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This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events overlap categories.

Wars and armed conflicts[edit | edit source]

These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.

Event Location From To See also Percentage of the world population[1]
700740000000000000040,000,000[2] 700772000000000000072,000,000[3] World War II Worldwide 1939 1945 World War II casualties and Second Sino-Japanese War[4] (this estimate includes worldwide Holocaust and Concentration Camp deaths) 70001700000000000001.7%–3.1%
700730000000000000030,000,000[5] 700770000000000000070,000,000[citation needed] Mongol conquests Eurasia 1206 1368 Mongol Empire 700117100000000000017.1%
700730000000000000030,000,000[5] 700730000000000000030,000,000 Late Yuan warfare and transition to Ming Dynasty China 1340 1368 Ming Dynasty 70006700000000000006.7%
700725000000000000025,000,000[6] 700725000000000000025,000,000 Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming Dynasty China 1616 1662 Qing Dynasty 70004800000000000004.8%
700720000000000000020,000,000[7] 7008100000000000000100,000,000[8][9][10][11][12] Taiping Rebellion China 1851 1864 Dungan revolt 70001600000000000001.6%–8%
700715000000000000015,000,000[13] 700765000000000000065,000,000
(this estimate includes worldwide Spanish flu deaths)[14]
World War I Worldwide 1914 1918 World War I casualties 69998000000000000000.8%–3.6%
700715000000000000015,000,000[15] 700720000000000000020,000,000[15] Conquests of Timur-e-Lang West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia 1369 1405 [16] 70003400000000000003.4%–4.5%
700713000000000000013,000,000[17] 700736000000000000036,000,000[18] An Lushan Rebellion China 755 763 Medieval warfare 70005500000000000005.5%–15.3%
70068000000000000008,000,000[19][20] 700712000000000000012,000,000 Dungan revolt China 1862 1877 Panthay Rebellion 69996000000000000000.6%–0.9%
70065000000000000005,000,000[citation needed] 700730000000000000030,000,000[citation needed] Conquests by the Empire of Japan Asia 1894 1945
[citation needed]
70069000000000000009,000,000[21] Russian Civil War Russia 1917 1921 Russian Revolution (1917), List of civil wars 69992800000000000000.28%–0.5%
70062500000000000002,500,000[22] 70065400000000000005,400,000[23] Second Congo War Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2003 First Congo War 69986000000000000000.06%–0.09%
[citation needed]
70067000000000000007,000,000[24] Napoleonic Wars Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean 1803 1815 Napoleonic Wars casualties 69994000000000000000.4%–0.7%
70063000000000000003,000,000 700711500000000000011,500,000[25] Thirty Years' War Holy Roman Empire 1618 1648 Religious war 69995000000000000000.5%–2.1%
70063000000000000003,000,000[26] 70067000000000000007,000,000[26] Yellow Turban Rebellion China 184 205 Part of Three Kingdoms War 70001300000000000001.3%–3.1%
70061000000000000001,000,000 70063000000000000003,000,000 Nigerian Civil War Nigeria 1967 1970 Genocides in history 0.03%-0.09%
70061500000000000001,500,000[27] 70062000000000000002,000,000[27] Afghan Civil War Afghanistan 1979 Present Soviet-Afghan War, Taliban Era, and NATO Intervention. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M). 69986000000000000000.06%
70063000000000000003,000,000[28] 70064000000000000004,000,000[28] Deluge Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1655 1660 Second Northern War 69996000000000000000.6%–0.7%
7005400000000000000400,000[29] 70064500000000000004,500,000[29] Korean War Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 Cold War 69991000000000000000.1%
7005800000000000000800,000[30] 70063000000000000003,000,000[31] Vietnam War Southeast Asia 1955 1975 Cold War and First Indochina War 69988000000000000000.08%–0.19%
70062000000000000002,000,000 70064000000000000004,000,000[32] French Wars of Religion France 1562 1598 Religious war 69994000000000000000.4%–0.8%
Shaka's conquests Africa 1816 1828 Ndwandwe–Zulu War 69992000000000000000.2%
70061000000000000001,000,000[34] 70062000000000000002,000,000 Second Sudanese Civil War Sudan 1983 2005 First Sudanese Civil War 69982000000000000000.02%
70061000000000000001,000,000[35] 70063000000000000003,000,000[36] Crusades Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 Religious war 69993000000000000000.3%–2.3%
7005600000000000000600,000[27] 70062000000000000002,000,000[27] Soviet War in Afghanistan Afghanistan 1980 1988 Cold War 69981200000000000000.012%–0.04%
7005900000000000000900,000 70061000000000000001,000,000 Gallic Wars France 58 BC 50 BC Roman Empire 69993000000000000000.90%–1.00%
7005800000000000000800,000 70061000000000000001,000,000 Du Wenxiu Rebellion China 1856 1873
7005500000000000000500,000[37] 70062000000000000002,000,000[37] Mexican Revolution Mexico, United States 1911 1920 Pancho Villa and Columbus Raid 69983000000000000000.03%–0.1%
7005500000000000000500,000[38][39] 70062000000000000002,000,000[citation needed] Iran–Iraq War Iran, Iraq 1980 1988 Al-Anfal Campaign and Invasion of Kuwait 69981000000000000000.01%–0.04%
7005400000000000000400,000 7005800000000000000800,000 American Civil War United States, Confederate States 1861 1865 69983000000000000000.03%–0.06%
7005500000000000000500,000 70061000000000000001,000,000 Spanish Civil War Spain 1936 1939 69982500000000000000.025%–0.05%
7005300000000000000300,000[40] 70061200000000000001,200,000[41] Paraguayan War South America 1864 1870 Military history of South America and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias 69982000000000000000.02%–0.08%

