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Since October 7, 2001 following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the United States has been engaged in a war in Afghanistan as a part of War on Terror.



Background[edit | edit source]

From May 1996, Osama bin Laden had been living in Afghanistan along with other members of al-Qaeda, operating terrorist training camps in a loose alliance with the Taliban.[1] Following the 1998 US embassy bombings in Africa, the US military launched cruise missiles at these camps with limited effect on their overall operations. A follow-on plan, called Operation Infinite Resolve, was planned but not implemented.

The UN Security Council had issued Resolutions 1267 and 1333 in 1999 and 2000 directed towards the Taliban which applied financial and military hardware sanctions to encourage them to turn over bin Laden to appropriate authorities for trial in the deadly bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa in August 1998, and close terrorist training camps.

The 9-11 attacks[edit | edit source]

After the September 11, 2001, attacks, investigators rapidly accumulated evidence implicating Osama bin Laden. In a taped statement, bin Laden publicly acknowledged his and al-Qaeda's direct involvement in the 9-11 attacks. In an audiotape posted on a website that the U.S. claims is "frequently used by al-Qaeda", on May 21, 2006, bin Laden said he had personally directed the 19 hijackers.

2001: war begins[edit | edit source]

A Marine with the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit leads a column to a security position after seizing a Taliban forward-operating base.

Nov. 25, 2001.

The war in Afghanistan (2001–present) began on October 7, 2001, as Operation Enduring Freedom, a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States of America (U.S.). This marked the beginning of the U.S. War on Terrorism. The stated purpose of the invasion was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which had provided support and safe harbour to al-Qaeda.

2002 operations[edit | edit source]

Insurgent attacks[edit | edit source]

2003 operations[edit | edit source]

2004 operations[edit | edit source]

2005 operations[edit | edit source]

2006 operations[edit | edit source]

In January 2006, NATO’s focus in southern Afghanistan was to form Provincial Reconstruction Teams with the British leading in Helmand Province and the Netherlands and Canada would lead similar deployments in Orūzgān Province and Kandahar Province respectively. The Americans with 2,200 troops stayed in control of Zabul Province. Local Taliban figures voiced opposition to the incoming force and pledged to resist it.

2007 operations[edit | edit source]

US and NATO ISAF operations, alongside Afghan National Army forces, continued against the Taliban through 2007. Significant military operations in 2007 included the ongoing operations around Sangin, Operation Achilles, the Battle of Chora, Operation Harekate Yolo and the Battle of Musa Qala, amongst others.

2008 operations[edit | edit source]

US and NATO ISAF operations, alongside Afghan National Army forces, continued against the Taliban through 2008. Significant military operations in 2008 included the ongoing Helmand province campaign, Operation Karez, and Operation Eagle's Summit, amongst others.

2009 operations[edit | edit source]

A June 2009 grenade attack, following a collision between a MRAP and a humvee, wounding three American soldiers.[2]

Insurgent attacks[edit | edit source]

2010 operations[edit | edit source]

2011 operations[edit | edit source]

2012 operations[edit | edit source]

2013 operations[edit | edit source]

2014 operations[edit | edit source]

2015 operations[edit | edit source]

2016 operations[edit | edit source]

2017 operations[edit | edit source]

2018 operations[edit | edit source]

List of battles and operations[edit | edit source]

This is a list of military operations of the war in Afghanistan (2001–present).

