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Middle East
Middle east graphic 2003
Countries (2011) Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, *Gaza, Iran, Iraq, *Iraqi Kurdistan, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, *Northern Cyprus, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, *PNA, Yemen

This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East. The "Middle East" is traditionally defined as the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia), Levant, and the Delta of the Nile and neighboring areas of Arabia, Anatolia and Iran. It currently encompasses the area from Egypt, Turkey and Cyprus in the west to Iran and the Persian Gulf in the east.[1]

  • Conflicts are separate incidents with at least 100 casualties, and are listed by total deaths, including subconflicts.[2]
  • The term "modern" refers to the post-Ottoman period, or in other words, since 1918.

List of conflictsEdit

Date Conflict Location Casualties
1902–1932 Unification of Saudi Arabia [a] Flag of the Third Saudi State-01 Emirate of Riyadh, Flag of Hejaz 1917 Kingdom of Hejaz, Standard of the Emir of Kuwait, 1956 Kuwaiti Emirate, Flag of Nejd (1926) Sultanate of Nejd, Jordan Transjordan, Iraq Mandatory Iraq, Flag of Nejd (1926) Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz 8,000–9,000
1918–1922 Simko Shikak revolt[3][verification needed] State flag of Persia (1907–1933) Persia 1,000–5,500
1919 Egyptian Revolution of 1919[4] Egypt Sultanate of Egypt 3,000
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence [b][verification needed] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey, Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Greece, Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia, Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 170,500–873,000
1919–2003 Iraqi-Kurdish conflict [c] IraqIraqIraq Iraq, Flag of Kingdom of Kurdistan (1922-1924) Kingdom of Kurdistan 142,000–320,000
1920 Franco-Syrian War[citation needed] Flag of Kingdom of Syria (1920-03-08 to 1920-07-24) Arab Kingdom of Syria, Flag of Syria French mandate Occupied Enemy Territory Administration 5,000
1920 Iraqi revolt against the British[5][6] Iraq Mandatory Iraq 2,050–9,000
1923 Adwan Rebellion Jordan Transjordan 100
1924–1927 Great Syrian Revolt (Druze War)[7][verification needed] Lebanese French flag Greater Lebanon, Flag of Syria French mandate.svgState of Syria, Flag of Jabal ad-Druze (state) Jabal Druze, Latakiya-sanjak-Alawite-state-French-colonial-flag.svg Alawite State 8,000–12,000
1925 Sheikh Said rebellion.[8] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 15,000–250,500
1929 Palestine riots of 1929[9][10][verification needed] Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948.svg Mandatory Palestine 251
1930 Ararat rebellion[11][12][13][14][15] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey, Flag of the Republic of Ararat Republic of Ararat 4,500–47,000
1933 Simele massacre[16] Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Kingdom of Iraq 300
1934 Saudi-Yemeni War[17] Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia, Flag of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 2,100
1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion[18] State flag of Iran (1933–1964).svg Iran 151
1935–1936 1935–1936 Iraqi Shia revolts Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Iraq 500
1935 1935 Yazidi revolt[16] Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Iraq 200
1936–1939 Arab Revolt in Palestine[19] Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948.svg Mandatory Palestine 5,000
1937 Dersim Rebellion[20][21][verification needed] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 40,000–70,000
1939–1945 Middle East Theatre of World War II[22][d][verification needed] Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Iraq, Iran Iran, Egypt Egypt]], Lebanese French flag, [[File:Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg|23px All-Palestine Government, Flag of the Egyptian Revolution (1952).svg Egypt, Flag of Syria.svg United Arab Republic, Flag of Syria (1932–1958, 1961–1963).svg Syrian Republic, Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Syria, Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan, Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon, Flag of Israel.svg Israel, Flag of Palestine.svg Palestinian Authority 73,000–84,000
1948 Alwaziri coup[2] Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 4,000–5,000
1948 Al-Wathbah uprising[citation needed] Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Iraq 300–400
1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952[2] Egypt Egypt 1,000
1953 1953 Iranian coup d'état[2][8][25] State flag of Iran (1933–1964).svg Iran 300–800
1954–1960 Jebel Akhdar War[8] Flag of Muscat Sultanate of Muscat and Oman 100–523
1955–1963 Cypriot intercommunal violence[19][26] Cyprus Cyprus protectorate 400–600
1956–1960 Yemeni-Adenese clan violence[2] Flag of Aden (1937–1963).svg Aden 1,000
1958 1958 Lebanon Crisis[2][4][26] Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 1,300–4,000
1958 1958 Iraqi Revolution[2] Flag of the Arab Federation.svg Arab Federation 100
1959 1959 Mosul uprising[2] Iraq Iraqi Republic 2,000–4,000
1962–1970 North Yemen Civil War[27][28][g] Flag of North Yemen.svg North Yemen 100,000–200,000
1962–1975 Dhofar Rebellion[8] Flag of Oman.svg Oman 10,000
1963 White Revolution (Iran)[8] State flag of Iran (1933–1964).svg Iran 100