Genocides and alleged genocides[edit | edit source]

Genocides with at least a million fatalities in the high estimate category are shown here. The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures. Some of accounts below may include ancillary causes of death such as malnutrition and disease, which may or may not have been intentionally inflicted.

The following list of genocides and alleged genocides should be understood in this context and not necessarily regarded as the final word on the events in question.

Event Location From To Notes
70064194200000000004,194,200[42] 700717000000000000017,000,000
Holocaust Europe 1941 1945 With around 6 million Jews murdered as well as the genocide of the Romani: most estimates of Romani deaths are in the 200,000–500,000 range but some estimate more than a million.[46] A broader definition includes political and religious dissenters, 200,000 people with disabilities,[47] 2 to 3 million Soviet POWs, 5,000 Jehovah's Witnesses, 15,000 homosexuals and small numbers of mixed-race children (known as the Rhineland bastards), and millions of Polish and Soviet civilians, bringing the death toll to around 17 million.[43] See Holocaust, Porajmos, Generalplan Ost, Consequences of German Nazism
70062582000000000002,582,000[48][49][50] 70068000000000000008,000,000[51] Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933) Ukrainian SSR 1932 1933 Holodomor was a famine in Ukraine caused by the government of Joseph Stalin, a part of Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Holodomor is claimed by contemporary Ukrainian government to be a genocide of the Ukrainians.

As of March 2008, Ukraine and nineteen other governments[52] have recognized the actions of the Soviet government as an act of genocide. The joint statement at the United Nations in 2003 has defined the famine as the result of cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians, Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR. On 23 October 2008 the European Parliament adopted a resolution[53] that recognized the Holodomor as a crime against humanity.[54]

On January 12, 2010, the court of appeals in Kiev opened hearings into the "fact of genocide-famine Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932–33", in May 2009 the Security Service of Ukraine had started a criminal case "in relation to the genocide in Ukraine in 1932–33".[55] In a ruling on January 13, 2010 the court found Stalin and other Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against the Ukrainians.[56]

