|Artist's concept of the X-44 in flight|
|Role||Experimental tailless aircraft|
|National origin||United States|
|Status||Proposed design, canceled|
U.S. Air Force
|Developed from||Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor|
The Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA (Multi-Axis No-Tail Aircraft) was a conceptual aircraft design by Lockheed Martin that has been studied by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. It was intended to test the feasibility of full yaw, pitch and roll control without tailplanes (horizontal or vertical). Attitude manipulation relies purely on 3D thrust vectoring. The aircraft design was derived from the F-22 Raptor and featured a stretched delta wing and no tail surfaces.
Design and development
The X-44 was designed by Lockheed Martin to demonstrate the feasibility of an aircraft controlled by vectored thrust alone. The X-44 design had a reduced radar signature and was made more efficient by eliminating the tail and rudder surfaces, and instead using thrust vectors to provide yaw, pitch and roll control.
The X-44 MANTA design was based on the F-22, except without a tail and incorporated a full delta wing. The basic X-44 MANTA would entail a larger weapons payload and a greater fuel capacity than the F-22, due to its larger delta wing design. The MANTA was designed to have reduced mechanical complexity, increased fuel efficiency and greater agility. The X-44 MANTA combined the control and propulsion systems, using thrust vectoring. Funding for the X-44 program ended in 2000.
- Jenkins, Dennis R.; Tony Landis, Jay Miller (June 2003). "SP-2003-4531: American X-Vehicles: An Inventory, X-1 to X-50" (PDF). Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 31. NASA. p. 54. http://history.nasa.gov/monograph31.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
- Pike, John. "X-44 MANTA." GlobalSecurity.org, 27 April 2005.
- "X-Planes Explained". NASAExplores.com, 9 October 2003.
- Miller, Jay. The X-Planes: X-1 to X-45. Hinckley, UK: Midland, 2001. ISBN 1-85780-109-1.
- Day, Dwayne A. "Delta Wings". centennialofflight.gov
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