Operation name From date To date Location Notes
uprising in Herat, 20012001 uprising in Herat November 12, 2001 November 12, 2001 Herat [3]
Baghlan sugar factory bombing, 20072007 Baghlan sugar factory bombing November 6, 2007 November 6, 2007 Baghlan [4]
Bagram Air Base bombing, 20072007 Bagram Air Base bombing February 27, 2007 February 27, 2007 Bagram Air Base [5]
2008 Hotel Serena attack January 14, 2008 January 14, 2008 Kabul [6]
Kandahar bombing, 20082008 Kandahar bombing February 17, 2008 February 17, 2008 Kandahar
Indian embassy bombing in Kabul, 20082008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul July 7, 2008 July 7, 2008 Kabul
Balamorghab ambush November 27, 2008 November 27, 2008 Badghis Province
of Alasay, BattleBattle of Alasay March 14, 2009 March 23, 2009 Alasay Also known as Operation Dinner Out
Battle of Arghandab June 18, 2008 June 19, 2008 Arghandab District
of Chora, BattleBattle of Chora June 15, 2007 June 19, 2007 Chora This battle has proved to be the biggest Taliban offensive of 2007 in Afghanistan, and resulted in the death of more than 100 people in just three days. The battle involved a significant number of Dutch forces
of Dahaneh, BattleBattle of Dahaneh August 12, 2009 August 15, 2009 Dahaneh in the Helmand Province Also known as Operation Eastern Resolve II
of Firebase Anaconda, BattleBattle of Firebase Anaconda August 8, 2007 August 8, 2007 Uruzgan province A group of roughly 75 Taliban militants mounted a rare frontal assault on a United States-led coalition base
of Ganjgal, BattleBattle of Ganjgal September 8, 2009 September 8, 2009 Ganjgal village
of Garmsir, BattleBattle of Garmsir 2008 2011 Garmsir in the Helmand Province A Major U.S. Marine offensive on the Taliban-held town killing more than 400 insurgents. Taliban forces withdrew from the town as a result of the assault and took up a position further south.
of Kamdesh, BattleBattle of Kamdesh October 3, 2009 October 3, 2009 Kamdesh Also known as the battle of COP Keating
of Lashkagar, BattleBattle of Lashkagar March 29, 2006 March 29, 2006 Lashkagar Was a friendly fire incident at Sangin
of Musa Qala, BattleBattle of Musa Qala December 7, 2007 December 12, 2007 Musa Qala The result was a Coalition victory with the Taliban retreating
of Now Zad, BattleBattle of Now Zad 2006 2014 Nowzad in the Northern Helmand Province
of Panjwaii, BattleBattle of Panjwaii July 2006 October 2006 Panjwaii district Decisive Canadian victory, Panjwaii cleared of Taliban
of Qala-i-Jangi, BattleBattle of Qala-i-Jangi November 25, 2001 December 1, 2001 Qala-i-Jangi District It began with the uprising of Taliban prisoners held at Qala-i-Jangi fortress, and escalated into one of the bloodiest engagements of the war in Afghanistan
of Shewan, BattleBattle of Shewan August 8, 2008 August 8, 2008 Shewan village Also known as Operation Commando Wrath
of Shok Valley, BattleBattle of Shok Valley April 6, 2008 April 6, 2008 Shok Valley
of Takur Ghar, BattleBattle of Takur Ghar March 3, 2002 March 4, 2002 the peak of Takur Ghar A helicopter caring a SEAL team went down and began receiving fire from hostile forces.
of Tarin Kowt, BattleBattle of Tarin Kowt November 13, 2001 November 14, 2001 Tarinkot
of Tora Bora, BattleBattle of Tora Bora December 6, 2001 December 17, 2001 Pachir Wa Agam District, Nangarhar province Attempt and Failure to kill or capture Osama bin Laden
of Wanat, BattleBattle of Wanat July 13, 2008 July 13, 2008 Nuristan Province
Counterinsurgency in Northern Afghanistan April 2009 Present Northern Afghanistan
of Kabul, FallFall of Kabul November 13, 2001 November 14, 2001 Kabul
of Kandahar, FallFall of Kandahar November 22, 2001 December 7, 2001 Kandahar
of Mazar-i-Sharif, FallFall of Mazar-i-Sharif November 9, 2001 November 10, 2001 Mazar-i-Sharif
Prai airstrike, GoraGora Prai airstrike June 10, 2008 June 10, 2008 Mohmand Agency, Pakistan
Aabi Toorah, OperationOperation Aabi Toorah .[7] Also known as Operation Blue Sword.[8][9]
