This is a list of women who led a revolt or rebellion. A revolt is an organized attempt to overthrow an existing body of state authority through a rebellion, or uprising.
Armed conflict[edit | edit source]
Before 1000 AD[edit | edit source]
- 185 BC Cleopatra .
- In the 9th century BC, according the legendary history of Britain, Queen Gwendolen gathered an army and fought her ex-husband, Locrinus, in a civil war for the throne of Britain. She defeated him and became the monarch.
- In 131 BC, Cleopatra II of Egypt led a rebellion against Ptolemy VIII Physcon and drove him and Cleopatra III out of Egypt.
- In 40, the Trưng Sisters successfully rebelled against the Chinese Han-Dynasty rule, and are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam.
- In 60–61, Boudica, a Celtic chieftain in Britain, led a massive uprising against the occupying Roman forces. The Romans attempted to raise the morale of their troops by informing them that her army contained more women than men.
- In 69–70, Veleda of the Germanic Bructeri tribe wielded a great deal of influence in the Batavian rebellion. She was acknowledged as a strategic leader, a priestess, a prophet, and as a living deity.
- In 270, Zenobia, Syrian queen of the Palmyrene Empire led a revolt against the Roman Empire, Her forces took control of Roman Egypt, Arabia, and parts of Asia Minor.
- In 378, Queen Mavia led a rebellion against the Roman army and defeated them repeatedly. The Romans finally negotiated a truce with her on her conditions.
1000 – 1899[edit | edit source]
- In 1539, Gaitana of the Paez led the indigenous people of northern Cauca, Colombia in armed resistance against colonization by the Spanish. Her monument sculpted by Rodrigo Arenas stands in Neiva, the capital of Huila in Colombia.
- In 1630, Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba from the Kingdom of Matamba led a series of revolts against the Portuguese. She aligned with the Dutch Republic, forming the first African-European alliance against another European aggressor.
- In 1720–1739, Granny Nanny, a spiritual leader of the Maroons of Jamaica, leads rebel slaves in First Maroon War against the British.
- In 1748, Marretje Arents leads the Pachtersoproer.
- In 1763, Gabriela Silang led a revolution against the Spanish to establish an independent Ilocos, which was started by his husband, Diego Silang in after her husband was assassinated in 1763.
- In 1778, Baltazara Chuiza leads a rebellion against the Spanish in Ecuador.
- In 1781, Manuela Beltrán, a Neogranadine (now Colombia) peasant leads revolt against the Spanish Government and sparks the Revolt of the Comuneros.
- In 1782, Bartolina Sisa, an Aymara woman who led an indigenous uprising against the Spanish in Bolivia, is captured and executed.
- On October 25, 1785, Toypurina, a Tongva medicine woman rebels against the Spanish, leading an attack against Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
- In 1796-1798, Wang Cong'er is the leader and commander of the White Lotus rebellion in China.
- In 1819 Antonia Santos, a Neogranadine (now Colombia) peasant, galvanized, organized, and led the rebel guerrillas in the Province of Socorro against the invading Spanish troops during the Reconquista of the New Granada; she was ultimately captured, tried, and found guilty of lese-majesty and high treason, sentenced and ultimately put to death by firing squad.
- In 1821, Laskarina Bouboulina, was a Greek naval commander who led her own troops during the Greek War of Independence until the fall of the fort on November 13, 1822. Posthumously, she became an Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy.
- In 1824, Kittur Chennamma led an armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse. The resistance ended in her martyrdom. She was the first woman to fight against British governance and the kappa tax.
- In 1831, Countess Emilia Plater creates her own group to fight in the Polish November Uprising. She becomes commanding officer of a company of infantry in the rank of captain.
- In 1857–1858, Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi was one of the leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857. Begum Hazrat Mahal also led a band of her supporters against the British in the revolt.
1900 onward[edit | edit source]
- In 1900, Yaa Asantewaa leads the Ashanti in rebellion against the British.
- In 1950, Blanca Canales leads the Jayuya Uprising in Puerto Rico against the Federal government of the United States. After leading rebel forces, she was arrested for the murder of a police officer and the wounding of three others.
- In 1958, Ani Pachen was a Tibetan Buddhist nun who led a guerrilla rebellion of 600 fighters on horseback against Communist Chinese tanks.
- On January 1, 1994, Comandante Ramona commanded the occupation of the city of San Cristóbal de las Casas in an uprising of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation.
Non-violent revolutions and rebellions[edit | edit source]
- Oct. 5, 1789, a young woman struck a marching drum and led The Women's March on Versailles, in a revolt against King Louis XVI of France, storming the palace and signaling the French Revolution.
