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Europe divided by two competing military alliances during the Cold War

A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, military factions; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. Military alliances often involve non-military agreements, in addition to their primary purpose.

Historical[]

Confederate alliance of Greek city-states

Vedic Period[]

Hellenic Period[]

  • 502-449 BC Medic Wars
    • Hellenic League - Athens, Lacedemonia, Macedon, others
  • 431-404 BC Peloponnesian War
    • League of Delos - Athens, Argos, Chios, Samos, Lesbos, others
    • Peloponnesian League - Lacedemonia, Corinth, Thebes, Syracuse, others

Middle Ages[]

Early modern period[]

All the participants in the Napoleonic Wars. Blue: The Coalition and their colonies and allies. Green: The First French Empire, its protectorates and colonies.

  • 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars
    • The Quadruple Alliance of 1814/15
    • First through Seventh Coalitions
  • 1717 Christian-Islamic Wars
  • 1815-1825 Absolutist-Liberal conflicts
  • The Quadruple Alliance of 1834

Twentieth century[]

Alliances in the First World War

Alliances in the Second World War

Alliances during the Cold War (1980)

Contemporary[]

Europe[]

Eurasia[]

  • Flag of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.png Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), formed in 1992 in after the collapse of the Soviet Union - Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), formed in 1996 to counterbalance NATO expansion - China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Russia and Uzbekistan.
  • Coat of Arms of TAKM.jpg Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status (TAKM) is an intergovernmental military co-operation organization of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia.

Middle East[]

United States - Asia[]

Other regions[]

  • United StatesUnited KingdomCanadaAustraliaNew Zealand ABCA Armies
  • Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX) of Economic Community of Central African States set up in 1994, limited scope.
  • Flag of UNASUR.svg South American Defense Council (SADC) of the Union of South American Nations, developed form 2008. Full extent of provisions yet to be agreed.
  • United StatesNew ZealandAustralia ANZUS is a joint military alliance between the United States, Australia and New Zealand.
  • United KingdomAustraliaNew ZealandMalaysiaSingapore Five Power Defence Arrangements, signed in 1971 to prevent the Malaysian Peninsula, or Singapore from external or foreign aggression.
  • GCC Flag.svg Peninsula Shield Force The military force of the Persian Gulf nations of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and Bahrain

References[]

  • Liska, George. Alliances and the Third World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.
  • Pressman, Jeremy. Warring Friends: Alliance Restraint in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.
  • Snyder, Glenn H. Alliance Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.
  • Walt, Stephen. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.
  • Weitsman, Patricia. Dangerous Alliances. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2004.

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