European colonization of the Americas Americas 1492 1900 Although heavily disputed,[59] some historians such as David Stannard and Howard Zinn consider the deaths caused by disease, displacement, and conquest of Native American populations during European settlement of North and South America as constituting an act of genocide (or series of genocides). The alleged genocidal aspects of this event are entwined with loss of life caused by the lack of immunity of Native Americans to diseases carried by European settlers (see Population history of American indigenous peoples).[60][61] Some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics.[62] According to Noble David Cook, "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact."[63] Stafford Poole wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened in the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them. It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning ..."[64]
70061000000000000001,000,000 70063000000000000003,000,000 Nigerian Civil War Nigeria 1967 1970 Since the independence of Nigeria in 1960 the 3 ethnic groups, the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo, had always been fighting over control in the political realm. The Igbos seemed to have control over most of Nigeria's politics until the assassination of the then Igbo president Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi by Yoruba general Yakubu Gowon. With this the Igbos seceded from Nigeria and created the Republic of Biafra. The Igbos had the upper hand until late 1967 when food supplies were cut off. By mid-1968 50% of Igbos were starving and thousands more were being slaughtered by Hausa and Yoruba soldiers. In 1970 the Igbo's surrendered to the Nigerians and by then anywhere from 1 to 3 million Igbos had either starved or had been killed.
70061000000000000001,000,000[65] 70063000000000000003,000,000[65] Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 As of September 2014, no one has been found guilty of participating in this genocide, but on 16 September 2010 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He will face Cambodian and United Nations appointed foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal.[66][67]
70061200000000000001,200,000[68] 70062400000000000002,400,000[68] Maafa Atlantic Ocean 16th century 19th century Historian Charles Pete Banner-Haley notes that slavery was "not intentionally genocidal" and "resulted in the creation of a New World Afro-American."[69] African slaves died in large numbers during transportation from Africa. The number could be more accurate if it included deaths during the acquisition of slaves in Africa and subsequent deaths in America. Before the 16th century the principal market for the warring African tribes that enslaved each other's populations was the Islamic world to the east.[70] Gustav Nachtigal, an eye-witness, believed that for every slave who arrived at a market three or four died on the way.[71]
7005500000000000000500,000[72] 70061000000000000001,000,000[72] Rwandan genocide Rwanda 1994 1994 Hutu killed unarmed men, women and children. Some 50 perpetrators of the genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to no witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the gacaca court system. Genocidaires who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars).
7005500000000000000500,000[73] 70063000000000000003,000,000[74] Expulsion of Germans after World War II Europe 1945 1950

With at least 12 million[75][76][77] Germans directly involved, it was the largest movement or transfer of any single ethnic population in modern history[76] and largest among the post-war expulsions in Central and Eastern Europe (which displaced more than twenty million people in total).[75] The events have been usually classified as population transfer,[78] or as ethnic cleansing.[79] Martin Shaw (2007) and W.D. Rubinstein (2004) describe the expulsions as genocide.[80] Felix Ermacora writing in 1991, (in line with a minority of legal scholars) considered ethnic cleansing to be genocide[81][82] and stated that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans was genocide.[83]

7005300000000000000300,000[84] 70061500000000000001,500,000[85] Armenian Genocide Anatolia 1915 1923 Usually called the First Genocide of the 20th century. Despite recognition by some twenty one countries as a genocide, Turkey disputes genocide by the Ottoman Empire.
7005200000000000000200,000[86] 70061000000000000001,000,000[86] Greek genocide Anatolia 1915 1918 Disputed by Turkey, but considered a genocide.
700475000000000000075,000[87][88] 7005130000000000000130,000[87][88] Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Volhyn and Eastern Galicia 1943 1944 Systematical massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians in the eastern part of the Polish Second Republic (Tarnopolski, Stanisławski, Lwowski and Wołyński voivodeships in borders of 1939, under German or Soviet occupation at the time). The victims toll includes also women, children and elderly people. The small minority of dead belong to different ethnic group (mostly Ukrainians protecting Polish peoples against assaults, but also Jews and Russians). Most of the victims were tortured prior to their death. Disputed by Ukrainians, but considered a genocide by the Polish authorities.
700426000000000000026,000[89] 70063000000000000003,000,000[89] 1971 Bangladesh atrocities East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1971 1971 Atrocities in East Pakistan by the Pakistani Armed Forces, leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, are widely regarded as a genocide against Bengali people especially Bengali Hindus. In 2009, the Bangladeshi government started the International Crimes Tribunal in order to prosecute members of the Islamist Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami who were allegedly complicit in the genocide.

