282,547 Pages

Image of a woman training with a sword from Manuscript I:33, written 1290

Warfare throughout history has been mainly the "province" of men, but women also played a role – as leaders, spies or less often as fighters. This is a list of women who, in either of these capacities, actively engaged in warfare in the Postclassical Era (that is, about the 5th to the 15th century). It does not include female monarchs or other rulers who did not lead troops.

Timeline of women in warfare in the Postclassical Era worldwide[edit | edit source]





Hōjō Masako

Joanna of Flanders

Isabella of France

Tomoe Gozen

Hangaku Gozen

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi

Agnes Randolph

Joan of Arc

5th century[edit | edit source]

  • 451: Saint Genevieve is credited with averting Attila from Paris by rallying the people in prayer.[1]

6th century[edit | edit source]

  • 6th century: A Saxon woman is buried with a knife and a shield in Lincolnshire, England.[2]
  • 529: Halima, a princess of the Ghassanids leads a battle against the Lakhmids.
  • 589: The royal nuns Basina, daughter of Chilperic I and Clotilda rebels and take power in the city of Poitiers by the use of an army of criminals.

7th century[edit | edit source]

8th century[edit | edit source]

9th century[edit | edit source]

10th century[edit | edit source]

  • Mid-10th century: Queen Thyra of Denmark leads an army against the Germans.[20]
  • 912–922: Reign of Æthelflæd, queen of Mercia. She commanded armies, fortified towns, and defeated the Danes. She also defeated the Welsh and forced them to pay tribute to her.[21]
  • 934: Queen Emma of France dies during a military campaign in which she helped her spouse against his vassals: she was an active army leader.
  • 968: Olha of Kyiv defends her city during the Siege of Kyiv (968).
  • 971: Sviatoslav I of Kyiv attacked the Byzantine Empire in Bulgaria in 971. When the Varangians were defeated in the siege of Dorostolon, the victors were stunned to discover shieldmaidens among the fallen warriors.[22]
  • 975: Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou, acting for her sons Guy and Bertrand, led an army to aid Guy (a.k.a. Guido II), Count-Bishop of le Puy, in establishing the "Peace of God" in le Puy.
  • 975: Elvira Ramírez and her nephew leads the Leonese army in the Siege of Moorish Gormaz.
  • 986: The Khitan Dowager Regent Empress Xiao Yanyan of the Khitan Liao state, regnal title Chengtian, assumes power at age 30 in 982. In 986, personally led her own army against the Song dynasty in 986 and defeated them in battle,[23][24][25][26][27] fighting the retreating Chinese army. She then ordered the castration of around 100 ethnic Han Chinese boys she had captured in China, supplementing the Khitan's supply of eunuchs to serve at her court, among them was the eunuch Wang Ji'en. The boys were all under ten years old and were selected for their good looks.[28][29][30][31] The History of Liao described and praised Empress Chengtian's capture and mass castration of Chinese boys in a biography on the Chinese eunuch Wang Ji'en.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]
  • Late 10th century: Gudit rebels against the Kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia.[43]

11th century[edit | edit source]

12th century[edit | edit source]

Tamar of Georgia

13th century[edit | edit source]

14th century[edit | edit source]