1963 February 1963 Ba'athist Iraqi coup[29] Flag of Iraq (1959–1963).svg Iraq 1,000
1963 8th of March Syrian Revolution[30] Flag of Syria.svg United Arab Republic, Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Syria 820
1963–1967 Aden Emergency[31] Flag of the Federation of South Arabia.svg Federation of South Arabia, Flag of South Yemen.svg South Yemen 2,096
1963 November 1963 Iraqi coup [29] Flag of Iraq (1959–1963).svg Iraq 250
1964 1964 Hama riot[32][33] Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Syria 70–100
1966 1966 neo-Ba'athist coup d'état in Syria[8] Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Syria 400
1970–1971 Jordan-Palestinian Civil War[26] Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan 2,000–25,000
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus[17][34] Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 1,500–5,000
1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War[35][h] Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 150,000
1976–1979 Political violence in Turkey, 1970s[36][37][38] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 5,000–5,388
1976–1982 Islamic uprising in Syria[39] SyriaSyria Syria 40,000
1979 Iranian Revolution[40][41] State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg Iran 3,164–60,000
1979–1980 Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution [i] Flag of Iran.svg Iran 10,171
1979–1983 Saudi Eastern Province unrest[42] Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 182–219
1979 Grand Mosque Seizure[43] Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 307
1980 1980 Turkish coup d'état[44][45] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 127–550
1980 Sadr uprising (1980)[46] Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Iraq 1,000–30,000
1980–1988 Iran-Iraq war[17][47][j] Flag of Iran.svg Iran, Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Iraq, Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait 1,000,000–1,250,000
1984–2013 Kurdish–Turkish conflict[48][verification needed] Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey, Flag of Kurdistan.svg Iraqi Kurdistan, Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Iraq, Flag of Syria (1972–1980).svg Federation of Arab Republics, Flag of Syria.svg Syria 30,000–100,000
1986 South Yemen Civil War[49] Flag of South Yemen.svg South Yemen 5,000–12,000
1986 1986 Egyptian Conscription Riot[50] Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 107
1986 1986 Damascus bombings[citation needed] Flag of Syria.svg Syria 204
1987 Iranian pilgrim riot (Mecca massacre)[51] Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 402
1987–1988 ANO Executions Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon, Flag of Syria.svg Syria 170
1989–1996 KDPI insurgency (1989–96) Flag of Iran.svg Iran 1,000
1990–1991 Gulf War[35] Flag of Iraq (1963–1991); Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg Iraq, Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait, Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 40,000–57,000
1991 1991 uprisings in Iraq[46][52] Flag of Iraq (1991–2004).svg Iraq 50,000–100,000
1992–2000 Terrorism in Egypt[53][page needed] Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 1,300–2,000
1994 1994 civil war in Yemen[citation needed] Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 7,000–10,000
1995– Islamic Insurgency in Saudi Arabia[citation needed] Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 300
1998 Operation Desert Fox[19][26] (Iraqi no-fly zones) Flag of Iraq (1991–2004).svg Iraq 2,000
1999 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq[8][54] Flag of Iraq (1991–2004).svg Iraq 100–200
2003–2011 Iraq War[55][56][57][58][59][60][k] IraqIraq Iraq 109,032–150,726
2003–2009 Baluchi insurgency in Iran[61][unreliable source?][62] Flag of Iran.svg Iran 155–400
2004 Qamishli massacre (2004)[63][64] Flag of Syria.svg Syria 30–100
2004–2010 Sa'dah insurgency[65][66][verification needed][67] Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia, Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 8,500–25,000
2004– Iran-PJAK conflict[citation needed] Flag of Iran.svg Iran, Flag of Kurdistan.svg Iraqi Kurdistan 588–747
2006– Fatah–Hamas conflict[68][69] Flag of Palestine.svg Palestinian Authority, Flag of Hamas Gaza Strip 600
2007 Nahr al-Bared fighting Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 480
2008 2008 Lebanon conflict Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 105
2009– South Yemen Insurgency[70] Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 1,554
2009–2010 Iranian election protests[71] Flag of Iran.svg Iran 72-150
2010– Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown[72][73] Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 2,200
2011 Egyptian revolution of 2011 Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 846
2011 2011 Yemeni revolution Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 2,000
2011– Syrian civil war Flag of Syria.svg Syria 100,000+
2011– Sinai insurgency Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 269
2011– Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal) Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq 3,000–6,600
2011– Syrian civil war spillover in Lebanon Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 325
2013 2013 Egyptian coup d'état Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt
2013– Political violence in Egypt, 2013 Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 1119