Accius, OperationOperation Accius November 28, 2002 June 1, 2004 throughout Afghanistan The Canadian military's contribution to the civilian-led United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan(UNAMA)
Achilles, OperationOperation Achilles March 6, 2007 May 30, 2007 the Sangin and Kajaki districts of Helmand An attempt to stabilise the security situation in the province
Anaconda, OperationOperation Anaconda March 1, 2002 March 18, 2002 Shahi Kot Valley and Paktika Province Attempt to destroy al-Qaeda and Taliban forces[10]
Apollo, OperationOperation Apollo October 2001 October 2003 Throughout Afghanistan Was the codename for an operation conducted by Canadian Forces in support of the United States in its military operations in Afghanistan
Archer, OperationOperation Archer July 2005 August 31, 2006 throughout Afghanistan The Canadian Forces contribution to Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan
Operation Argus September 2005 October 2008 throughout Afghanistan Canadian Forces team of strategic military planners to support the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Operation Array [11]
Athena, OperationOperation Athena October 2003 October 18, 2005 Kabul and Kandahar The Canadian Forces contribution to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
Asbury Park, OperationOperation Asbury Park June 2, 2004 June 17, 2004 Oruzgan Province and Zabul Province Was characterized by atypical fighting on the side of the tactics of the Taliban and other guerillas encountered[12]
Asbury Park II, OperationOperation Asbury Park II 2004 2004 the Dey Chopan region Army infantrymen, Afghan National Army troops, and attached Marines again sparred with ACM forces in the region, once again inflicting significant losses against the enemy[12]
Operation Avalanche December 2003 December 2003 the entire eastern, southeastern and southern portion To search out Al-Qaeda members and illegal weapons while conducting a village assessment[12]
Azadi South, OperationOperation Azadi South 30 September 2009 30 September 2009 Lakari Bazaar [12]
Operation Azada Wosa March 2008 March 2008 Helmand Province [12]
Baawar, OperationOperation Baawar December 2010 ongoing (as of 09/2014) Horn of Panjwai (HoP) To build and hold in the HoP
Buzzard, OperationOperation Buzzard May 29, 2002 July 9, 2002 Khowst region The operation reflects the success that coalition forces have enjoyed in forcing Al Qaida and Taliban to abandon a large-scale presence in much of the region
Celtics, OperationOperation Celtics May 2005 May 2005 Hunted down enemy fighters and provided humanitarian support to the people in the area[12]
Cobra's Anger, OperationOperation Cobra's Anger December 4, 2009 December 7, 2009 Now Zad Valley [12]
Operation Condor May 17, 2002 May 22, 2002 the mountains of Paktia province Engaged in combat with Al Qaida and Taliban forces
Counterstrike, OperationOperation Counterstrike January 5, 2006 January 5, 2006 Kandahar Airfield
Crescent Wind, OperationOperation Crescent Wind 7 October 2001 December 2001
Diablo Dragnet, OperationOperation Diablo Dragnet July 19, 2007 July 19, 2007 Kandahar Airfield Linked people to Government
Diablo Reach Back, OperationOperation Diablo Reach Back June 7, 2005 June 27, 2005 Kandahar Province Combined Task Force Bayonet forces engaged Taliban forces in some of the fiercest fighting seen this year
Diesel, OperationOperation Diesel February 6, 2009 February 7, 2009 Sangin [13][14]
Dragonfly, OperationOperation Dragonfly 2004 2004 [12]
Dragon Strike, OperationOperation Dragon Strike September 15, 2010 December 31, 2010 Kandahar province
Dragon Tree, OperationOperation Dragon Tree August 2004 August 2004 Kandahar Searched for weapons caches
Dung Beatle, OperationOperation Dung Beatle
Eagle Eye (Afghanistan), OperationOperation Eagle Eye (Afghanistan) Also known as Operation Oqab Sterga. Occurred during May around Gereshk.[15]
Eagle Fury, OperationOperation Eagle Fury February 2003 February 2003 Bahgran Valley
Eastern Resolve, OperationOperation Eastern Resolve