15th century[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Hayward, John (1857). The Book of Religions: Comprising the Views, Creeds, Sentiments, Or Opinions of all the Principal Sects in the World, Particularly of All Christian Denominations in Europe and America to which are added Church and Missionary Statistics together with Biographical Sketches. Boston: Sanborn, Carter, Bazin and Company. p. 428. 
  2. "South Carlton Lincolnshire, 25 January 2004: Saxon Burials on the Ridge from channel.4.com". Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. http://www.webcitation.org/5v06nCy23. Retrieved May 7, 2008. 
  3. Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1853). Woman's Record: Or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from "The Beginning Till A.D. 1850, Arranged in Four Eras, with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. Harper Brothers. p. 120. 
  4. Peterson, Barbara Bennett, editor in chief; He Hong Fei, Wang Jiu, Han Tie, Zhang Guangyu, Associate editors (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century. M.E. Sharpe Inc., New York. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7656-0504-7. 
  5. Hannoum, Abdelmajid (2001). Post-Colonial Memories: The Legend of the Kahina, a North African Heroine (Studies in African Literature). ISBN 978-0-325-00253-8. 
  6. Olsen, Kirstin (1994). Chronology of women's history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-313-28803-6. 
  7. Olsen, p. 31
  8. Girl Power. ABC News. Archived 15 December 2010 at WebCite
  9. 9.0 9.1 Prophet Muhammad And His Companions. http://books.google.com/books?id=ASH7WKFZnIwC&pg=PA277&dq=Rumaysa+bint+Milhan+battle&hl=en&sa=X&ei=K8BQUYulFOnD0AHIh4GQAg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Rumaysa%20bint%20Milhan%20battle&f=false. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  10. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. http://books.google.com/books?id=U0Grq2BzaUgC&pg=PA70&dq=Umm+Hakim+battle&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Kn9PUaCxMIXj4APyjICwCw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Umm%20Hakim%20battle&f=false. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  11. Black, Edwin (2004). Banking on Baghdad: Inside Iraq's 7,000 Year History of War, Profit, and Conflict. John Wiley and Sons. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-471-70895-7. 
  12. Otté, Elise C. (1874). Scandinavian History. Macmillan & co.. p. 28. 
  13. Macculloch, J.A. (2005). The Celtic and Scandinavian Religions. Cosimo, Inc.. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-59605-416-5. 
  14. Lindquist, Herman. Historien om Sverige ("History of Sweden"), Book (In Swedish). 
  15. Jones, David E. (1997). Women Warriors: a history. Brassey's. Dulles, Virginia. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-57488-206-3. 
  16. Golden, Peter (1980). Khazar Studies: An Historio-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars. Budapest: Akademia Kiado. 
  17. Salmonson, Jessica Amanda (1991). The Encyclopedia of Amazons. Paragon House. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-55778-420-9. 
  18. Regan, Geoffrey (2000). The Brassey's book of military blunders. Brassey's Inc, Dulles, Virginia. pp. 68. ISBN 1-57488-252-X. 
  19. Bury,J.B. (1922). Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan.  Vol. III, p. 58; Blair, John; J. Willoughby Rosse (1856). Blair's Chronological Tables, Revised and Enlarged: Comprehending the Chronology and History of the World from the Earliest Times to the Russian Treaty of Peace, April 1856. H.G. Bohn, York Street, Convent Garden, London. p. 300. 
  20. Salmonson, p. 251
  21. King, William C. (1902). Woman; Her Position, Influence, and Achievement Throughout the Civilized World. Her Biography and History. The King-Richardson co., Springfield, Massachusetts. p. 177. 
  22. Harrison, D. & Svensson, K. (2007). Vikingaliv. Fälth & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN 978-91-27-35725-9. p. 71
  23. Peterson(2000), 259.
  24. Derven(2000), 199.
  25. Bauer(2010), 569.
  26. Wang(2013).
  27. Keay(2010).
  28. McMahon(2013), 261.
  29. McMahon(2013), 269.
  31. Tuotuo 1974, pp.109.1480-82 (or Liaoshi, 109.1480-82)
  32. 国学导航-遼史 (遼史卷一百0九 列傳第三十九)
  33. 中国古籍全录 (卷一百一 列传第三十九)
  34. 梦远书城 > 辽史 > (卷一百一 列传第三十九)
  35. 遼史 卷七一至一百十五 (列傳 第一至四五) (遼 史 卷 一 百 九) (列 傳 第 三 十 九)(伶 官)
  36. 辽史-卷一百九列传第三十九 - 文学100
  37. 《辽史》作者:脱脱_第115页_全文在线阅读_思兔 - 思兔阅读
  38. 王继恩传_白话二十四史 - 中学生读书网 (当前位置:中学生读书网 >> 白话二十四史)
  39. 王继恩_英语例句|英文例子|在线翻译_栗子搜!([例句2] 来源:王继恩)
  40. 白话辽史-王继恩传 - 文学100
  41. 王继恩传
  42. 脫脫 (Tuotuo). "遼史/卷109 列傳第39: 伶官 宦官" (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). http://zh.wikisource.org/wiki/%E9%81%BC%E5%8F%B2/%E5%8D%B7109. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  43. Kessler, David (1996). The Falashas: A Short History of the Ethiopian Jews. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7146-4646-6. 
  44. Thrapp, Dan L. (1991). Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: In Three Volumes. University of Nebraska Press. p. 521. ISBN 978-0-8032-9418-9. 
  45. Campbell, James M; R E Enthoven (1904). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume I, Part II, History of the Konkan Dahkan and Southern Maratha Country. Govt. Central Press, Bombay, India. p. 435. 
  46. De Pauw, Linda Grant (2000). Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-8061-3288-4. 