Casualties breakdownEdit

[a].^ Unification of Saudi Arabia (combined casualties 7,989–8,989+)

Battle of Riyadh (1902) – 37 killed.
Battle of Dilam (1903) – 410 killed.
Saudi–Rashidi War (1903–1907) – 2,300+ killed.
Annexation of Al-Hasa and Qatif (1913) – unknown.
Battle of Jarrab (1915) – unknown.
Battle of Kanzaan (1915) – unknown.
First Nejd-Hejaz War 1918–1919 – 1,392 killed[8]
Kuwait-Najd Border War (1921) – 200[8]–800 killed.
1921 Ikhwan raid on Iraq – 700 killed.
Conquest of Ha'il – unknown.
Ikhwan raids on Transjordan 1922–1924 – 500[74]-1,500 killed.
Second Nejd-Hejaz War (1924–1925) – 450 killed.[8]
Ikhwan Revolt (1927–1930) – 2,000 killed.[8]

[b].^ Turkish War of Independence (combined figure 170,500–873,000+):

Greco-Turkish War – 70,000[citation needed]–400,000 casualties[35][verification needed]
Franco-Turkish War – 40,000 casualties.[citation needed]
Turkish-Armenian War – 60,000–432,500 casualties.[75]
Koçkiri Rebellion – 500 killed.[citation needed]
Revolt of Ahmet Anzavur – unknown.
Kuva-i Inzibatiye revolt – unknown.

[c].^ Iraqi–Kurdish conflict (combined casualty figure 138,800-320,100) of:

Mahmud Barzanji revolts – unknown.
Ahmad Barzanji revolt (1931) – unknown.
1943 Iraqi Kurdish revolt (1943) – unknown.
First Kurdish-Iraqi War (1961–1970) – 75,000–105,000 killed.[27][35]
Second Kurdish-Iraqi War (1974–1975) – 9,000 killed.[76]
PUK insurgency (1976–1978) – 800 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish uprising (1982–1988) – 50,000–198,000 killed.
1991 Uprising in As Sulaymaniyah – 700–2,000 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War (1994–1997) – 3,000[77]-5,000 killed.
2003 invasion of Iraq – several hundred killed (~300) on the Kurdish front, at least 24 Peshmerga killed.

[d].^ Middle Eastern theatre of World War II (combined casualty figure 12,338-14,898+) of:

Anglo-Iraqi War – at least 560 killed.[78][79]
Farhud 175–780 killed.
Syria–Lebanon Campaign 10,404–12,964 killed.
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 100[8] – 1,062 killed.
Bombing of Palestine in World War II 137 deaths.[80]
Bombing of Bahrain in World War II – unknown.