Eastern Resolve II, OperationOperation Eastern Resolve II August 12, 2009 August 12, 2009 Now Zad District of Hel-mand Province Disrupted insurgent violence and intimidation campaigns[12]
El Dorado, OperationOperation El Dorado 25 April 2004 25 April 2004 Tarin Kowt valley [12]
Falcon Summit, OperationOperation Falcon Summit December 15, 2006 January 5, 2007 the Panjawi and Zhari districts of Kandahar Also known as Operation Oqab Tsuka. Had the intention of expelling Taliban fighters[16]
Fingal, OperationOperation Fingal January 1, 2002 March 19, 2002 Kabul An international security assistance force
Flashman, OperationOperation Flashman July 16, 2004 July 16, 2004 Paktika Province Bring stability to the area as well as establishing voter registration sites
Freedom's Sentinal, OperationOperation Freedom's Sentinal [17]
Getaway, OperationOperation Getaway [12]
Getaway II, OperationOperation Getaway II
Getaway III, OperationOperation Getaway III 7 January 2009 7 January 2009 Farah Province [12]
Glock, OperationOperation Glock[18]
Hamkari, OperationOperation Hamkari February 13, 2010 December 7, 2010 Marja
Operation Hammer (Chakush) July 27, 2007 July 27, 2007 the Upper Gereshk Valley in Helmand province The operation is continuing the momentum towards expelling Taliban forces
Operation Hammer Blow Also known as Operation Palk Wahel[19]
Harekate Yolo, OperationOperation Harekate Yolo October 1, 2007 November 8, 2007 North-west Afghanistan Targeted hostile forces in the northern provinces
Operation Harpoon[10] March 13, 2002 March 19, 2002 Paktia Province
Haven Denial, OperationOperation Haven Denial July 2, 2003 July 6, 2003 the Paktika and Khost provinces Targeted against Taliban remnants and Al Qaeda fighters
Headstrong, OperationOperation Headstrong 2003 2004 Kabul Involved the training of Afghan commandos by British special forces to seek out and destroy drug laboratories and to confiscate drug shipments
Herrick, OperationOperation Herrick June 20, 2002 December 12, 2014 throughout Afghanistan The codename for all the British operations in Afghanistan
Hoover, OperationOperation Hoover May 24, 2007 May 25, 2007 Kandahar Province district of Zhari Was a Canadian-led offensive against the Taliban
Jacana, OperationOperation Jacana April 2002 July 2002 Khost province, Paktia Province
Kamin, OperationOperation Kamin May 26, 2007 May 26, 2007 Kandahar Province
Khanjar, OperationOperation Khanjar July 2, 2009 August 20, 2009 Helmand Province A major U.S. Marine offensive to secure the province
Lightning Resolve, OperationOperation Lightning Resolve 2004 2007 towns and villages throughout Afghanistan Provide security in support of the first democratic elections ever in Afghanistan
Lions Pride, OperationOperation Lions Pride April 21, 2006 April 21, 2006 Korengal Valley To provide medical assistance to more than 3,100 Afghans
Maiwand 10, OperationOperation Maiwand 10 December 10, 2017 [20]
Operation Marlin [13]
Mavericks, OperationOperation Mavericks 2004 2005 The mountains of Eastern Afghanistan Detained suspected terrorists and confiscating several weapons and explosives caches[12]
Medusa, OperationOperation Medusa September 2, 2006 September 17, 2006 Kandahar Province Was a Canadian-led offensive by major elements of the International Security Assistance Force and Afghan National Army.
Moshtarak, OperationOperation Moshtarak February 13, 2010 December 7, 2010 Marjah in the Helmand Province "poppy-growing belt" The largest military offensive ever launched by Nato troops in Afghanistan to clear the city of Taliban militants and drug traffickers eliminating the last Taliban stronghold in Helmand. It involves U.S. Marine units and Afghan troops along with the U.S. Special Forces and other ISAF members.[12][21]
Mountain Blizzard, OperationOperation Mountain Blizzard January 2004 March 12, 2004 the south, southeast, and eastern portions, Afghanistan Killed 22 enemy combatants and discovered caches with 3,648 rockets, 3,202 mortar rounds, 2,944 rocket- propelled grenades, 3,000 rifle rounds, 2,232 mines and tens of thousands of rounds of small-arms ammunition[12]