Deadly prisons and camps[edit | edit source]

Deaths Name Run by Location Date Notes, References
800,000–1,500,000 Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi Germany Oświęcim, Poland 1940–1945 [90][91]
700,000–1,000,000 Treblinka Nazi Germany Treblinka, Poland 1942–1943 [92][93]
480,000–600,000 Bełżec Nazi Germany Bełżec, Poland 1942–1943 [94][95][96]
350,000 Majdanek Nazi Germany Lublin, Poland 1942–1944 [citation needed]
300,000 Chełmno Nazi Germany Chełmno, Poland 1941–1943 [citation needed]
260,000 Sobibór Nazi Germany Sobibor, Poland 1942–1943 [citation needed]
130,000–500,000 Kolyma Gulag Soviet Union Kolyma, Soviet Union 1932–1954 [97]
100,000 Bergen-Belsen Nazi Germany Belsen, Germany 1942–1945 [citation needed]
55,000 Neuengamme Nazi Germany Hamburg, Germany 1938–1945 [citation needed]
82,600 to 700,000 Jasenovac NDH Ustaše, Nazi regime Croatia 1941–1945 [98][99][100]
35,000 Jadovno NDH Ustaše, Nazi regime Gospić, Croatia 1941 May–August [citation needed]
12,790–75,000 Stara Gradiška NDH Ustaše, Nazi regime Croatia 1941–1945 primarily for women and children[101][102]
17,000 Tuol Sleng Democratic Kampuchea Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1975-1979 [103]
13,171 Camp Sumter Confederate States of America Andersonville, Georgia, USA 1864–1865 [104]
12,000 Crveni Krst Nazi regime, Nedić's Serbia Niš, Serbia 1941 [105]
12,000 Gakovo Yugoslavia northern Serbia 1944 [106]
9,000–10,000 Omarska Bosnian Serb forces Omarska, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 [107][108]
2,963 Elmira Prison United States of America Elmira, New York, USA 1864–1865 [109]
2,000 Rab Italy Rab, Croatia 1942 [citation needed]
7003180000000000000>1,800 Krugersdorp United Kingdom Krugersdorp, Transvaal Republic c 1900–1902 Second Boer War, primarily for women and children[110]

Famine[edit | edit source]

Note: Some of these famines were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies or actions of the ruling regime.

Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
700755000000000000055,000,000[112] Great Chinese Famine People's Republic of China 1958 1962 During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death[113] and about the same number of births were lost or postponed.[114] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[115]
70066000000000000006,000,000 70068000000000000008,000,000[51] Soviet famine of 1932–1933,
including Holodomor
Soviet Union 1932 1939 As of March 2008, Ukraine and nineteen other governments[52] have recognized the actions of the Soviet government that led to mass famine as an act of genocide. The joint statement at the United Nations in 2003 has defined the famine as the result of cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians, Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR. On 23 October 2008 the European Parliament adopted a resolution[53] that recognized the Holodomor as a crime against humanity.[54]

On January 12, 2010, the court of appeals in Kiev opened hearings into the "fact of genocide-famine Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932–33", in May 2009 the Security Service of Ukraine had started a criminal case "in relation to the genocide in Ukraine in 1932–33".[55] In a ruling on January 13, 2010 the court found Stalin and other Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against the Ukrainians.[56]

70065000000000000005,000,000[116] 700710000000000000010,000,000[116] Russian famine of 1921 Soviet Russia 1921 1922 See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka
70064000000000000004,000,000 70064000000000000004,000,000 Bengal famine of 1943 British India 1943 1943 The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports[117]

However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.[118]

70061000000000000001,000,000[119] 70061000000000000001,000,000 Siege of Leningrad Soviet Union in World War II 1941 1944 An estimated 4 million Soviet people starved to death under Nazi occupation. There were an additional estimated 3 million famine deaths in areas of the USSR not under German occupation.[120]
7005800000000000000800,000[121] 7005950000000000000950,000[122] Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine from the Cambodian Communist government, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
7005750000000000000750,000[123][124] 70061500000000000001,500,000[125] Great Irish Famine[126] British-ruled Ireland 1846 1849 Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[127][128]
7005400000000000000400,000[129] 70062000000000000002,000,000[130] Vietnamese Famine of 1945 Vietnam 1944 1945 The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[130]
7005400000000000000400,000[131] 70061000000000000001,000,000[132] 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia 1983 1985 The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.[131]
700470000000000000070,000[133] 700470000000000000070,000 Sudan famine Sudan 1998 1998 The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[134]