  47. Saunders, Corinne J.; Françoise Hazel Marie Le Saux, Neil Thomas (2004). Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare. DS Brewer. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-85991-843-5. 
  48. Williams, Henry Smith (1908). The Historians' History of the World. Hooper & Jackson. p. 611. 
  49. Salmonson, p.81
  50. Edgington, Susan; Sarah Lambert (2002). Gendering the Crusades. Columbia University Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-0-231-12598-7. 
  51. Stephens, H. Morse (1891). The Story of the Nations: Portugal. New York, G.P Putnam's Sons, London, T. Fisher Unwin. p. 29. 
  52. Jinhua Dai; Jing Wang, Tani E. Barlow (2002). Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Verso. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-85984-264-5. 
  53. Lloyd, Sir John E. (1935). A History of Carmarthenshire. Pub. Caerdydd. p. 140. 
  54. Marjorie Chibnall, « Matilda (1102–1167) », Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  55. Weiss, Sonia; Lorna Biddle Rinear, Contributor Adriana Leshko (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Women's History. Alpha Books. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-02-864201-7. 
  56. Salmonson, p. 160
  57. Salmonson, p. 7
  58. Deal, William E. (2007). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press, US. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-533126-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=i0ni1NmbYe0C&dq=Handbook+to+Life+in+Medieval+and+Early+Modern+Japan&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  59. Jones 1997, pp. 37–38
  60. Kaufman, Stuart J. (2001). Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8014-8736-1. 
  61. Friday, Karl F. (2003). Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan: a military study. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-415-32962-0. 
  62. Ramusack, Barbara N.; Sharon L. Sievers (1999). Women in Asia: Restoring Women to History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21267-2. 
  63. Houghton Mifflin Company; Justin Kaplan (2003). The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. p. 487. ISBN 0-618-25210-X. 
  64. Low, Sidney James; Frederick Sanders Pulling (1910). The Dictionary of English History. Cassell and Company Limited, London, New York, Toronto, and Melbourne. p. 421. 
  65. Williamson, Paul (1998). Gothic Sculpture, 1140-1300. Yale University Press. p. 171. ISBN 0300074522. 
  66. Bachmann, Dieter (2003). "I.33". Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. http://www.webcitation.org/5v06oYdJg. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  67. Heukelom, Bertha van (?-1322)
  68. Rossabi, Morris (1989). Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. University of California Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-0-520-06740-0. 
  69. Apeles, Teena (2004). Women Warriors: Adventures from History's Greatest Female Fighters. Seal Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-58005-111-8. 
  70. Salmonson, 131-132
  71. Salmonson, 132
  72. American Heritage Dictionary Editors (2005). The Riverside Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-618-49337-1. 
  73. Salmonson, p.34
  74. Brown, Chris (2006). The Second Scottish Wars of Independence.. Tempus Publishing.. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-7524-3812-2. 
  75. Bradbury, Jim (2004). The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-415-22126-9. 
  76. 76.0 76.1 Svinth, Joseph R.. "Women's Martial Arts: A Chronological History, 479 BCE-1896 CE.". Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences Guelph School of Japanese Sword Arts, July 2003. Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. http://www.webcitation.org/5v06oq2Wk. Retrieved 2008-06-27. 
  77. "Han E - the 'Hua Mulan' of Sichuan Province". Colorq.org. Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. http://www.webcitation.org/5v06p497z. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  78. 86 (Dansk biografisk Lexikon / XIV. Bind. Resen - Saxtrup)
  79. Kampana, Foelke (ca. 1355-1417/1419)
  80. Salmonson, p. 163
  81. Salmonson, p.126-7
  82. Davis-Kimball, Jeannine (2002). Warrior Women, An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books Inc.. pp. 226–228. ISBN 978-0-446-52546-6. 
  83. Quest for the past. Pleasantville: Reader's Digest Association. 1984. p. 298. ISBN 0-89577-170-5. 
  84. Mernissi, Fatima, translated by Mary Jo Lakeland (1997). The Forgotten Queens of Islam. University of Minnesota Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8166-2439-3. 
  85. Pernoud, Regine (1982). Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses. Scarborough House. 
  86. Berents, p.32
  87. Wilhelmina Stålberg: Anteqningar om Svenska kvinnor (Notes on Swedish women) (Swedish)
  88. Salmonson, p.166
  89. "The Secret History of Women". Sunday Mirror. January 2, 2000. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_20000102/ai_n9706473. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  90. Salmonson, p.166-167
  91. Waters, Clara Erskine Clement (1886). Stories of Art and Artists. Ticknor and company. pp. 86–87. 
  92. The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, eleventh edition, volume XII. Cambridge, England, at the University Press, New York 35 West 32nd street. 1910. p. 793. 
  93. Sjaarda, Swob (ca. 1435-1520)
  94. Bonninga, Ats (?-na 1494)
  95. Poppema, Bauck (?-1501)