[e].^ Iran crisis of 1946 (combined casualty figure 1,921+):

Azerbaijan People's Republic crisis – 421 killed.[81]
Republic of Mahabad crisis – ~1,000 killed.[citation needed]
Civil interregnum – 500 killed.[82]

[f].^ Arab–Israeli conflict (combined casualty figure 73,338–84,338+):

Israeli–Palestinian conflict (1947–present) – 20,000 killed.
1947 Civil War in Palestine
Fedayeen attacks and retribution operations
Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon
First Intifada
Second Intifada
Gaza-Israel conflict
Arab-Israeli War (1948–1949) – 14,400 casualties.
Retribution Operations (1950s) – 3,456 casualties.
Suez War (1956) – 3,203 killed.
Six Day War (1967) – 13,976 killed.
War of Attrition (1967–1970) – 6,403 killed.
Yom Kippur War (1973) 10,000–21,000.[83]
Second Lebanon War – 1,900 killed.

[g].^ North Yemen Civil War (combined 100,000–200,000 casualties):

1962 Coup d'état in Yemen
Ramadan offensive
Haradh offensive
Royalist offensive 1965
Siege of Sana'a 1967

[h].^ Lebanese Civil War (combined 39,132–43,970+ mortal casualties):

Bus massacre – 27 killed.
Hundred Days' War – 160 killed.
Karantina massacre – 1,000–1,500 killed.
Damour massacre – 684 killed.
Battle of the Hotels – 700 killed.
Black Saturday (Lebanon) – 200–600 killed.
Tel al-Zaatar massacre – 1,778–3,278 killed.
1982 Lebanon War – 28,280 killed.
Sabra and Shatila massacre – 762–3,500 killed.
War of the Camps (1986–1987) – 3,781 killed.
Mountain War – 1,600 killed.
War of Liberation (1989–1990) – unknown.
October 13 massacre – 500–700 killed, 260 civilians massacred.

[i].^ Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution (combined fatalities count 12,000):

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran – 10,171+ killed and executed.[84][85]
1979 Khuzestan uprising – 112+ killed.
1979 Khorasan uprising – unknown.
1979 Azeri uprising – unknown.
1979 Baluchistan uprising – 50 killed.
Iran hostage crisis – 9 killed.
1979–1980 Tehran clashes – unknown.

[j].^ Iran–Iraq war (combined death count 645,000–823,000+):

Iraqi invasion 1980
Mujahedin al-Halq uprising 1981–1982
Liberation of Khorramshahr 1982 – 17,000 killed
Operation Undeniable Victory 1982 – 50,000 mortal casualties
Operation Ramadan 1982 – 80,000 killed
Kurdish Rebellion 1983-1988 (including the Al-Anfal Campaign) 50,000–198,000 killed
Operation Before the Dawn 1983 – 6,000+ killed
Operation Dawn 3 – 162,000 killed
Operation Dawn 5 1984 – 50,000 killed
Operation Dawn 6 1984 – unknown
Operation Khaibar 1984 – 49,000 killed
Tanker War 1984
Operation Badr (1985) – 30,000–32,000
War of the Cities 1985–1987
Operation Dawn-8 1986 – unknown
Operation Karbala-4 1986 – 15,000 killed
Operation Karbala-5 – 85,000 killed
Operation Nasr 4 – unknown
Operation Karbala-10 – unknown
Operation Mersad 1987 – 4,900 killed
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 2,000[86] – 30,000 executed

[k].^ Iraq War (combined casualty figure of 86,000–101,000):

2003 invasion of Iraq – 35,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (2003–2006) – 15,000 killed
Civil war in Iraq 2006–2008 – 30,000–40,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (2008-2011) – 5,000–10,000 killed
Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq – ~1,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (post US withdrawal) – 878–1,180 killed