Floods and landslides[edit | edit source]

Note: These floods and landslides will have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 2,500,000–3,700,000[135] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938
4. 26,000[136]-230,000[137] The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina. China August 1975
5. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
6. more than 100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
7. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
8. 100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911
9. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands, England 1287
10. 10,000–50,000 Vargas Tragedy, landslide Venezuela 1999
11. 2,400 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium 31 January 1953

Human sacrifice and ritual suicide[edit | edit source]

This section lists deaths from the systematic practice of human sacrifice or suicide. For notable individual episodes, see Human sacrifice and mass suicide.

Lowest estimate Highest estimate Description Group Location From To Notes
7005300000000000000300,000[citation needed] 70061500000000000001,500,000[citation needed] Human sacrifice in Aztec culture Aztecs Mexico 14th century 1521 Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly[138]
13,000[139] 13,100 Human sacrifice Shang dynasty China BC1300 BC1050 Last 250 years of rule
70037941000000000007,941[140] 70037941000000000007,941 Ritual suicides Sati Bengal, India 1815 1828
70033912000000000003,912 70033912000000000003,912 Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note [141] Imperial Japanese air forces Pacific theatre 1944 1945
7002913000000000000913 7002913000000000000913 Jonestown murder-suicide Followers of The Peoples Temple cult Jonestown November 18, 1978 November 19, 1978 The event was the largest loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the September 11, 2001 attacks.[ambiguous][relevant? ]

Other deadly events[edit | edit source]

Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, etc. as a portion of the total.

Event Location From To Notes
700749000000000000049,000,000 700778000000000000078,000,000 Mao Zedong era 1949–1976 People's Republic of China 1949 1976 Millions of people died because of Mao Zedong's reforms,[142] mostly due to alleged human rights abuses and administration errors within China. Includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution.[143] See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
70068000000000000008,000,000 700761000000000000061,000,000 Soviet crimes 1917–1953 Soviet Republics (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe, Mongolia 1917 1953 Mass murders perpetrated by the Communist leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until death of Joseph Stalin). It includes terror unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and 'enemies of The Revolution',[144] deaths in Gulags,[145] forced resettlement,[146] Holodomor,[147] Dekulakization,[148] Great Purge,[149] National operations of the NKVD.[150] See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
70065000000000000005,000,000[151] 700722000000000000022,000,000[152] Crimes during Congo Free State 1885-1908 Now the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1885 1908 Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[153] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[154]
7005260000000000000260,000[155] 7005350000000000000350,000[155] Nanking Massacre Nanking, China 1937 1938 The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.
7005100000000000000100,000 70062000000000000002,000,000 Indonesian killings of 1965–1966 Indonesia 1965 1966 Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.[156]
7005100000000000000100,000[157][158] 7005250000000000000250,000[159][160] War in the Vendée France 1793 1796 Described as genocide by some historians[158] but this claim has been widely discounted.[161] See also French Revolution
7005100000000000000100,000[162] 7005120000000000000120,000 Manila Massacre Manila, Philippines 1945 1945 During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.
700475000000000000075,000 7005170000000000000170,000[163] Sanctions against Iraq Iraq 1990 1998 Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council caused excess deaths of young children.
700450000000000000050,000 700480000000000000080,000[164] Operation Condor South America 1975 1983 A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States
700410000000000000010,000[165][166] 7005100000000000000100,000[167][168] Great Fire of Smyrna Turkey September 9, 1922 September 24, 1922 Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.
70039000000000000009,000[169] 700430000000000000030,000[170] Dirty War Argentina 1976 1983 At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).