Mountain Fury, OperationOperation Mountain Fury September 16, 2006 January 15, 2007 Paktika, Khost, Ghazni, Paktia, Logar Was a NATO-led operation as a follow up operation to Operation Medusa, to clear Taliban rebels from the eastern provinces of Afghanistan
Mountain Lion, OperationOperation Mountain Lion April 11, 2006 2006 near the Pakistan border Searching along the border with Pakistan for Al Qaeda and former Taliban forces[12]
Mountain Reach II, OperationOperation Mountain Reach II May 2010 May 2010 Kunar Province US Army, Theatre Assets, ANSF, ANP, ANA were ambushed by 150+Taliban for 8.5 hours along the route from Marawara District Center to Daridam Village area. 60-80 Taliban killed; 3 wounded US Soldiers.
Mountain Resolve, OperationOperation Mountain Resolve November 7, 2003 2008 Nuristan and Kunar provinces The operation involved an airdrop into the Hindu Kush Mountains by the US 10th Mountain Division and resulted in the killing of Hezbi commander Ghulam Sakhee[12]
Mountain Resolve II, OperationOperation Mountain Resolve II
Mountain Storm, OperationOperation Mountain Storm March 5, 2004 July 2004 the south, southeast, and eastern portions of Afghanistan With the aim of cornering al-Qaeda and Taliban remnant[12]
Mountain Sweep, OperationOperation Mountain Sweep August 18, 2002 at least August 28, 2002 mainly around Dormat and Narizah, south of Khowst and Gardez Was designed to search out al Qaeda and Taliban forces and information about the terrorist organizations[22]
Mountain Thrust, OperationOperation Mountain Thrust May 2006 July 31, 2006 Kandahar, Helmand, Paktika, Zabul and Uruzgan A major offensive. Its primary objective was to quell the ongoing Taliban insurgency in the south of the country.
Mountain Viper, OperationOperation Mountain Viper August 2003 September 2003 the mountains of Daychopan district, Zabul province Sought to uncover Taliban rebels. One-hundred-and-twenty-four militants, five Afghan Army personnel and one US soldier were killed in the operation.
Nasrat, OperationOperation Nasrat September 2007 September 2007 Helmand and Kabul Provinces
Operation Neptune August 9, 2005 2005 Nawa District
New Dawn, OperationOperation New Dawn June 12, 2010 Present Helmand Province An extension of Operation Moshtarak, Operation New Dawn was launched on 12 June 2010 as joint ISAF / ANA operation, led by the United States Marines, to disrupt insurgents and deny them freedom of movement in the sparsely populated areas between Marjah and Nawa.[23][24]
Nibbio, OperationOperation Nibbio Italian code name for Enduring Freedom. Operation Sparviero is the Italian Army contribution to ISAF in Kabul
Northern Wind, OperationOperation Northern Wind
Oracle, OperationOperation Oracle
Palk Mesher, OperationOperation Palk Mesher August 2007 August 2007 Helmand Province to disrupt and eliminate insurgents
Panther's Claw, OperationOperation Panther's Claw June 19, 2009 August 20, 2009 Helmand Province 350 British Troops attacked a Taliban Stronghold near Babaji[25]
Operation Perth
Pickaxe-Handle, OperationOperation Pickaxe-Handle (Pashto) May 30, 2007 June 14, 2007 Helmand province Was a British-led NATO operation
Pil, OperationOperation Pil October 16, 2005 October 23, 2005 the Watapor Valley of the Kunar Province to improve security and assist in stabilizing the government in the troubled region[12]
Pizmah, OperationOperation Pizmah 2005 December 15, 2005 Zabul Province To reestablish a coalition presence in the districts of Dey Chopan, Argandab and Khaki-Afghan
Ptarmigan, OperationOperation Ptarmigan April 15, 2002 Gardez and Khost regions The name given to the British share of military actions with U.S. and coalition forces
Red Wings, OperationOperation Red Wings June 28, 2005 June 28, 2005 Kunar province Counterterrorism mission
Red Wings II, OperationOperation Red Wings II
Relentless Strike, OperationOperation Relentless Strike[26]
