1911–2012) — Soviet Union
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
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- [unreliable source?]
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- Carl Polviander
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- 1900 US Census gives age as 49
- "Last Surviving Confederate Veterans". Genealogy Trails. http://genealogytrails.com/main/lastveterans.html. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- "ARNOLD MURRAY Confederate Veteran living in 1950". Sons of Confederate Veterans. 2005-08-05. http://genforum.genealogy.com/sc/orangeburg/messages/415.html. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- Find A grave
- 1910 Census gives age as 48
- Marvel, William (1991). The great imposters. VIII. Columbus: Blue and Gray. pp. 32–33.
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- The last Dorado
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- [unreliable source?]
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- Meeting last surviving revolutionary
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