Other lists organized by death toll[edit | edit source]

Other lists with similar topics[edit | edit source]

Topics dealing with similar themes[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. World population estimates
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  3. Brzezinski, Zbigniew: Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-first Century, Prentice Hall & IBD, 1994, ASIN B000O8PVJI – cited by White
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  10. By Train to Shanghai: A Journey on the Trans-Siberian Railway By William J. Gingles page 259
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  13. Willmott 2003, p. 307
  14. 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics, CDC
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  16. Matthew's White's website (a compilation of scholarly estimates) -Miscellaneous Oriental Atrocities
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  22. Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths, European Journal of Population" (2005) 21: 145–166.
  23. "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study"Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
  24. Charles Esdaile "Napoleon's Wars: An International History."
  25. "The Thirty Years War (1618–48)". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat0.htm#30YrW. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Mankind's Worst Wars and Armed Conflicts". http://www.paranormalknowledge.com/articles/mankinds-worst-wars-and-armed-conflicts.html. Retrieved December 7, 2010. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Necrometrics.com. http://necrometrics.com/20c1m.htm#Afghanistan. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 Jan Wróbel, Odnaleźć przeszłość 1 (2002)"Odnaleźć przeszłość 1". http://www.lideria.pl/Odnalezc-przeszlosc-Zakres-podstawowy-Czesc-1-Poradnik-dla-nauczyciela/sklep/opis?nr=77255. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Rummel, R.J., Statistics Of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, Statistics of Democide, 1997.
  30. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
  31. Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/23/world/20-years-after-victory-vietnamese-communists-ponder-how-to-celebrate.html. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  32. "Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat0.htm#Huguenot. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  33. "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". Historynet.com. http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/19_century/3032216.html?page=4&c=y. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  34. Sudan: Nearly 2 million dead as a result of the world's longest running civil war, U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive. Accessed 10 April 2007
  35. John Shertzer Hittell, "A Brief History of Culture" (1874) p.137: "In the two centuries of this warfare one million persons had been slain..." cited by White
  36. Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) p.278. Cited by White
  37. 37.0 37.1 Buchenau, Jürgen (2005). Mexico otherwise: modern Mexico in the eyes of foreign observers. UNM Press. p. 285. ISBN 0-8263-2313-8. http://books.google.com/?id=kxRMQXQuKYMC&pg=PA146. 
  38. "The Iran-Iraq War". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/arabs/iraniraq.html. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  39. Roger Hardy (22 September 2005). "The Iran-Iraq War: 25 years on". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4260420.stm. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  40. Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–5
  41. Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
  42. "Reitlinger, The Final Solution (1953) cited by White". Necrometrics.com. http://necrometrics.com/20c5m.htm#Hitler. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 Donald L. Niewyk; Francis R. Nicosia (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0. http://books.google.com/?id=lpDTIUklB2MC&pg=PA45. 
  44. http://frank.mtsu.edu/~baustin/holo.html
  45. http://www2.sptimes.com/Holocaust_museum/11_million.html
  46. cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, September 11, 2000.
  47. Horst von Buttlar: Forscher öffnen Inventar des Schreckens at Spiegel Online (1 October 2003) (German)
  48. Jacques Vallin, France Mesle, Serguei Adamets, Serhii Pyrozhkov, A New Estimate of Ukrainian Population Losses during the Crises of the 1930s and 1940s, Population Studies, Vol. 56, No. 3. (Nov. 2002), pp. 249–264
  49. France Meslé, Gilles Pison, Jacques Vallin France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History, Population and societies, N°413, juin 2005
  50. France Meslé; Jacques Vallin (2003). Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine au XXe siècle: la crise sanitaire dans les pays de l'ex-URSS. Ined. ISBN 978-2-7332-0152-7. 
  51. 51.0 51.1 – "The famine of 1932–33", Encyclopædia Britannica. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself." Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "britannica" defined multiple times with different content
  52. 52.0 52.1 sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the famine as genocide by the country. For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on March 13, 2008, the total number of countries is given as 19 (according to Ukrainian BBC: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to Korrespondent, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to Korrespondent, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932–33 рр. геноцидом українців")
  53. 53.0 53.1 cs - čeština. "European Parliament resolution on the commemoration of the Holodomor, the Ukraine artificial famine (1932–1933)". Europarl.europa.eu. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2008-0523+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  54. 54.0 54.1 European Parliament recognises Ukrainian famine of 1930s as crime against humanity (Press Release 23-10-2008)
  55. 55.0 55.1 Holodomor court hearings begin in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2010)
  56. 56.0 56.1 Yushchenko brings Stalin to court over genocide, RT (January 14, 2010)
  57. Rummel, R.J. Death by Government, Chapter 3: Pre-Twentieth Century Democide