Rhino, OperationOperation Rhino
Ring Road, OperationOperation Ring Road 14 December 2003 16 December 2003 Ring Road from Kabul to Kandahar [12]
River City, OperationOperation River City[27]
School House, OperationOperation School House Kabul The program, started by U.S. and coalition personnel from the Kabul Compound, receives donated school supplies from the U.S. and distributes them to needy schools
Shamshir, OperationOperation Shamshir [12]
Operation Snakebite [28]
Operation Snake Pit [29]
Snipe, OperationOperation Snipe
Shahi Tandar, OperationOperation Shahi Tandar April 30, 2007 January 31, 2009 Upper Helmand Province A sub-operation of Operation Achilles, carried out by NATO (mostly British) and Afghan troops. Recaptured Gereshk from the Taliban.[30]
Silver, OperationOperation Silver 2007 2007 Counter Insurgency: Was conducted to keep up the pressure on the Taliban in the hopes of blunting their expected spring offensive
Sleigh Ride, OperationOperation Sleigh Ride December 2005 December 2005 forward operating bases at Salerno, Ghazni, Orgun-E and Sharana Christmas-time Morale boost for the troops in Afghanistan
Slipper, OperationOperation Slipper October 2001 Present The Australian Defence Force's contribution to operations in Afghanistan
Snipe, OperationOperation Snipe May 2, 2002 May 13, 2002 the remote Afghan mountains A British Royal Marine search and clear operation over a significant area believed to be used as a base by Al Qaida and Taliban forces
Sohil Laram III, OperationOperation Sohil Laram III During March and April around Hutal.[31]
Operation Sond Chara [32]
Sorkh Khar, OperationOperation Sorkh Khar (Red Donkey) Korengal Valley Disrupted al-Qaeda-backed insurgents near the Pakistan border[12]
Southern Edge, OperationOperation Southern Edge Also known as Southern Edge during June in Mizan District, Zabul Province.[33]
Sparviero, OperationOperation Sparviero
Spurs, OperationOperation Spurs [12]
Stars, OperationOperation Stars May 2005 June 2005 Korengal Val-ley region [12]
Sur Kor, OperationOperation Sur Kor Also known as Operation Red House. Occured in the Zari District.[34]
Thunder Road, OperationOperation Thunder Road Cehar Cineh [12]
Torii, OperationOperation Torii
Tor Shezada, OperationOperation Tor Shezada July 30, 2010 Present
Tor Tapus, OperationOperation Tor Tapus [7]
Operation Tor Tapus II [35]
Tsunami, OperationOperation Tsunami 2003 2003 Kabul
Valdez, OperationOperation Valdez [12]
Verendrye, OperationOperation Verendrye June 16, 2003 Kabul [12]
Veritas, OperationOperation Veritas October 7, 2001 July 31, 2002 Throughout Afghanistan The codename used for British military operations against the Taliban government of Afghanistan
Vigilance, OperationOperation Vigilance April 15, 2005 April 2005 Wardak Province Targeted three individuals that coalition forces were trying to kill or captureand and included humanitarian aid drops in several villages
Volcano, OperationOperation Volcano February 2007 February 2007 near the Kajaki hydroelectric dam Was a British operation to clear a Taliban base, consisting of 25 compounds. Was part of Operation Achilles
Warrior Sweep, OperationOperation Warrior Sweep July 20, 2003 September 2003 the Zormat Valley, Paktia province
Whalers, OperationOperation Whalers[36] August 2005 August 2005 Kunar Province[12]
Winter Strike, OperationOperation Winter Strike December 2003 December 2003 near Asadabad [12]
Wyconda Pincer, OperationOperation Wyconda Pincer 2006 districts of Bala Buluk and Pusht-i-Rod, in Farah province. Italian and Spanish Task-Force 45, killed 70 Taliban.
Zafar, OperationOperation Zafar
Zafar II, OperationOperation Zafar II
Prison attack, SarposaSarposa Prison attack
of Kunduz, SiegeSiege of Kunduz November 11, 2001 November 23, 2001 Kunduz
of Sangin, SiegeSiege of Sangin June 27, 2006 April 5, 2007 Helmand Province
Boldak bombing, SpinSpin Boldak bombing February 18, 2008 February 18, 2008 Spin Boldak
Valley ambush, UzbinUzbin Valley ambush August 18, 2008 August 18, 2008 Surobi District