Surveys[edit | edit source]

  • De Pauw, Linda Grant. Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present (University of Oklahoma Press, 1998), popular history by a leading scholar
  • Fraser, Antonia. The Warrior Queens (Vintage Books, 1990)

Medieval[edit | edit source]

  • Bauer, Susan Wise (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton. ISBN 0393078175. http://books.google.com/books?id=1u2oP2RihIgCformat. 
  • Blythe, James M. "Women in the Military: Scholastic Arguments and Medieval Images of Female Warriors," History of Political Thought (2001), v.22 pp. 242–69.
  • Edgington, Susan B. and Sarah Lambert, eds. Gendering the Crusades (2002), 13 scholarly articles
  • Hacker, Barton C. "Women and Military Institutions in Early Modern Europe: A Reconnaissance," Signs (1981), v6 pp. 643–71.
  • Hay, David. "Canon Laws Regarding Female Military Commanders up to the Time of Gratian: Some Texts and their Historical Contexts", in A Great Effusion of Blood’? Interpreting Medieval Violence, eds. Mark D. Meyerson, et al. (University of Toronto Press, 2004), pp. 287–313.
  • Hay, David. The Military Leadership of Matilda of Canossa, 1046-1115 (Manchester University Press, 2008).
  • Hingley, Richard, and Unwin, Christina. Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen (2006).
  • Illston, James Michael. 'An Entirely Masculine Activity’? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009) full text online, with detailed review of the literature
  • Lourie, E. "Black women warriors in the Muslim army besieging Valencia and the Cid’s victory: A problem of interpretation," Traditio, 55 (2000), 181–209
  • McLaughlin, Megan. "The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare and Society in Medieval Europe," Women’s Studies 17 (1990), pp. 193-209.
  • Maier, C.T. "The roles of women in the crusade movement: a survey" Journal of medieval history (2004). 30#1 pp 61-82
  • Nicholson, Helen. "Women on the Third Crusade," Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997), pp. 335-49.
  • Solterer, Helen. "Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France," Signs 16 (1991), pp. 522-49.
  • Tuotuo. Liaoshi [History of Liao]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974 (or Tuotuo, Liaoshi (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974))
  • Verbruggen, J.F. "Women in Medieval Armies," Journal of Medieval Military History 4 (2006), pp. 119–36.

China[edit | edit source]

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.