  58. Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0. "In the 1940s and 1950s conventional wisdom held that the population of the entire hemisphere in 1492 was little more than 8,000,000—with fewer than 1,000,000 people living in the region north of present-day Mexico. Today, few serious students of the subject would put the hemispheric figure at less than 75,000,000 to 100,000,000 (with approximately 8,000,000 to 12,000,000 north of Mexico)." 
  59. Cook, Noble David (1998). Born to die: disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  60. "The Story of... Smallpox". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  61. Koplow, David A. (2003). "Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge". University of California Press. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.html. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  62. Arthur C. Aufderheide; Conrado Rodriguez-Martin (1998-05-13). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5. http://books.google.com/?id=qubTdDk1H3IC&pg=PA205. 
  63. Cook, Noble David (1998). Born to die: disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 9. 
  64. Stafford Poole, quoted in Royal, p. 63.
  65. 65.0 65.1 Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  66. Staff, Senior Khmer Rouge leader charged, BBC 19 September 2007
  67. Seth Mydans, Khmer Rouge Leaders Indicted
  68. 68.0 68.1 Stannard, David. American Holocaust. Oxford University Press, 1993
  69. Dora Apel (2002-07-01). Memory Effects: The Holocaust and the Art of Secondary Witnessing. Rutgers University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8135-3049-9. http://books.google.com/?id=Nh-7jx2n4LgC&pg=PA40. 
  70. "Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press 1994.". Fordham.edu. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/lewis1.html. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  71. Willem Adriaan Veenhoven; Winifred Crum Ewing, Stichting Plurale Samenlevingen (1975). Case Studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: A World Survey. BRILL. p. 440. ISBN 978-90-247-1779-8. http://books.google.com/?id=tIfYPppdbeYC&pg=PA440. 
  72. 72.0 72.1 See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of 10 Tutsis were killed.
  73. Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, Deutschlandfunk, November 29, 2006,[1]
  74. Hermann Kinder; Werner Hilgemann (1978). The Anchor atlas of world history. Anchor Books. p. 221. http://books.google.com/?id=xYYjAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA221. 
  75. 75.0 75.1 Jürgen Weber (2004). Germany, 1945–1990: A Parallel History. p. 2. ISBN 978-963-9241-70-1. 
  76. 76.0 76.1 Arie Marcelo Kacowicz, Pawel Lutomski, Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, 2007, p.100, ISBN 073911607: "...largest movement of European people in modern history" [2]
  77. Peter H. Schuck; Rainer Münz (2001-12-01). Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-57181-092-2. 
  78. *Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context, Matthew Frank Oxford University Press, 2008
    • Europe and German unification,
    Renata Fritsch-Bournazel page 77, Berg Publishers 1992
  79. *Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements. Routledge. p. 656. ISBN 0-415-93924-0. http://books.google.com/?id=6AB2CadyN7QC&pg=PA657. 
  80. European Court of Human RightsJorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 47
  81. Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich (1995). Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-14280-0. http://books.google.com/?id=7dH0qS_tQS0C&pg=PA118. 
  82. Ermacora, Felix (1991). "Gutachten Ermacora 1991" (PDF). http://www.ermacora-institut.at/wDeutsch/dokumente/pdf/gutachten_ermacora_1991.pdf. 
  83. Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
  84. French in Armenia 'massacre' row BBC
  85. 86.0 86.1 Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
  86. 87.0 87.1 Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
  87. 88.0 88.1 Rzeź wołyńska (pl)
  88. 89.0 89.1 While the official Pakistani government report estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million
    Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, chapter 2, paragraph 33 (official 1974 Pakistani report).White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat2.htm#Bangladesh.  "History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971". Virtualbangladesh.com. http://www.virtualbangladesh.com/history/holocaust.html. 
  89. Wellers, Georges. Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–159
  90. Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
  91. "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/reinhard/reinhard-faq-13.html. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  92. Encyclopedia Americana
  93. Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
  94. Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9. 
  95. Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
  96. Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism Retrieved 18 January 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved 19 January 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma
  97. "Jewish virtual library". Jewish virtual library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Jasenovac.html. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  98. "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 2001-11-29. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/1673249.stm. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  99. "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 2005-04-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4479837.stm. Retrieved 2010-09-29. "No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000." 
  100. Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. http://public.mzos.hr/fgs.axd?id=13416. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  101. Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/75758. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  102. A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3. http://www.dccam.org/. 
  103. The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
  104. "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. http://www.mrc.org.rs/?mod=prikaz&jezik=srpski&sta=vesti&id_tekst=2378. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  105. Razprave in gradivo, Volume 55. Institut za Narodnostna Vprašanja. 2008. 