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Citations[edit | edit source]

  1. Osama bin Laden Wealthy Saudi exile is a terrorist mastermind
  2. CBS, Grenade wounds 3 US troops, Afghan child[dead link]
  3. Ousting the Taliban from Herat relatively easy, L.A. Times, 15 November 2001
  4. Fifty-nine Afghan children killed in suicide attack | the Daily Mail
  5. Tang, Alisa (2007-02-27). "Cheney OK After Afghan Blast; 23 Killed". Newsday. http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/wire/sns-ap-afghan-explosion,0,1554987.story?coll=sns-ap-nationworld-headlines. [dead link]
  6. The Courier-Mail: Terrorists hit Australian embassy, published January 15, 2008
  7. 7.0 7.1 Southby-Tailyour 2010, p. 10.
  8. "10-year Chinook saga grounds Britain in Afghanistan". Reuters. July 15, 2009. https://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-41057620090715. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  9. Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Donald P. Wright & al., A Different Kind of War : The United States Army in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) October 2001-September 2005, Fort Leavenworth, Kan. : Combat Studies Institute Press, 2009 http://documents.nytimes.com/a-different-kind-of-war#p=1 p.173
  11. Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. p. 215. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26 12.27 12.28 "U.S. Marines In Afghanistan, 2001-2009: Anthology and Annotated Bibliography". 2014. p. 79. https://www.marines.mil/Portals/59/US%20Marines%20in%20Afghanistan%20Anthology.pdf. Retrieved February 26, 2019. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. p. 155. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  14. Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. p. 179. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  15. Bishop 2009, p. 78.
  16. Leigh Neville (April 23, 2009). The British Army in Afghanistan 2006–14: Task Force Helmand. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 36. https://books.google.com/books?id=GTyVCwAAQBAJ&dq=Operation+Snake+Pit+afghanistan&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  17. "After 13 years, Operation Enduring Freedom concludes in Afghanistan". Defense Media Activity. December 29, 2014. http://www.nationalguard.mil/News/Article-View/Article/576922/after-13-years-operation-enduring-freedom-concludes-in-afghanistan/. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  18. Donald P. Wright & al., A Different Kind of War : The United States Army in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) October 2001-September 2005, Fort Leavenworth, Kan. : Combat Studies Institute Press, 2009 http://documents.nytimes.com/a-different-kind-of-war#p=1 p.171
  19. Leigh Neville (April 23, 2009). The British Army in Afghanistan 2006–14: Task Force Helmand. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 33. https://books.google.com/books?id=GTyVCwAAQBAJ&dq=Operation+Snake+Pit+afghanistan&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  20. "Combat operations boost Afghan tactical cooperation". January 5, 2018. https://www.stripes.com/news/combat-operations-boost-afghan-tactical-cooperation-1.505347. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  21. Gal Perl Finkel, Back to the ground?, Israel Hayom, November 8, 2015.
  22. Cawthorne, Nigel, The Mammoth Book of Inside the Elite Forces, Robinson, 2008 ISBN 1845298217 ISBN 978-1845298210
  23. "1st Recon launches new operation near Marjah". Marine Corps Times. 5 July 2010. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100912002617/http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2010/07/marine_recon_070110w/. Retrieved 19 August 2010. 
  24. "ANA, ISAF Complete First Task in Operation New Dawn". ISAF. 21 June 2010. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110716211509/http://www.isaf.nato.int/article/isaf-releases/ana-isaf-complete-first-task-in-operation-new-dawn.html. Retrieved 19 August 2010. 
  25. Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. p. 37. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  26. Charles H. Briscoe & al., Weapon of choice : U.S. Army Special Operations Forces in Afghanistan, Fort Leavenworth, Kan. : Combat Studies Institute Press, 2003, p.141-143
  27. Kitty Hawk Archived March 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  28. Con Coughlin (2015). "Operation Snakebite by Stephen Grey: Review". The Telegraph. ISBN 9781472806765. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/5207944/Operation-Snakebite-by-Stephen-Grey-Review.html. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  29. Leigh Neville (April 23, 2009). The British Army in Afghanistan 2006–14: Task Force Helmand. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 34. https://books.google.com/books?id=GTyVCwAAQBAJ&dq=Operation+Snake+Pit+afghanistan&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  30. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". Archived from the original on July 13, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090713194545/http://www.army.mod.uk/news/army_news_archive/year_2007/operation_silicon.htm. Retrieved June 28, 2007. 
  31. Bishop 2009, p. 41.
  32. Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. p. 83. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  33. Bishop 2009, p. 103.
  34. Bishop 2009, p. 63.
  35. Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2010). 3 Commando: Helmand Assault. Random House. p. 10. ISBN 9781407063263. https://books.google.com/books?id=YI6mOZtc9S0C&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Operation+Aabi+Toorah&source=bl&ots=PYLfjd6vhS&sig=W94pb-tI8Fg7lG8A5KV6Azo9wK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRirT8qoHaAhUrh-AKHVPlAl0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Aabi%20Toorah&f=false. 
  36. Ed Darack, Victory Point website

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Bishop, P (2009). Ground Truth. UK: HarperPress. ISBN 978-0-00-729665-1. 
  • Southby-Tailyour, E (2010). 3 Commando Brigade - Helmand Assault. UK: Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0-09193-776-8. 

Further reading[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

– interactive map by The New York Times


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