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Albert Hourani et al., The Modern Middle East: A Reader. 1993: p. 2.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 "CSP – Major Episodes of Political Violence, 1946–2008". Systemicpeace.org. June 12, 2013. http://www.systemicpeace.org/warlist.htm. Retrieved November 14, 2013. 
  3. Maria T. O'Shea. Trapped Between the Map and Reality: Geography and Perceptions of Kurdistan. Routledge, 2004: p. 100 "Simultaneously, 1000 Christians were killed in Salmas, in a massacre instigated by Simko"
  4. 4.0 4.1 [1] "at least 3,000 Egyptians were killed ..."
  5. Jonathan Glancey (2003-04-19). "Our last occupation". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/apr/19/iraq.arts. Retrieved 2011-02-01.  "The rebellion was thwarted, with nearly 9,000 Iraqis killed."
  6. [2] "... the British mentioned a proportion of 1 to 3, that is 2,050 killed and 6,150 wounded, while an Arab version speaks of 4,000 killed and 4,800 wounded."
  7. "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. July 2005. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat6.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 Political Science. Middle East/North Africa/Persian Gulf Region. University of Central Arkansas. Retrieved 2011. [3]
  9. Great Britain, 1930: Report of the Commission on the disturbances of August 1929, Command paper 3530 (Shaw Commission report), p. 65.
  10. NA 59/8/353/84/867n, 404 Wailing Wall/279 and 280, Archdale Diary and Palestinian Police records.
  11. Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
  12. Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, p. 211, Karaköse, 14 (Özel muhabirimiz bildiriyor) ...
  13. Ayşe Hür, "Osmanlı'dan bugüne Kürtler ve Devlet-4", Taraf, October 23, 2008, Retrieved August 16, 2010.
  14. M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926–1930, Pêrî Yayınları, İstanbul, 1997, ISBN 975-8245-01-5, p. 105.
  15. "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert."
  16. 16.0 16.1 [4]
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Rongxing Guo. Cross border resource management, theory and practice. Ed. S.V.Krupa. Elsevier, 2005: p.115.
  18. [5]
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  20. David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds I.B.Tauris, 2002, ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0, p. 209.
  21. [6]
  22. Mollo, p. 146
  23. Ikhwanweb. Ikhwanweb
  24. Ahmed Abdalla, The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt 1923–1973. 2008: pp. 64–77 (1946: The Climax)
  25. [7] 300 killed
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat7.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 [8]
  28. [9] "Since 1965, the Libyan-backed Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen and the National Liberation Front had unleashed brutal violence on British forces in the south. In the end, the conflict claimed some 200,000 lives."
  29. 29.0 29.1 Political Science, University of Central Arkansas. Iraq (1932-present). [10]
  30. Derek Hopwood. Syria 1945–1986: Politics and Society. Unwin Himan ltd., 1988: p.45.
  31. J.E.Peterson, British Counter-Insurgency Campaigns and Iraq. August 2009: p.12.
  32. Seale, Patrick, Asad, the Struggle for the Middle East, University of California Press, 1989, p.93
  33. James A.Paul et al. Human Rights in Syria. Middle East Watch Organization, 1990: p.10.
  34. John J. Mearsheimer (Aug. 1990 Atlantic Monthly). "1,500 to 5,000 killed"
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 [11]
  36. Gil, Ata. La Turquie à marche forcée, Le Monde diplomatique, February 1981.
  37. Devrimci Yol Savunması, Defense of the Revolutionary Path. Ankara, January 1989, pp. 118–119.
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  39. John Pike. "Hama". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/syria/hama.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  40. A Question of Numbers Web: IranianVoice.org August 08, 2003 Rouzegar-Now Cyrus Kadivar
  41. E. Baqi, `Figures for the Dead in the Revolution`, Emruz, July 30, 2003
  42. By JAY PETERZELL (1990-09-24). "The Gulf: Shi'Ites: Poorer Cousins". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,971225,00.html. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  43. Riyadh (10 January 1980). "63 Zealots beheaded for seizing Mosque". http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=wesNAAAAIBAJ&sjid=rG0DAAAAIBAJ&pg=6824,1266876&dq=grand-mosque&hl=en. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  44. [13] Todays Zaman. Turkey tries to heal coup detat wounds. "During this coup 650,000 people were detained, prosecutors demanded the death penalty for 7,000 people, 517 were sentenced to death, and 50 were executed. A further 500 people died in prisons, some under suspicious circumstances, some during torture and others on hunger strikes. Sixteen prisoners were shot while attempting to escape. Official records say 74 others were killed during prison riots."