  106. "The Unindicted: Reaping the Rewards of "Ethnic Cleansing" in Prijedor". Human Rights Watch. 1997-01-01. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,HRW,,BIH,,3ae6a8368,0.html. 
  107. "Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team report". http://eaaf.typepad.com/pdf/1999/04Bosnia1999.pdf. 
  108. Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2. 
  109. Walker, DR (2011-09-20). "Burgershoop cemetery and concentration camp in Krugersdorp.". The All at Sea Network. http://www.allatsea.co.za/cems/krugersdorpconcentration.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-21. 
  110. Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2. 
  111. Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). "Sites of horror: Mao's Great Famine [with response]". pp. 155–164. JSTOR 41262812.  on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang's figure of 55 million
  112. Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks p.xi.
  113. "China's great famine: 40 years later". British Medical Journal 1999;319:1619–1621 (18 December)
  114. Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
  115. 116.0 116.1 "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine". Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
  116. Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
  117. Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill's secret war in India by Susannah York
  118. "Last Battle of Siege of Leningrad Re-Enacted." The St. Petersburg Times. January 29, 2008.
  119. The Russian Academy of Science Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6
  120. Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
  121. Marek Sliwinski (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, p. 82.
  122. Foster, R.F. 'Modern Ireland 1600–1972'. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488."
  123. Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
  124. Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
  125. The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
  126. Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1. 
  127. Dr Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4. 
  128. Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate". Population and Development Review (December 1995).
  129. 130.0 130.1 Koh, David (21 August 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". Singapore. http://mailman.anu.edu.au/pipermail/hepr-vn/2008-August/000188.html. Retrieved 25 January 2010. 
  130. 131.0 131.1 de Waal, Alex (2002) [1997]. Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IwZ1Xb-w45oC. 
  131. "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine". BBC News. April 6, 2000.
  132. Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009). "Famine: a short history". Princeton University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=LoN2XkjJio4C&pg=PA24. 
  133. Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
  134. "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. http://www.nbc10.com/news/4030540/detail.html. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  135. Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0. http://books.google.com/?id=R9w2RfP-mtQC&pg=PA36. 
  136. 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
  137. "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice", by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
  138. National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
  139. Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
  140. This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
  141. "Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?". Maoists.org. http://www.maoists.org/mao.htm. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  142. http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/dictat.html
  143. Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
  144. Steven Rosefielde (2010-02-15). Red Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5. 
  145. Павел Полян, Не по своей воле... (Pavel Polian, Against Their Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001
  146. С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
  147. Lynne Viola The Unknown Gulag. The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements Oxford University Press 2007,
  148. Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments by Michael Ellman, 2002
  149. Vadim Rogovin "The Party of the Executed"
  150. Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1. 
  151. R. J. Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's Congo"
  152. p.226-232, Hochschild, Adam (1999), King Leopold's Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-547-52573-7
  153. Hochschild p.226–232.
  154. 155.0 155.1 Iris Chang; Iris Chang (1997). The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7867-2760-5. 
  155. Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". pp. 550–563. Digital object identifier:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550. 
  156. Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
  157. 158.0 158.1 Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
  158. Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
  159. Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
  160. Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". JSTOR 2639130. 
  161. White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/battles.htm#Manila. 
  162. Garfield, Richard (1999). "Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions". http://www.casi.org.uk/info/garfield/dr-garfield.html. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  163. "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. http://www.cja.org/article.php?list=type&type=196. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  164. Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 [3]
  165. Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
  166. Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6. , p. 233.
  167. Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47-52.
  168. Phil Gunson. "The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/apr/02/obituary-raul-alfonsin. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  169. PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas

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