- In 2003, African peace activists Leymah Gbowee and Comfort Freeman organized Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace and led a revolt against violence by seizing a building and blockading the men inside. Their actions brought an end to the Second Liberian Civil War, which led to the election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in Liberia, the first African nation with a female president.
- In 2004, Yulia Tymoshenko formed the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc as the leader of Ukrainian opposition. Her leadership galvanized the crowds during the Orange Revolution in Ukraine.
- In 2011, twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental in initiating the protests that began the uprising in Cairo and started the 2011 Egyptian revolution. She urged the Egyptian people to join her in a protest on January 25 in Tahrir Square to bring down Mubarak’s regime. She used video blogging and social media that went viral and urged people not to be afraid.
- In 2011, Aya Virginie Toure organized over 40,000 women  in numerous peaceful protests that turned violent in a revolution against Laurent Gbagbo in Côte d'Ivoire.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Woman warrior
- List of women warriors in folklore
- Women in the military by country
- List of uprisings led by women
References[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women in the military.|
- Geoffrey of Monmouth, translated by Lewis Thorpe (1966). The History of the Kings of Britain. London, Penguin Group. p. 286.
- Geoffrey of Monmouth, p.77
- Leon, p. 202
- Lu Mu - mother of a revolution
- Hazel, John (2001). Who's Who in the Roman World. Routledge, London, UK.. ISBN 0-415-22410-1.
- Salmonson, p.39
- Lendering, Jona. "Veleda". Livius. http://www.livius.org/va-vh/veleda/veleda.html. Retrieved December 2, 2006.
- An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors
- Sue M. Sefscik. "Zenobia". Women's History. http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/ucbio_zenobia.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- Jensen, 1996, pp. 73-75.
- Kessler, David (1996). The Falashas: A Short History of the Ethiopian Jews. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7146-4646-6.
- Salmonson, p. 163
- Anna Nzinga Biography
- Government of Jamaica, national heroes listing
- Salmonson, p. 58
- Salmonson, p. 26
- Jennifer S. Uglow,Maggy Hendry. The Northeastern dictionary of women's biography. UPNE, 1999 ISBN 978-1-55553-421-9, p. 81: "Greek freedom fighter."
- Kirstin Olsen. Chronology of women's history. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994 ISBN 978-0-313-28803-6, p. 110.
- David E. Jones. Women warriors: a history. Brassey's, 2000 ISBN 978-1-57488-206-3, p. 131: "the Greek woman warrior tradition continued into the 18th century with Laskarina Bouboulina. Born in 1783, she developed into a Greek naval commander"
- Bernard A. Cook. Women and war: a historical encyclopedia from antiquity to the present, Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO, 2006 ISBN 978-1-85109-770-8, p. 225: "...of the 1,500 Greek combatants in the crucial battle 1,000 were women. Nevertheless, Laskarina Bouboulina and Manto Mavrogenous, the most famous women fighters of the Greek Revolution were not from mountain villages but islands."
- Kittur Chennamma Fort
- The Death of Comandanta Ramona
- The Women's March on Versailles
- 'People Power' Leader Toppled Philippine Dictator, The Washington Post (1 August 2009)
- WOMENS PEACE MOVEMENT OF LIBERIA
- CNN, October 31, 2009
- Ukraine's 'goddess of revolution', BBC News (5 December 2004)
- Arab Women Lead the Charge
- "Women play vital role in Egypt's uprising" (transcript). National Public Radio. February 4, 2011. http://www.npr.org/2011/02/04/133497422/Women-Play-Vital-Role-In-Egypts-Uprising. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- "Revolutionary blogger Asma threatened". Gulf News. February 5, 2011. http://gulfnews.com/news/region/egypt/revolutionary-blogger-asma-threatened-1.757171. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- The New York Times
- Egypt: The viral vlog of Asmaa Mahfouz
- The Canadian Charger
- "Ivory Coast women defiant after being targeted by Gbagbo's guns" (article). The Guardian. London. March 11, 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/11/ivory-coast-women-defiant. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- "A plea for help from an Ivorian women's leader amid the violent power struggle" (radio broadcast). BBC Radio. March 23, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/p00ff0jq/Outlook_23_03_2011/. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- "Ivory Coast: women shot dead at anti-Gbagbo rally" (article). Euronews. March 3, 2011. http://www.euronews.net/2011/03/03/ivory-coast-women-shot-dead-at-anti-gbagbo-rally/. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Smith, David (April 1, 2011). "Ivory Coast's well-armed rebels making quick work of revolution" (article). The Guardian. London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/01/ivory-coast-new-forces-rebels-revolution. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- "Women in Ivory Coast lead the revolution against Gbagbo" (article). Newscast Media. March 9, 2011. http://newscastmedia.com/blog/2011/03/09/women-in-ivory-coast-lead-the-revolution-against-gbagbo/. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
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