  45. [14] AlJazeera
  46. 46.0 46.1 Lawrence E. Cline. The Prospects of the Shia Insurgency Movement in Iraq. [15]
  47. "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat2.htm#Iran-Iraq. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  48. John Pike. "Kurdistan - Kurdish Conflict". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/kurdistan.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  49. "Wars and Conflicts of Yemen (1914–present)". The History Guy. http://www.historyguy.com/wars_of_yemen.html. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  50. Europa Publications Limited, The Middle East & North Africa, Volume 50: p. 303
  51. K. McLachlan, Iran and the Continuing Crisis in the Persian Gulf. GeoJournal, Vol. 28, Issue 3, Nov. 1992, p. 359; "400 Die as Iranian Marchers Battle Saudi Police in Mecca; Embassies Smashed in Tehran..." New York Times, 8/2/87
  52. [16] AlJazeera
  53. "Armed Conflicts Report – Egypt". Ploughshares.ca. http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/ACRText/ACR-Egypt.html. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  54. Matthew Duss and Peter Juul. The Fractured Shia of Iraq. Center for American Progress, January 2009. p.9.
  55. Gamel, Kim (April 14, 2009). "AP Impact: Secret Tally Has 87,215 Iraqis Dead". Associated Press (via ABC News).
  56. Leigh, David (October 22, 2010). "Iraq War Logs Reveal 15,000 Previously Unlisted Civilian Deaths — Leaked Pentagon Files Contain Records of More than 100,000 Fatalities Including 66,000 Civilians". The Guardian. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  57. Rogers, Simon (October 23, 2010). "Wikileaks Iraq: Data Journalism Maps Every Death — Data Journalism Allows Us To Really Interrogate the Wikileaks Iraq War Logs Release. Here Is the Statistical Breakdown — and Data for You To Download". Data Blog — Facts Are Sacred (blog on The Guardian). Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  58. "Iraq: The War Logs". The Guardian.
  59. Carlstrom, Gregg (October 22, 2010; last modified October 24, 2010 (at November 21, 2010)). "WikiLeaks Releases Secret Iraq File — Al Jazeera Accesses 400,000 Secret US Military Documents, Which Reveal the Inside Story of the Iraq War". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  60. Staff writer (October 23, 2010). "Iraq War Logs: What the Numbers Reveal". Iraq Body Count. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  61. Goodenough, Patrick (2010-06-20). "Iran Executes Insurgent Leader, Accused of Ties With American Intelligence". CNSnews.com. http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/68098. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  62. Massoud, Ansari (January 16, 2006). "Sunni group vows to behead Iranians". Washington Times. http://www.washtimes.com/world/20060116-124019-6619r.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  63. MidEastWeb. Kurdish agony – the forgotten massacre of Qamishlo. March 2004.[17] MidEastWeb
  64. work=BBC News "Kurdish unrest erupts in Syria". 2005-06-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4612993.stm work=BBC News. 
  65. "Bloody 2009– Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Yemenpost.net. April 10, 2010. http://yemenpost.net/Detail123456789.aspx?ID=3&SubID=1722&MainCat=2. Retrieved 2011-02-01.  "The long ongoing war in Sa'ada that has killed over 8000 Yemenis in 2009 alone."
  66. Armed Conflicts Report – Yemen. Ploughshares.ca. [18]. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  67. [19] Huthi sources put the number of casualties at 25,000
  68. "Over 600 Palestinians killed in internal clashes since 2006". Ynetnews.com. June 6, 2007. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3409548,00.html. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  69. "Palestinian Center for Human Rights". Pchrgaza.org. http://www.pchrgaza.org/files/weapon/english/weapon_press.html. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  70. Government casualties (AlJazeera) [20]
    [21]
  71. "Chaos prevails as protesters, police clash in Iranian capital". CNN. 2009-06-21. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/06/20/iran.election/index.html. 
  72. Government casualties AlArabiya
  73. Al-Qaeda casualties: Fox News [22], New York Times [23], Washington Post [24], Ynet News [25]
  74. Noel Joseph Guckian. British Relations with Trans-Jordan, 1920–1930. University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Ph.D Thesis: pp. 217–218. May 1985.
  75. Vahakn N. Dadrian. (2003). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 360–361. ISBN 1-57181-666-6;
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